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General References
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Draft as of 22 March 1997 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARMY NATIONAL GUARD HISTORY

General References

Abramowitz, Benjamin A. "Can the Reserve Components Make It?" Military Review, 56 (May 1976), pp. 58-64.

Alexander, Winthrop. "Ten Years of Riot Duty: A Record of Active Service Performed by the National Guard of the United States from 1886 to 1895." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 19 (1896), pp. .

Ansell, Samuel T. "Legal and Historical Aspects of the Militia." Yale Law Review, 26 (April 1917), pp. 471-480.

Axtell, James. "The Scholastic Philosophy of the Wilderness." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 29 (July 1972), pp. 335-366.

Ayers, James Cooper. "The National Guard and Our Sea-Coast Defense." The Forum, 24 (December 1897), pp. 416-421.

Barry, Herbert. "In What Way Can the National Guard be Modified so as to Make It an Effective Reserve to the Regular Army in Both War and Peace?" Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 26 (March 1900), pp. 189-231.

Beaumont, Roger A. "Constabulary or Fire Brigade? The Army National Guard." Parameters, 12 (March 1982), pp. 62-69.

Bend, W. B. "In What Way Can the National Guard be Modified so as to Make It an Effective Reserve to the Regular Army in Both War and Peace?" Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 27 (November 1900), pp. 371-379.

Benton, Elisha S. "The Artillery of the U.S. National Guard." Journal of the United States Artillery, 2 (July 1893), pp. 326-347.

Boies, H. M. "Our National Guard." Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 60 (May 1880), pp. 915-923.

Boyd, Lucas Jordan. "The Role of the Military in Civil Disorders in England and Wales, 1780-1811." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1977.

Bradford, Walter H. "Distinctive State Military Equipment Manufactured at Federal Arsenals." Military Collector and Historian, 38 (Fall 1986), p. 144.

Britton, Edward. "State Troops and a National Reserve." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 24 (March 1899), pp. .

-----. "In What Way Can the National Guard be Modified so as to Make It an Effective Reserve to the Regular Army in Both War and Peace?" Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 26 (March 1900), pp. .

Brush, Edmund C. "The Artillery of the U.S. National Guard." Journal of the United States Artillery, 3 (October 1894), pp. 608-614.

Cantor, Louis. "The Creation of the Modern National Guard: The Dick Militia Act of 1903." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1963.

-----. "Elihu Root and the National Guard: Friend or Foe?" Military Affairs, 33 (December 1969), pp. 361-373.

Clark, Charles Sydney. "The Future of the National Guard." North American Review, 170 (May 1900), pp. 730-744.

Clendenen, Clarence C. "Super Police: The National Guard as a Law-Enforcement Agency in the Twentieth Century." In Robin Higham, editor, Bayonets in the Streets: The Use of Troops in civil Disturbances (Lawrence: 1969), pp. .

Colby, Elbridge. "Elihu Root and the National Guard." Military Affairs, 23 (Spring 1959), pp. 28-34.

-----, and James F. Glass. "The Legal Status of the National Guard." virginia Law Review, 29 (May 1943), pp. 839-856.

Cooper, Jerry [M]. The Militia and the National Guard in America Since Colonial Times: A Research Guide. Westport: Greenwood, 1993.

-----. "The Army as Strikebreaker--The Railroad Strikes of 1877 and 1894." Labor History, (Spring 1977), pp. 179-196.

Cosmas, Graham A. "From Order to Chaos: the War Department, the National Guard, and Military Policy, 1898." Military Affairs, 29 (Fall 1965), pp. 105-121.

Cunliffe, Marcus. Soldiers and Civilians: The Martial Spirit in America 1775-1865. Boston: Little, Brown, 1968.

Curtis, John Obed. "Some Contemporary Views of the New England Militia." Military Collector and Historian, 30 (Fall 1978), pp. 101-108. [Pre-Civil War]

-----, and W. H. Guthman. New England Militia Uniforms and Accoutrements. Sturbridge, Mass.: Old Sturbridge Village, 1971.

Davis, H. F. "Did the National Guard Fail in 1898?" Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 24 (May 1899), pp. 417-421.

Derthick, Martha. The National Guard in Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965.

-----. "Citizen Soldier on Capitol Hill: The Political Life of the National Guard." Ph.D. Dissertation, Radcliffe College, 1961.

DeWeerd, H. A. "The Federalization of Our Army." Military Affairs, 6 (Fall 1942), pp. 143-152.

Dupuy, R. Ernest. The National Guard: A Compact History. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1971.

Ebel, Wilfred L. "Guard and Reserve Forces: America's Maginot Line?" Military Review, 54 (March 1974), pp. 21-24.

Eblen, Jack E. The First and Second United States Empires: Governors and Territorial Government, 1784-1912. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968.

Ekirch, Arthur A., Jr. "The Idea of a Citizen Army." Military Affairs, 17 (Spring 1953), pp. 30-36.

Emerson, William K. "Branch Insignia of the National Guard Bureau." Military Collector and Historian, 38 (Fall 1986), pp. 118-120.

Fletcher, Marvin. "The Black Volunteers In The Spanish-American War." Military Affairs, 38 (April 1974), pp. 48-53. [6th Virginia; 8th Illinois; 23d Kansas; 3d Alabama; 3d North Carolina; 9th Ohio Battalion; Company L, 6th Massachusetts; and two unspecified companies from Indiana]

Fogelson, Robert M. America's Armories: Architecture, Society, and Public Order. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Foote, S. M. "Based on Present Conditions and Past Experiences, How Should Our Volunteer Armies be Raised, Organized, Trained, and Mobilized for Future Wars." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 22 (January 1898), pp. 1-49.

-----. "Our Volunteer Armies--A Reply." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 22 (May 1898), pp. 639-642.

Frazier, Walter S., Jr. "The National Guard National in Name Only." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 20 (May 1897), pp. 518-523.

Gero, Anthony F. "Victorian Warriors: A Photo Survey of Uniforms of the National Guard, 1870-1890." Military Images, (January-February 1986), pp. 16-24.

-----. "Pillbox Caps in the National Guard." Military Collector and Historian, 38 (Fall 1986), pp. 150-151.

Giddings, Howard A. "How to Improve the Condition and Efficiency of the National Guard." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 21 (July 1897), pp. 61-75.

Gilchrist, James G. "The Reorganization of Our State Troops." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 23 (November 1898), pp. 418-426.

Glassford, W. A. "Based on Present Conditions and Past Experiences, How Should Our Volunteer Armies be Raised, Organized, Trained, and Mobilized for Future Wars." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 22 (May 1898), pp. 471-481.

Goldich, Robert L. "Historical Continuity in the U.S. Military Reserve System." Armed Forces and Society, 7 (Fall 1980), pp. 88-112.

Greene, Francis Vinton. "The New National Guard." Century Magazine, New Ser., 2 (February 1892), pp. 483-498.

Gross, Charles J. "Prelude to the Total Force: The Origins and Development of the Air National Guard, 1943-1969." Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 1979.

-----. "The Birth of the Air National Guard, 1943-1946: A Case Study in Military Institutional Politics." Military Affairs, 49 (April 1985), pp. 69-74.

-----. "From Jennies to Jets: Maj. Gen. Winston P. Wilson and the Air National Guard." Aerospace Historian, 33 (Winter 1986), pp. 257-264.

Hacker, Barton C. "The United States Army as a National Police Force: The Federal Policing of Labor Disputes, 1877-1898." Military Affairs, 33 (April 1969), pp. 255-264. [Includes Regular Army and National Guard]

Harrington, Richard B. "The United States Militia Caricatured." Military Collector and Historian, 29 (Winter 1977), pp. 186-187.

Hart, Kevin R. "Towards A Citizen Sailor: History of the Naval Militia Movement, 1888-1898." American Neptune, (October 1973), pp. 258-279.

Hohenwart, Ernst. "A German View of the American Militia During the Gilded Age." Edited by Willerd R. Fann" Military Collector and Historian, 26 (Spring 1974), pp. 46-47.

House, Jonathan M. "John McAuley Palmer and the Reserve Components." Parameters, 12 (September 1982), pp. 11-18.

Howard, Arthur H. "Power, Politics, and Bureaucracy in the Air National Guard: The Dynamics and Forces of Organizational Change." Ph.D. Dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, 1980.

Hughes, R. "With the Guard at the Border." Collier's, 17 (26 August 1916), pp. .

Jacobs, Bruce. "The Evolution of Tank Units in the Pre-WWII National Guard and the Defense of Bataan." Military Collector and Historian, 38 (Fall 1986), pp. 125-133.

Jameson, Hugh. "The Organization of the Militia of the Middle States during the War for Independence, 1775-1781." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 1936.

Johnson, Charles J. "Black Soldiers in the National Guard, 1877-1949." Ph.D. Dissertation, Howard University, 1976.

Johnson, Raymond; Anthony Gero; and Roger Sturcke. "Naval Militia, Massachusetts and New York, 1888-1910." Military Collector and Historian, 35 (Summer 1983), p. 83. [Plate 543]

Kennedy, William V. "New Initiatives in the Reserve Forces." Military Review, 50 (May 1970), pp. 74-81.

Kerby, Robert L. "The Militia System and the State Militias in the War of 1812." Indiana Magazine of History, 73 (June 1977), pp. 102-124.

King, C. W. "United States Guard--Why Not?." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 22 (May 1898), pp. 642-651.

Lane, John M. "The Militia of the United States: An Analysis." Military Review, 62 (March 1982), pp. 12-18.

Lee, Henry. The Militia of the United States. Boston: 1864.

Lee, John. "The National Guard and National Security." Military Review, 52 (January 1972), pp. 9-16.

Levantrosser, William F. "The Army Reserve Merger Proposal." Military Affairs, 30 (Fall 1966), pp. 135-147. [1965 MacNamara Plan]

London, Lena. "The Militia Fine 1830-1860." Military Affairs, 15 (Fall 1951), pp. 133-144.

McClellan, George B. "The Militia and the Army." Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 72 (January 1866), pp. 294-303

McCreedy, Kenneth Otis. "Palladium of Liberty: The American Militia System, 1815-1861." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1991.

McGlasson, W. D. "Naval Militia (Navy National Guard)." National Guard, 38 (November 1984), pp. 12-14, 39.

McManes, Kenmore M. "Development of the Naval Reserve." Military Affairs, 17 (Spring 1953), pp. 8-11. [1879-1942]

MacPherson, Ernest. "The Reorganization of the National Guard." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 25 (November 1899), pp. 329-335.

McWilliams, Keith E. "Divisions or Brigades for the ARNG." Military Review, 51 (January 1971), pp. 35-42.

Mahon, John K. The American Militia, Decade of Decision, 1789-1800. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1960.

-----. History of the Militia and the National Guard. New York: Macmillan, 1983.

-----. "The Citizen-Soldier in National Defense, 1798-1815." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, 1950.

-----. "A Board of Officers Considers the Condition of the Militia in 1826." Military Affairs, 15 (Summer 1951), pp. 85-94.

-----. "Militia in the Black Hawk War, 1831-1832." Indiana Military History Journal, 8 (May 1983), pp. 4-11.

-----. "Bibliographic Essay on Research into the History of the Militia and the National Guard." Military Affairs, 48 (April 1984), pp. 74-77.

Malone, Patrick Mitchell. "Indian and English Military Systems in New England in the Seventeenth Century." Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University, 1971.

Marvin, G. "Marking Time with Mexico: Why the National Guard was unprepared to Guard the Nation." World's Work, 32 (September 1916), pp. 526-533.

Mathews, F. "New National Guard." Harper's Weekly, 47 (5 September 1903), pp. 1439-1444.

Mawson, Harry P. "The National Guard." Harper's Weekly, 36 (3 September 1892), pp. .

Mead, Spencer P. "The First American Soldiers." Journal of American History, 1 (1907), pp. 120-128.

Morton, Louis. "The Origins of American Military Policy." Military Affairs, 22 (Summer 1958), pp. 75-82.

O'Ryan, John F. "Role of the National Guard." North American, 202 (September 1915), pp. 264-272.

Palmer, John McAuley. America in Arms, The Experience of the United States with Military Organization. Washington: 1924.

Parker, John H. "The National Guard Problem." Forum, 28 (October 1899), pp. 190-196.

-----. "The Militia Act of 1903." North American, 177 (), pp. .

Pitcavage, Mark. "Ropes of Sand: Territorial Militia, 1801-1812." Journal of the Early Republic, 13 (Winter 1993), pp. 481-500.

Powell, William H. "The National Guard, and the Necessity for Its Adoption by the General Government." The United Service, 12 (January 1885), pp. 19-31.

Reinders, Robert. "Militia and Public Order in Nineteenth-Century America." Journal of American Studies, (April 1977), pp. 81-101.

Rice, James M. "Our National Military System: Military Education and the Volunteer Militia." Century Magazine, 36 (October 1888), pp. .

-----. "The National Guard--What It Is and Its Use." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 15 (September 1894), pp. 909-936.

-----. "The New National Guard." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 34 (May-June 1904), pp. .

Rich, Bennett M., and Philip H. Burch, Jr. "The Changing Role of the National Guard." American Political Science Review, 50 (September 1956), pp. 702-706.

Riker, William H. Soldiers of the States: The Role of the National Guard in American Democracy. Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1957.

Robinson, Fayette. An Account of the Organization of the Army of the United States; With Biographies of Distinguished Officers of All Grades. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1847.

Rodenbough, Thomas F. "The Militia of the United States." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 1 (April 1879), pp. 2283-289.

-----. "Militia Reform Without Legislation." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 2 (1881), pp. 388-420.

Rosensohn, Samuel J. "Legal Aspects of Federal Compulsory Service of State Militia." Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, 6 (1916), pp. 2552-253.

Scherer, Louis C. "Limitations of the National Guard." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 18 (March 1896), pp. 267-284.

Sharp, Benjamin F., Jr., and Donald B. Skipper. "The Reserve Component Dilemma: Mission versus Time." Military Review, 64 (November 1984), pp. 62-79.

Sharp, Morrison. "Leadership and Democracy in the Early New England System of Defense." American Historical Review, 50 (January 1945), pp. 244-260.

Sherman, William T. "The Militia." ." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 10 (March 1885), pp. 1-26.

-----. "Our Army and Militia." North American Review, 405 (August 1890), pp. 121-145.

Shy, John W. "A New Look at Colonial Militia." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 20 (April 1963), pp. 175-195.

Singletary, Otis A. Negro Militia and Reconstruction. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1957.

-----. "The Negro Militia During Radical Reconstruction." Military Affairs, 19 (Winter 1955), pp. 177-186.

Sligh, Robert Bruce. "Plowshares into Swords: The Decision to Mobilize the National Guard in 1940." Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, 1990.

Smith, Paul Tincher. "Militia of the United States from 1846 to 1860." Indiana Magazine of History, 15 (March 1919), pp. 20-47.

Stein, George J. "State Defense Forces: The Missing Link in National Security." Military Review, 64 (September 1984), pp. 2-16.

Stern, Frederick Martin. the Citizen Army. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1957.

Strode, Hudson. Jefferson Davis, American Patriot, 1808-1861. New York: 1955.

Stuckey, John D., and Joseph H. Pistorius. "Mobilization for the Vietnam War: A Political and Military Catastrophe." Parameters, 15 (Spring 1985), pp. 26-38.

Sumner, William H. An Inquiry into the Importance of the Militia to a Free Commonwealth in a Letter from William Sumner, Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Mass. to John Adams, late Pres. of the United States; with his Answer. Boston: Cummings and Hilliard, 1823.

-----. "Militia of the United States." Military and Naval Magazine of the United States, 1 (June, July, August 1913), pp. 235-243, 269-280, 352-362.

Todd, Frederick P. "Our National Guard: An Introduction to Its History." Military Affairs, 5 (Summer, Fall 1941), pp. 73-86, 152-170.

Upton, Emory. The Military Policy of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904.

Wachs, William Ronald. "'Off-Guard': The National Guard and Race-Related Civil Disturbances in the 1950's." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1977.

Wagner, Arthur L. "The Military Necessities of the United States and the Best Provisions for Meeting Them." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 5 (1883-84), pp. .

-----. "Combined Maneuvers of the Regular Army and Organized Militia." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 36 (January-February 1905), pp. .

Watson, Richard L., Jr. "Congressional Attitudes Toward Military Preparedness, 1829-1835." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 34 (March 1948), pp. 611-636.

Weaver, E. M. "An Experiment with Militia in Heavy Artillery Work." Journal of the United States Artillery, 7 (January-February, March-April 1897), pp. 1-15, 199-212.

Webb Alex. S. "The Military Service Institution: What It Is Doing; What It May Do; Its Relations with the National Guard." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 5 (1883-84), pp. 1-28.

Wesley, Edgar Bruce. Guarding the Frontier Defense from 1815 to 1825. Minneapolis: 1935.

Wetmore, W. Boerum. "The National Guard Bill in Congress." The United Service, 6 (March 1882), pp. 337-342.

Whelpley, J. D. "The Militia Force of the United States." North American Review, 174 (February 1902), pp. .

Wiener, Frederick Bernays. "The Militia Clause of the Constitution." Harvard Law Review, 54 (December 1940), pp. 181-220.

Willard, Joseph. "A Plan for the General Arrangement of the Militia of the United States. By General Knox." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 6 (December 1862), pp. 364-403.

Wingate, George W. "The Reorganization o OUr State Troops: Comment and Criticism." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 23 (November 1898), pp. 552-555.

-----. "The Defense of a Free People in the Light of the Spanish War." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 24 (March 1899), pp. 321-324.

Wood, Eric F. "New Army Act and the Militia." Century, 92 (October 1916), pp. 801-812.

Young, Arthur P., compiler. Cities and Towns in American History: A Bibliography of Doctoral Dissertations. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Federal Documents.

United States Congress. House. System of Discipline for the Army. Washington: 1835. [House Executive Document No. 121, 23d Congress, 2d Session]

-----. -----. Letter from the Secretary of War Transmitting a System of Reorganization of the Militia of the United States. Washington: 1840. [House Executive Document No. 153, 26th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Reorganization of the Militia. Letter from the Secretary of War to the Chairman of the Committee on the Militia, Explanatory of the plan for Reorganizing the Militia of the United States, heretofore Submitted to the House. Washington: 1840. [House Executive Document No. 171, 26th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Military State Convention--New York. Washington: 1843. [House Executive Document No. 121, 27th Congress, 3d Session]

-----. -----. Volunteers Received into the Service of the United States. Washington: 1847. [House Executive Document No. 42, 29th Congress, 2d Session]

-----. -----. Message of the President of the United States and the Correspondence, therewith Communicated Between the Secretary of War and the Other Officers of the Government Upon the subject of the Mexican War. Washington: 1848. [30th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Militia--District of Columbia. Washington: 1860. [House Executive Documents No. 89, 36th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Committee on the Militia. Reports. Washington: 1840. [House Reports of Committees, Nos. 584 and 585, 26th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. -----. Efficiency of the Militia. Washington: 1892. [House Report No. 754, 52d Congress, 1st Session]

-----. Senate. Memorial of a Number of Citizens of Tompkins County, N.Y., Praying the Revision and Amendment of the Militia System. Washington: 1838. [Senate Public Document No. 24, 25th Congress, 3d Session]

-----. -----. Memorial of James Ross Snowden and Others, Committee on Behalf of a State Military Convention of Pennsylvania Asking a More Perfect Organization of the Militia of the United States. Washington: 1846. [Senate Public Document No. 226, 29th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Memorial of Militia Officers of Baltimore, Maryland, Praying a Modification of the Militia Laws. Washington: 1846. [Senate Public Document No. 369, 29th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. Report of the Secretary of War Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate, a Copy of the Memorial of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel B. S. Roberts, Relating to a Reorganization of the Militia of the United States. Washington: 1860. [Senate Public Document No. 28, 36th Congress, 1st Session]

-----. -----. The Militia, Extracts from the Journals and Debates of the Federal Convention, the State Constitutional Conventions, the Congress, the Federalist, together with Other Papers Relating to the Militia of the United States. Compiled by James B. Scott. Washington: 1917. [Senate Public Document No. 695, 64th Congress, 2d Session]

-----. -----. Committee on the Militia. Report. Washington: 1840. [Senate Public Document No. 509, 26th Congress, 1st Session]

War Department. Rules and Articles of War; with the Different Acts of Congress on Military Affairs .... Burlington, Vt.: 1813.

-----. Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1857. New York: 1857.

[-----]. "Report of the Board of Officers Relative to the Militia." Military and Naval Magazine of the United States, 1 (April 1833), pp. 65-78.

Manuals

Cairns, John P. The Recruit: A Compilation of Exercises and Movements of Infantry, Light-Infantry, and Riflemen, According to the Latest Improvements. New York: 1855.

Cooper, S., and Alexander Macomb. A Concise System of Instructions and Regulations for the Militia and Volunteers of the United States .... Philadelphia: 1836.

Darrow, Pierce. National Militia Standard, Embracing the Discipline of Infantry, Light Infantry, Riflemen, Light Artillery, Horse Artillery, Cavalry. 2 vols. Hartford: 1822.

Duane, William. The American Military Library; or, Compendium of the Modern Tactics, Embracing the Discipline, Manoeuvres, and Duties of Every Species of Troops ... . Adapted to the Use of the Militia of the United States. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1809.

-----. A Military Dictionary, or, Explanation of the Several Systems of Discipline of Different Kinds of Troops ... and All the Modern Improvements in the Science of Tactics .... Philadelphia: 1810.

-----. A Hand Book for Infantry; Containing the First Principles of Military Discipline, Founded on Rational Method .... Philadelphia: 1814.

Dyckman, J. G. The American Militia Officer's Manual, Being a Plain and Concise System of Instruction .... New York: 1825.

Gilham, William. Manual of Instruction for the Volunteers and Militia of the United States. Philadelphia: 1860.

Hardee, William J. Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics for the Exercise and Manoeuvres of Troops when Acting as Light Infantry or Riflemen. 2 vols. Philadelphia: 1855.

Lacroix, Ir. Amelot de. Military and Political Hints ... Humbly Submitted to the Hon. the Members of Congress, and the General Officers of the Militia of the United States. To Which Is Added, The Artillerist. Translated by Samuel MacKay. Boston: 1808.

Patten, George. United States Infantry Tactics and Bayonet Exercise. New York: 1861.

Rawson, Jonathan. A Compendium of Military Duty, Adapted for the Militia of the United States .... Dover, N.H.: 1793.

Scott, Winfield. Infantry Tactics; or Rules for the Exercise and Manoeuvres of the United States Infantry. 3 vols. New York: 1857. [Reprint of the 1835 revised edition.]

War Department. Abstract of Infantry Tactics, Including Exercises and Manoeuvres of Light-Infantry and Riflemen for the Use of the Militia of the United States. Boston: 1830.

Other Contemporary Documents.

Interstate National Guard Association. A Commission to Compile Information and Prepare a bill for the Organization and Government of the Militia Forces of the United States .... Interstate National Guard Association Publication, 3 (June 1903).

-----. The "Dick" Bill and Comments. Interstate National Guard Association Publication, 4 (February 1902).

-----. Final Report of the Executive Committee of the INGA. Interstate National Guard Association Publication, 6 (April 1903).

Jackson, Andrew. Correspondence of Andrew Jackson. Edited by John S. Bassett. 7 vols. Washington: 1926-1935.

Steiner, Bernard. The Life and Correspondence of James McHenry, Secretary of War under Washington and Adams. Cleveland: 1907.

Steuben, Frederick. A LEtter on the Subject of an Established Militia, and Military Arrangements, Addressed to the Inhabitants of the United States. New York: 1784.

Sumner, William H. An Inquiry into the Importance of the Militia. Boston: 1823.

Wayne, Anthony. "Wayne's Western Campaign, the Wayne-Knox Correspondence, 1793-1794. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 77 (July, October 1954), pp. 298-341, 424-455.

Willard, Joseph. "A Plan for the General Arrangement of the Militia of the United States by General Knox." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st Ser., 6 (1863), pp. 364-403.

Manuscripts.

Library of Congress. (Washington).

Hawley, Joseph R. Papers.

Root, Elihu. Papers.

National Archives and Records Administration. (Washington).

Records Group 168. National Guard Bureau.

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