Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1969
Research and Development
The Army's research and development mission extends from basic and applied research to a comprehensive developmental program. Broad exploratory efforts in scientific and engineering fields are applied to the design, development, testing, evaluation, and standardization of a multitude of products and techniques that have military applications. In fiscal year 1969 this over-all task was shaped by the immediate demands of the war in Vietnam and the long-range programs that advance and secure Army capabilities against future need.
The Army's research and development program for fiscal year 1969, initially established at $1,661.9 million, was conducted at a level of $1,678 million, approximately the same as that for previous years. A major portion of ballistic missile defense research performed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) on Project Defender was transferred to the Army (see below). During the year it was necessary to obtain additional funds to accelerate research and development that supports Southeast Asia operations. Emergency fund requests submitted to the Office of the Secretary of Defense totaled $55.2 million; $39.6 million of this amount was provided. In summary, at the end of the fiscal year, the research and development program of $1,678 million was financed as shown below.
FUNDING OF ARMY R&D PROGRAM, FISCAL YEAR 1969
(In millions of dollars)
Recoupment from prior year
Procurements from OSD emergency funds
Transferal from ARPA
Transferred to Army National Guard
The Army has initiated two aircraft development programs considered vital to the expanding role of aviation in the Army combat team. These programs, the heavy lift helicopter (HLH) and the utility tactical transport aircraft system (UTTAS), are designed to develop new aircraft systems for introduction into the inventory during the period 1975-80. Both are now in the concept formulation phase, in which a
written requirement is defined. The HLH program will provide an external load capability for tactical airlift of the majority of the Army's combat vehicles, including the mechanized infantry combat vehicle (see below). The UTTAS program will produce an aircraft to replace the battle-proven UH-1 series. In UTTAS development, emphasis has been placed on improving the maintainability, reliability, and survivability of the assault vehicle, while increasing the troop lift capability to a complete squad plus three crew members.
The AH-56A Cheyenne, an integrated aerial weapons system, was specifically designed to provide the Army with a heavily armed high-speed helicopter to escort airmobile forces and provide direct fire support. A computerized continuous solution fire control and navigation system plus night vision devices will make the Cheyenne the most effective attack helicopter in existence. The production contract was canceled during the fiscal year because of technical problems. The development program is still in effect, however, and an early solution to technical problems is expected. There are no firm plans to enter into another production contract at this time.
Test operations with the six U.S. pilot models of the main battle tank (MBT-70) built in the United States and the six built by the Federal Republic of Germany under the joint development program have continued in both countries as component designs are confirmed or refined. The deliberate pace of this program is intended to field a joint tank that will be not only more effective but more durable and reliable than present standard vehicles.
Efforts to increase the mobility of lightly armored vehicles continued with the completion of concept formulation for the armored reconnaissance scout vehicle (ARSV) XM-800 and the mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV) XM-723. These vehicles, successors to the M-114 command and reconnaissance vehicle and the M-113 armored personnel carrier, will provide increased firepower as well as mobility. The ARSV will incorporate new electro-optical sensors to provide an improved capability for armored cavalry units to locate enemy forces, while the MICV will give the infantry a vastly improved capability of fighting while mounted.
Development of TOW and DRAGON, complementary heavy and medium antitank weapons, was highlighted by the first manned test flights and successful engagement of moving targets with DRAGON and award of contracts for limited production of TOW. No significant technical problems have been encountered in the progress of DRAGON, while TOW's engineering and service testing program revealed relia-
bility and accuracy exceeding that originally predicted by the Army. The fielding of TOW will enable the infantry to engage and destroy the heaviest known enemy tanks at ranges equal to or greater than the effective ranges of an enemy's guns. The DRAGON will be the Army's first guided missile system powerful enough to destroy the heaviest enemy tanks yet light enough to be carried and fired by one man. Its light weight (29 pounds) and simplicity of operation will permit rapid employment in all types of terrain.
Continuing effort is being directed toward providing major improvements in artillery weapons and ammunition. Rocket-assisted projectiles which further increase range capabilities are under development for the 105-mm., 155-mm., and 8-inch howitzers.
In 1968 a comprehensive review was made of the total artillery fuze effort to identify imbalances and establish a fully integrated program. Current developments in the fields of electronic and mechanical time fuzes are designed to provide items with greater accuracy, higher reliability, and improved adaptability under adverse storage conditions. Other major objectives of the program are to reduce cost and develop fuzes that are more easily produced. It is a regrettable fact that, except for missile and nuclear weapon fuzing, the Army's current line of fuzes reflects only marginal technological improvement over the course of some 20 to 30 years. The current effort is designed to exploit the latest advances made by industry and the Army's own arsenals to develop a new family of artillery fuzes.
Concept formulation for a new rapid fire automatic cannon, known as Bushmaster, was completed preparatory to entering contract definition. This weapon will provide increased firepower for new combat vehicles such as the armored reconnaissance scout vehicle and the mechanized infantry combat vehicle.
A multiple artillery rocket system is currently in the planning phase. Five contractors are performing conceptual studies to identify design and technical approaches to an indirect fire support system that could deliver a high volume of fire rapidly on a target. Such a system would be especially well suited for use against enemy mechanized formations concentrated for limited time periods.
Development of an extended-range LANCE missile has continued. Technical problems with the feed system have been solved, and a new engine design that will provide the increased range has been approved and tested. At the end of fiscal year 1969, the LANCE missile development program was on schedule.
The Army small arms program (ARSAP) encompasses all weapons of caliber .60 or smaller, plus shotguns and infantry grenade launchers. Tasks are divided into short-range, mid-range, and long-range cate-
gories. The ARSAP was created so that the research, development, and product improvement in this weaponry would be more visible. Because of high-level interest and the newness of the project, ARSAP has undergone a number of critical reviews and analyses at various levels, including one by the recently activated Army Small Arms Systems Agency (USASASA), which has the responsibility, equivalent to a project manager, for small arms research and development, including weapons and ammunition. These reviews have improved program management.
Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense Program
At the time the Sentinel system was started in 1967, two other important but less well-known decisions were made. Concurrently they had a heavy impact on the NIKE-X advanced development program, now called the Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense Program (BMD). First, it was decided to keep the advanced research and development effort separate from the BMD deployment effort. Second, it was decided to transfer a substantial portion of the advanced development portion of ARPA's Project Defender to the Army. To accommodate these increased responsibilities in advanced research and development the U.S. Army Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense Agency (ABMDA) was established as a class II activity under the Chief of Research and Development, Department of the Army.
There are two major operating arms of ABMDA: the headquarters, located in Washington, D.C., and a Huntsville, Alabama, office. ABMDA provides the advanced technical development to support the Army in fulfilling its mission of providing defense against ballistic missile attack.
The ABMDA missions are as follows: (1) perform advanced development necessary to counter the Soviet threat to U.S. strategic offense forces and their control and communications centers; (2) perform advanced BMD developments leading to new system concepts and components which can result in significant improvement in the state of BMD effectiveness; (3) develop system responses and technology to counter a sophisticated urban threat from the Soviets or a future threat from the Chinese Communists; and (4) utilize experimental facilities to assist the evaluation of the U.S. strategic offense forces through acquisition of field data from their re-entry and penetration systems tests. To insure that adequate attention is given to each area, the ABMDA technology developments are divided according to the technical requirements of each componentradar systems, missile development, optical systems, data processing, advanced systems, discrimination technology, re-entry physics, and nuclear effects.
The Safeguard System Office (SAFSO) and ABMDA have distinct but interrelated research and development programs. The Army Safeguard organization maintains a substantial research and development effort required to complete development of the components selected for deployment in the presently defined phased Safeguard program. The ABMDA program is structured to perform the advanced development required to achieve a variety of defense system responses to a spectrum of possible ballistic missile threats. The component techniques and system concepts being developed by ABMDA are necessary to assure that options are available for the decision-makers in the event that they are required to upgrade the Safeguard system in the face of an increased threat.
In summary, the Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense Program provides decision-makers with options for ballistic missile defense. It develops advanced technology so that lead time to deployment can be minimized, schedules can be developed with confidence, and costs predicted with accuracy. It insures that technology and components are available to counter threats.
Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Night Observation
During the past five years, major advances have been made in the technology of night vision. A significant capability was added to the Army forces in Vietnam when the first generation of image intensification devices was introduced early in 1966. In 1969, the feasibility of obtaining production quantities of a second generation image intensifier tube was established. Devices using these new tubes will be tested in 1970, and are scheduled for production in fiscal year 1972.
During fiscal year 1970 the Army will conduct extensive troop tests and combat evaluations of a combat surveillance and target acquisition system using standard night vision equipment, 11 new night vision devices developed under an accelerated research and development program, ground-based and airborne surveillance radars, and sensors. These tests will provide information on the best methods of employment of these devices and on the optimum density of issue. Additionally, any shortcomings noted will assist in guiding future research and development efforts.
The detection and location of enemy weapons, mortars, rockets, and artillery have been pursued by continued development in radar and sound ranging. Feasibility studies and development of an electronic scanning pencil-beam antenna as a counterbattery radar are nearing completion, and military potential tests of various sound-ranging sets are being conducted to determine a fieldable system.
The Army has developed and is evaluating a lightweight (12 pounds) ground surveillance radar for use by troops in forward area combat zones under conditions of poor visibility and bad weather. The system is a moving-target-indicating radar that can be transported and operated by one man and is well suited for perimeter defense of small units or patrols. To improve the detection and location of attacking enemy troops in dense jungle, a foliage-penetrating radar is being developed to provide a 360-degree coverage for base camps and airfields in jungle areas.
Army development of a visual airborne target locator system (VATLS) is nearing completion. This system, consisting of a ground and airborne station, provides the Army with the capability of locating targets with sufficient accuracy to permit first-round fire-for-effect artillery fire. The results of the recently completed 1-year operational evaluation in South Vietnam are being analyzed to determine future program direction.
Experience with unattended ground sensors indicates that this area offers considerable potential for surveillance and target acquisition. The Army is continuing to explore the various detection modes and the data collection effort that must complement the use of unattended ground sensors. Their use will be closely integrated with other means.
The division-level random access discrete address communications system (RADA) described in earlier reports has continued on schedule. During the past year, three advanced development models of the subscriber unit and one model of the automatic retransmission unit were successfully demonstrated. Additional advanced development models are being procured in order to conduct a military potential test of the RADA system in late 1970. Factors will be evaluated which relate to the capability of the applied RADA techniques to satisfy the operational communication requirements for which the system is being developed.
Project Mallard, a joint U.S. and international co-operative program to develop a secure tactical communications system, proceeded on schedule. During 1969 three major contractual system design studies were completed and were evaluated by the International System Selection Board, which includes representatives from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results and recommendations of this board now form the proposed Mallard system design which will be further studied in phase II of the program, scheduled to begin on July 1, 1969.
The tactical multichannel communications system consists of command and area signal centers, interconnected by multichannel equipment, which permit several simultaneous transmissions over a single path.
The equipment used in this system is also used to provide non-Defense Communications System transmissions in the theater army area. Shortages of multichannel communications equipment still exist in all major commands except U.S. Army, Vietnam. In 1967, equipment utilizing a digital technique was supplied to U.S. Army forces in Vietnam. This digital equipment is being procured under a program called the Army area communications system (AACOMS). AACOMS equipment, in addition to higher reliability, is easier to operate and maintain and more responsive to the commander in terms of installation time and communications capacity.
The countermine problem in Vietnam is a preoccupation in the developmental field because of the impact of Viet Cong mine and booby trap efforts on U.S. operations. One-third of personnel and two-thirds of vehicle losses are attributed to enemy mines and booby traps. The countermine development program is concentrating on clearance, detection, and protection capabilities. Special emphasis is being applied to Viet Cong weaponry and tactics as identified in a study and evaluation of countermine activities report, prepared in September 1968 by an Army working group in Vietnam.
Major developments include mine-clearing rollers; metal-detecting radars; a variety of metallic and nonmetallic detectors including the soon-to-be-standard AN/PRS-7 nonmetallic mine detector; mine-detecting dogs; armor kits and fire suppression systems; and artillery anti-dud devices. Developments initiated two years ago have progressed to the point where some equipment is ready to be fielded and some field tested; 17 items are scheduled for shipment to Vietnam in the next 12 months.
The tactical satellite communications program (TACSATCOM) is proceeding under the guidance of the TACSATCOM Executive Steering Group, established under a triservice charter. Three satellites have been launched to date: the Lincoln experimental satellite No. 5 (LES-5) in July 1967; the Lincoln experimental satellite No. 6 (LES-6) in September 1968; and the tactical communications satellite No. 1 (TACSATCOM 1) in February 1969. The LES-5 provides both SHF (super high frequency) and an ultra-high frequency (UHF) relay capability; the LES-6 features improvements such as higher power and increased band width on a circularly polarized antenna.
U.S. testing of the first two satellites has been completed. The TACSATCOM 1 satellite is currently being tested by agencies of the four military services, in conjunction with Army tests of two families of UHF-SHF ground terminals to include manpacks, team packs, and vehicle-
mounted terminals. Testing is scheduled to continue for 10 months. All tests to date have been successful beyond expectations.
The Army is responsible for certain phases of the Defense satellite communications project, which aims at developing reliable, secure, and survivable communications to meet national defense needs. Both space and surface activities are included, and the Army's role is concerned chiefly with the testing and evaluation of new ground terminals, as mentioned above in connection with the TACSATCOM program. The Army is currently engaged in phase II of the Defense satellite program, which involves the development of new heavy, medium, and light terminals to use with new higher power satellites.
Recent analyses of navigation requirements and available technology indicate that a navigation satellite (NAVSAT) may offer operational and cost advantages over other navigation and position location systems. A 4-service steering group has been established to co-ordinate the joint NAVSAT research and development program; in fiscal year 1969 the Army provided the chairman for this group. Spaceborne navigation aids will become increasingly important in the future, and the Army has a need for a highly accurate and reliable all-weather positioning system for air, sea, and ground operations. A wide military user base is foreseen for satellite positioning systems, which give promise of meeting the Army's needs for timeliness and accuracy.
In addition to the various satellite programs, the Army continued to support NASA in a wide range of activities. Major efforts took place in five areasmajor construction; host base support; mapping, charting, and geodesy; supporting research and technology; and other support. In the area of major construction, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provided design, engineering, real estate management, and acquisition support throughout the CONUS base of the NASA program, with major efforts at the Kennedy Space Center and the Electronics Research Center. Host base support, provided primarily by the Army Materiel Command, consisted of operation and maintenance of facilities and supply and services. Mapping, charting, and geodesy support, provided by the Army Topographic Command, consisted of production, reduction, and analysis of lunar orbiter data; development of an improved lunar geodetic system; preparation of photomosaics and topographic maps and relief models of the moon; and design and preparation of lunar and earth landmark graphics for use in the Apollo command module to support navigation. Supporting research and technology by the Army Materiel Command consisted of a diverse range of test programs, the use of research facilities, and studies. The Army Topographic Command conducted technical and scientific investigations on the use of lunar photography. In the area of other support, technical advisers, library services, communica-
tions, and minor construction support were provided to NASA. As of December 31, 1968, 79 Army officers were on duty with NASA.
Medical Research and Development
There have been numerous advances in medical research and development during the past year. Dermatology research, for example, has significantly contributed to the reduction of skin disease casualties in Vietnam. One year ago skin diseases were so severe as to incapacitate up to 40 percent of the maneuver battalion strength in some units. The daily prophylactic use of griseofulvin tablets has reduced the incidence of fungus skin disease from 36 percent to 6 percent of exposed personnel. Recognition and definition of "tropical ulcers" as combined streptococcal and staphylococcal infections have altered the mode of therapy and reduced the average man-days lost from 11 to 5 for such patients.
Nutrition research has clarified the precise daily requirements for Vitamin C and delineated body turnover times, specific biochemical utilization, and body storage and depletion factors.
Environmental medicine research has defined the energy cost of load carriage on head, back, hands, and feet, and thus exposed the physiological trade-offs required for various proposed new systems of load carriage. Studies of the effect of heat rash on the ability of the body to perform effectively in hot environments while the sweat glands are nonfunctional have shown that heat illness can occur up to four weeks after the clinical healing of a heat rash. This information will make it possible to predict those soldiers whose return to full duty should be delayed, lest they become heat exhaustion casualties.
In the area of surgical research, studies were continued on the effects of trauma and its treatment to improve the care of wounded soldiers; an electrical anesthesia device, which is capable of achieving a surgical level of anesthesia within three minutes and which permits recovery within two minutes of termination, has been evaluated in monkeys, and will be examined in humans once its safety has been established in primates. The blood research program continued, with the aim of revealing the metabolic reactions responsible for prolonging red cell survival and maintaining function during storage. It has been found that adenine and inosine added to the preservative solution double the survival time of red blood cells. The dependence of oxygen transport by the blood on the presence of an enzyme has been established and its relation to various metabolic pathways has been studied.
The clinical use of sulfamylon continued to confirm the findings of earlier investigative work, proving its effectiveness in the treatment of burns and demonstrating that it is responsible for the progressive decrease in major burn mortality. And the expanding bioengineering program,
which is concerned with the improvement of existing blood oxygenators, upon which the oxygenation of blood is dependent, was advanced when it was determined that a fourfold increase in oxygen transfer efficiency through membranes is made possible by the use of an oscillating coil membrane. Investigations are proceeding to determine the ideal membrane surface, that is, the surface which will be least damaging to the blood.
In preventive medicine research, advances in immunology included establishment of the differentiation between early (19S) and late (7S) globulins, elucidation of cholera antibody distribution among the different immunoglobulin classes, amino acid analysis of adenovirus, and the development of a unifying concept in immunopathological disorders; the discovery of five more serotypes of scrub typhus in Vietnam; the preparation of a mouse animal model for melioidosis in order to study optimum antibiotic treatment regimens; the development of new immunofluorescent techniques for diagnosis of certain rickettsial diseases; the genetic mapping of Escherichia coli; and the induction of nonpathogenic organisms which are immunogenic against shigella pathogens.
Accomplishments in communicable disease research included the continued evaluation of a live oral adenovirus type-4 vaccine at many basic combat training centers; further development of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae vaccine; study of influenza virus antigenic shifts; study of the use of adjuvants with presently used influenza vaccines; study of the duration of immunity from tetanus and diphtheria vaccines with consideration of extending the interval between booster doses; investigation of the role of Neisseria meningitidis protoplasts in the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease; and development and testing of an improved plague vaccine.
Studies in aviation medicine research included in-flight cardiovascular patterns of Army aviators; exploration of characteristics of the human head and neck at the time of impact; measurement of toxic contaminants in aircraft cockpits; conspicuity of aircraft, aircraft noise, and vibration; effects of rotating environments; work on performance predictors; and work on adaptation and instrument perception in darkness.
Geographic spread of drug resistant malaria continues to occur. Recent progress in the search for effective antimalarials includes a new quinoline-methanol effective in preliminary trials against chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria. Approximately 1,000 compounds are screened weekly for antimalarial activity. Sophisticated screening techniques now permit utilization of mosquitoes, infected with human malaria, in an effort to determine which compounds are effective against the tissue stages of malaria infection. Another new screen determines the prophylactic value of drugs. Supporting research continues to con-
centrate on methods for studying human malaria in monkeys, and developing in vitro techniques of parasite cultivation. Other efforts focus on vaccine development and studies on the molecular biology of the host parasite relationship. Despite these efforts malarial parasites are developing increasing resistance to antimalarials, posing problems for both military and civilian populations. Further research to develop new drugs and other methods of malaria control is essential.
Biomedical stress research continued to emphasize studies with practical application to problems affecting performance and military psychiatry. Previous programs have continued, with the notable addition of the computer assistance for military psychiatry (COMPSY) project at the Walter Reed General Hospital, Washington, D.C. COMPSY will provide on-line, real-time computer support to psychiatric services within Army hospitals and mental health consultation divisions, and will facilitate record keeping, nursing notes of patients on wards, psychological testing, and patient care in general by providing accurate and timely information. Considerable progress has been made in the past year in automating nursing notes and psychological tests.
Dental research has shown that silicone rubber can be used to restore maxillofacial, soft tissue, avulsive wounds temporarily. An intraoral bandage of acrylate amide sponge has been developed and is now in a clinical testing stage. Isobutyl cyanoacrylate has been successfully used as hemostatic agent in intraoral periodontal surgery. A new material and technique now allow molding of a splint for mandibular fracture fixation directly against the mandible. A new intraoral open reduction procedure for mandibular fractures is faster, less traumatic, and reduces hospitalization time when compared with current procedures.
In the field of veterinary medicine, the Biological Sensor Department, Walter Reed Institute of Research, U.S. Army Research and Development Command, has been conducting a Biological Sensor System program in an effort to identify the most efficient breed of dog for military purposes. The activity became operational at its permanent site at the Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland, in September 1968, and research to date has included experiments to determine the feasibility of using field dogs (pointers) for off-leash detection purposes.
A major milestone of the radiation protection program was passed during fiscal year 1969 when compound No. 638, the thiophosphate derivative of mercaptoethylamine, was tested for clinical tolerance in humans. This is the first compound synthesized in this program to be clinically tested in humans since the project was started in 1959. This compound was found to be nontoxic when administered orally to volunteers, with doses in excess of 11 grams per day per individual. This experiment demonstrates that the toxicity noted in animals tends to be
duplicated in humans, since the compound was found to be nontoxic in monkeys at the same dose level.
In the field of biomedical engineering and development of medical materiel, a feasibility model of the field medical laboratory was fabricated and preparations initiated for professional evaluation of this system. The study of sterilization has reviewed the state-of-the-art and has identified requirements in both materiel and techniques. Progress is continuing on the development of an automated scanner for panographic dental X rays. A study was initiated to determine the feasibility of developing an automatic fabricator for spectacle lenses.
Development continued on such field items as insect and rodent control equipment, lightweight kits and equipment for use by Special Forces, and vastly improved field dental equipment. Future projects will include studies and equipment development in automation of laboratory procedures, clinical data gathering, monitoring of patients, and patient records.
Final mobility and environmental testing of the inflatable and expandable shelters and utility element of the transportable medical unit (MUST) is being conducted by the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command prior to standardization. Testing has been completed on the pharmacy, dental, and X-ray units, and continues on the food service and water and waste management systems. System testing of various configurations of the surgical hospital (mobile Army) was conducted during the latter part of the year, permitting evaluation of the merits of different layouts of the hospital, the advantages of various combinations in interconnecting shelters and passageways, and employment of utility elements. The MUST hospital was also subjected to environmental testing during this period. Shelters and equipment were exposed to prolonged high humidity to demonstrate their durability under tropical conditions, and to extremely low temperatures to determine their ability to withstand service in Arctic regions.
Other Significant Research Activities
At the request of the Humble Oil Company, at least one and possibly four members of the scientific staff of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory will accompany the ice-reinforced 1,000-foot tanker Manhattan as ice specialists on a Northwest Passage cruise this summer. These specialists will participate in the cruise and assemble data that will be correlated with simultaneously gathered ship structural and operational data, to be used by the Humble Oil Company as part of a feasibility study of the Northwest Passage as a year-round transportation route from the recently discovered oil field near Prudhoe Bay on the north coast of Alaska to east coast ports in the continental United
States. This work will be conducted by the laboratory for Humble Oil Company on a reimbursable basis. The cruise is scheduled to depart Philadelphia on July 15 and will last approximately three months.
A laser safety team has been established at Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania, where the Army Medical Research and Development Command and the Army Materiel Command are conducting a joint effort to obtain data essential to the safe field employment of existing and proposed Army laser devices and systems. Research will be conducted on the laser biological damage mechanism, hazards will be assessed and safety data generated and protective devices will be evaluated.
Research is also being carried on in the field of transparent armor. The most effective armor material thus far developed is a composite consisting of a boron carbide ceramic material with glass reinforced plastic backup plate. Transparent plastic glass laminates have now been developed which weigh less than 10 pounds per square foot and provide the same protection as the 30-pound-per-square-foot World War II laminated glass armor. Recent research has indicated that transparent armor approaching the effectiveness of present opaque ceramics is possible, and mass production of large-size transparent ceramics is under way. One objective of this effort is to provide canopies for Army helicopters that would be transparent and stop .30- and .50-caliber armor-piercing projectiles.
There are many requirements for computers to store data on a permanent basis, and the most appropriate computer storage device is a read-only memory. Classical examples of read-only memory are punched cards and magnetic tape transports which utilize special techniques to insure that permanent data is not inadvertently rewritten. Recent experiments have been undertaken in the field of holography, since holograms fulfill the important requirements of removability, high packing density, low cost, and high speed. Furthermore, holograms are immune to dust particles, scratches, and other degrading characteristics which produce erroneous information. In order to develop a degree of practical experience with holographic read-only memory as well as verification of theoretical results, the Army Electronics Command at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, initiated construction and then evaluated a feasibility model. The first operating holographic read-only memory model, it was awarded a prize as one of the 100 most significant new technical achievements of the year by Industrial Research, Inc., in October 1968.
The Fort Monmouth group has also pioneered in developing high energy density zinc-air batteries. These new batteries provide longer service life, high reliability, and increased peak power levels for man-
pack electronic equipment. The zinc-air battery assembly is mechanically rechargeable, via replacement anodes which eliminate the burdensome recharging operation. The first such batteries were distributed in Vietnam in 1968 for field evaluation. The development of these greatly improved batteries represents an intimate utilization of technology from many sources, stimulated by intergovernmental co-ordination and funding.
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Last updated 9 August 2004