Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1974
To provide additional combat forces in support of NATO, the Army during fiscal year 1974 started its Affiliation Program between its two Reserve Components, the Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS) and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), and the active Army. Intended to provide active Army divisions upon mobilization with trained units and qualified individuals, the program encompasses the augmentation of both full-strength and understrength divisions, provides for substantial training support for the affiliated unit by the host unit, and is fully funded.
Seven separate battalions and 5 brigades with 21 maneuver and 5 artillery battalions (24 National Guard and 2 Army Reserve), as well as 1 brigade headquarters and headquarters company, have entered the Affiliation Program. Thirteen of the participating battalions will undergo active duty training this summer with their active Army counterparts or at Army schools, and the remaining thirteen battalions will be assisted during their fifteen-day annual training exercise by their sponsoring units.
The Affiliation Program will be expanded next year and is expected to improve readiness, reduce post-mobilization training, and promote the one Army policy.
In a related activity, the mutual support program, which encourages collaboration among the Army's components, continued to grow. Numerous mutual support associations were formed between Reserve Component units and Regular Army units and installations. Over half of all ARNG and USAR units were participating in the mutual support program at year's end, benefiting from access to modern equipment, current doctrine, and excellent training facilities.
The reorganization of the Army in mid-1973 established a new environment for the management and support of Army Reserve Components. With the U.S. Army Forces Command made responsible for the training of all units, regardless of- component, in the United States, the Army promoted a close active-Reserve relationship conducive to readiness. Given Reserve Component readiness as their primary mission, the three continental armies operating under Forces Command supervise all USAR activities and oversee the
training of the National Guard. Nine Army readiness regions, which became operational on 1 October 1973, assist Reserve Component units in correcting readiness shortcomings and coordinate the support rendered by active Army units and installations. Reserve Force directorates, established at major CONUS installations, handle Reserve requests for assistance and promote mutual support relationships.
The Office of Reserve Components was abolished on 20 May 1974. Responsibility for plans and policies for the Reserve Components was placed directly with the Chief, National Guard Bureau, and Chief, Army Reserve, who coordinate with appropriate Army staff agencies.
On 13 August 1973 the Secretary of Defense directed the Army to reduce its Reserve Components by 48,000 spaces and, in a realignment of strategic defensive forces, to eliminate its National Guard Nike-Hercules Air Defense units (twenty-seven firing batteries and eleven headquarters batteries), a loss of 4,500 additional spaces. By the end of the fiscal year inactivation of the air defense units was well under way, but the 48,000-space reduction was deferred pending resolution of congressional opposition.
To take advantage of active Army training capabilities and to simplify command, ARNG divisions have been organized within the states of California (40th Infantry Division) and Texas (49th Armored Division). They replace divisions previously split among Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee (30th Armored Division) and Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina (30th Infantry Division). Separate brigades and other units in California and Texas formed the new divisions, and separate brigades were established in the states associated with the inactivated divisions. In making these divisional changes, the Army has converted four light brigades to four heavy brigades.
The National Guard was established in the Virgin Islands, where a state headquarters, two military police companies, and a band were authorized. In Louisiana a construction engineer battalion was organized, the tenth ARNG unit of its kind. Missouri lost a mechanized infantry battalion, which was moved to Kentucky, but gained a combat engineer battalion. The National Guard now has thirty-three combat engineer battalions. Four surgical and three evacuation hospitals were reorganized as combat support hospitals, and five forward area signal platoons were relocated and incorporated into separate brigades.
As of 30 June 1974, the National Guard had 3,303 units, an increase of forty from 30 June 1973. Major organizations were as follows:
|5 infantry divisions||4 armored cavalry regiments|
|1 mechanized infantry division||2 Special Forces groups|
|2 armored divisions||158 separate battalions|
|9 infantry brigades|| 1,007 other company- and detachment-size
|6 mechanized infantry brigades|
|3 armored brigades|
In the Army Reserve, the majority of security units were reorganized under the G and H series of the modified tables of organization and equipment; a new Army security agency company (aviation) was added at Orlando, Florida; a medical detachment (helicopter ambulance) was activated at New Iberia, Louisiana; and an engineer company was organized on Guam. The 89th Division (Training) was inactivated, thereby reducing the number of training divisions to twelve. Elements of the inactivated division were used to form the 89th Army Reserve Command (ARCOM) and other units in Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
The USAR troop basis consisted of 3,257 company- and detachment-size units at the end of the fiscal year. Major organizations were as follows:
|Army Reserve command||19|
|Maneuver area command||2|
|Military Police command||1|
|Field army support command||1|
|Military Police brigade||3|
|Civil Affairs area (A)||3|
|IX Corps (Aug)||1|
|Maneuver training command||7|
|Special Forces group||2|
|Other company- and detachment-size units||1,640|
Both the Army National Guard and U.S. Army Reserve ended fiscal year 1974 with more assigned people than authorized. The National Guard, at 410,682, was 8 percent above authorized paid drill strength; the Army Reserve, at 239,715, was 2 percent overstrength. Significant gains were made in recruiting blacks, who now comprise 5 percent of the National Guard and 7 percent of the Army Reserve. In female recruiting the National Guard exceeded
its goal for the year of 2,406 by 14 percent; the Army Reserve exceeded its goal of 3,400 by 82 percent. The high-strength levels were the result of intensive recruiting campaigns, successful advertising and publicity efforts, and new enlistment options.
Introduced this year were two enlistment options which are available to high school graduates in mental categories I, II, or III. The first option, 3X3, permits three years of unit service followed by three years in the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR). The second, 4X2, offers four years of unit and two years of IRR service. These options are attracting quality personnel in addition to boosting the strength of the Army's Reserve Components.
The Individual Ready Reserve of the U.S. Army Reserve is comprised of members who are not assigned to units. During the year the Ready Reserve was screened; 175,233 were transferred to the Standby or Retired Reserves, and another 92,995 were discharged. The strength of the Individual Ready Reserve at the close of the fiscal year was 532,575, as follows:
|Control group annual training a||25,579||344,304||369,883|
|Control group MOBDES b||5,818||30||5,848|
|Control group reinforcement c||30,597||115,054||145,651|
|Control group delayed d||-||4,374||4,374|
|Control group/officer active duty obligor e||6,819||-||6,819|
a Officers and enlisted men who have a remaining statutory obligation and are
subject to mandatory training requirements.
b Reservists who have specific assignments upon mobilization and train with their unit of assignment for this eventuality for at least twelve days each year.
c Includes obligated members who are not subject to mandatory training requirements and nonobligated members not assigned to a unit who volunteer to participate in Ready Reserve training.
d Enlisted obligated members awaiting entry on active duty for training.
e Obligated officers awaiting entry on active duty or active duty for training.
The Standby Reserve, which consists primarily of individuals who have completed their Ready Reserve obligation, had a strength of 340,481 (39,228 officers and 301,253 enlisted men) at the end of the year. The strength of the Retired Reserve stood at 357,591 (169,528 officers and 188,063 enlisted men).
Requirements for direct-hire ARNG technicians were increased during the year from 33,447 to 34,463 to support an enlarged aviation inventory. Authorized technician strength, however, was 28,693, or 83.3 percent of requirements, and actual strength increased during the year from 27,316 to 28,654.
The status of technicians in the U.S. Army Reserve as of the end of fiscal year 1974 is listed below.
|Percent assigned to required||89.5|
|Percent assigned to authorized||99.2|
On 12 July 1973 a fire broke out at the U.S. Army Reserve Components Personnel and Administration Center which seriously impaired the center's operations, particularly automatic data processing. Before the fire, the center was operating two RCA 3301 computers on a three-shift, five-day basis. Afterward the center used as an interim measure both Army and commercial facilities at eight different locations in five states. By 15 September 1973 the center was again operating its own systems at a temporary site in the St. Louis area.
Equipment and Maintenance
The Reserve Components in fiscal year 1974 got some modern equipment, had a gain in net inventory, and carried out management programs begun in prior years. Equipment issues during the year, however, amounted to only $256 million, down sharply from $862 million last year. The decrease stemmed primarily from the diversion of Army combat equipment to meet Middle East demands. Critical equipment shortages continued, particularly for medium tanks, self-propelled artillery, radars, tactical bridges, and tactical radios. The table below indicates the equipment requirements and assets of the Reserve Components in billions of dollars.
|30 June 1974|
|Mobilization requirement||$5,606 a|
|Inventory contingency/obsolete assets||397|
|Percent fill for training||680|
a Figures do not reflect current inflation or future "buy out" prices and exclude "float" and "combat consumption" factors.
The dedicated maintenance program for the Reserve Components was funded at $50 million and promises a return of about $200 million in overhauled equipment. As of April 1974, 8 percent of this equipment had been turned over to Reserve Component units, and delivery of the remainder is expected to continue through fiscal year 1976. Meanwhile, deliveries associated with 1972 and 1973 programs will extend through fiscal year 1975. Some delays have been encountered, reflecting shortages of basic issue items and the installation units required to mount radios in vehicles, caused in part lay the diversion of equipment to meet worldwide requirements.
The number of aircraft in the Reserve Components' inventory rose from 2,353 (1,919 ARNG and 434 USAR) on 30 June 1973 to 2,706 (2,230 ARNG and 476 USAR) at the end of fiscal year 1974. Included in the ARNG inventory for the first time were AH-1 Cobra gunships.
Construction and Facilities
The USAR military construction program for fiscal year 1974 was $40.7 million, an increase of $2.5 million over 1973. An additional $32.5 million carried over from prior year programs brought the total to $73.2 million. Of this available money, $50 million was obligated, the largest amount since the USAR military construction program began in 1950.
With USAR facilities of varying adequacy, the Army has made long-range plans for replacement and expansion. Leased or donated buildings that are either inefficient to maintain or are inadequate will be replaced by government-owned facilities. The status of USAR training facilities at the close of the fiscal year was as follows:
New obligation authority for the ARNG military construction program in fiscal year 1974 was $35.2 million, the amount carried over $3 million, and the total available $38.2 million. Major outlays during the year included $12.6 million in construction contracts for twenty-seven administrative and logistical facilities, $8.2 million for annual and weekend training sites, and $8.8 million for armory construction, expansion, or renovation. The status of ARNG armories at the end of the fiscal year was as follows:
Of 2,094 ARNG administrative and logistical facilities, 1,850 are adequate.
Despite increased spending during the past year for USAR and ARNG military construction programs and progress on the ten-year Reserve Components construction plan, which was noted in last year's report, the backlog of projects continued to increase. At the end of fiscal year 1974 it was $798.6 million, compared to $708 million for 1973.
Readiness and Training
Despite shortages in modern combat equipment, the overall readiness of the National Guard improved during fiscal year 1974. Over half of the major units under the Unit Readiness Report system increased their readiness. Contributing to these improvements were better training, gains in strength, increased percentages
of Guardsmen qualified in their MOS's, and a redistribution of major equipment to high-priority units.
USAR units maintained the high level of readiness attained during the previous two fiscal years. Many Army Reserve units were ready for immediate mobilization and employment, less the time required for Reservists to notify employers, arrange personal affairs, and report to mobilization stations. The maintenance of authorized strengths, however, remained a serious readiness problem for some USAR units.
The incorporation of a revised Army readiness reporting system into the joint Chiefs of Staff Force Status and Identity Report (FORSTAT), which was described in last year's summary, went into effect on 1 July 1973. All Reserve Component units down to separate companies and designated platoons and detachments are required to report semiannually on their status. The reports have produced a wide range of automated information on personnel, equipment, and training that is useful in assessing readiness.
In 1972 the Army started to test and evaluate a number of concepts to increase the utility and readiness of the Reserve Components. As of 30 June 1974 field testing had been completed on six of seven concepts. The remaining test on full-time Reserve cadre headquarters is scheduled for completion in August 1974. Although the tests have led to new programs, such as the Affiliation Program, they have also prompted a more cautious approach to other proposals until costs and effectiveness can be weighed.
The Army is publishing Army Training and Evaluation Programs (ARTEP's) for active and Reserve Component combat, combat support, and combat service support units to replace existing training literature. The ARTEP's will identify the training objectives a unit must attain to be considered combat ready.
Despite curtailments brought about by the fuel crisis, some 3,000 Reserve Component members participated in units and as individuals in oversea training exercises during fiscal year 1974. Conducted in Puerto Rico, the Panama Canal Zone, Alaska, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and the Far East, the training was of high quality and reduced barriers among the Army's components. Joint exercises held within the United States included LOGEX-RC, in which 2,908 persons in fifty-one Reserve Component units participated during June 1974.
Support to Civil Authorities
The National Guard has been called into state service more frequently in recent years to aid civil authorities during national
disasters and other emergencies. Last year, Guardsmen were ordered to state service 52 times for assistance related to floods, 39 for forest fires, 31 for tornadoes, 12 for ice and wind storms, and 47 for other contingencies, such as search and rescue missions, traffic control, and food delivery. A total of 18,552 Guardsmen participated in these operations.
There were twenty-five other call-ups involving 21,139 Guardsmen. Fourteen were caused by the truckers' strike and blockade of January 1974, 4 were to quell prison disorders, 2 were to operate a school and a hospital paralyzed by strikes, 2 were for firemen's strikes, and 4 involved potential disorders that did not materialize.
Army National Guard units with a civil disturbance mission received refresher training during the past year, and key personnel (E-5 through 03) attended a special eight-hour leadership course. Additionally, 303 National Guard officers attended the Civil Disturbance Orientation Course at the U.S. Army Military Police School, Fort Gordon, Georgia.
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Last updated 27 August 2004