Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1980


Reserve Forces

During fiscal year 1980, the Army National Guard (ARNG) and the Army Reserve (USAR) achieved increased readiness, due in large part to improved training, increased full-time manning, added incentive, closer ties with the active Army, and more effective management support. Personnel strengths of the ARNG and USAR were significantly below wartime required levels throughout the year. Continued shortfalls in personnel and certain equipment items essential for training hampered progress, but not enough to call into question the increased reliance placed upon the reserve components in developing the total forces required to achieve an adequate defense posture for the 1980s. This role was affirmed in an extensive study on the roles, missions, manning, equipping, and training of the ARNG and the USAR made within the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Reserve Affairs). The resultant report, “Review of the Guard and Reserve: A Framework for Action” (ROGAR), was published in December 1979. It upheld the traditional military policy of the United States, which was defined as follows:

Reliance on Reserve Forces continues the “common defense” militia concept which has existed from pre-Revolutionary War times. A democratic nation is protected best by a minimum level of standing armed forces which can be augmented promptly in time of crisis by trained citizen-soldiers.

Force Structure

The reserve components provide approximately 53 percent of the Total Army’s combat battalions, 65 percent of its deploying forces, 60 percent of the Army’s service support structure, and 70 percent of the Army’s deploying medical assets. Changes within the troop program of the Army National Guard (ARNG) and the Army Reserve (USAR) reflect refinements made in the Total Army’s 24-division requirement, but are kept to a minimum and are carefully planned so as to avoid as much unit turbulence as possible and to minimize the effect changes in organization and mission have on readiness, training, and morale.

During the past year, the ARNG completed the conversion of signal units to provide a preliminary step toward the integrated tactical communications system. Renewed emphasis on nuclear and chemical preparedness led to the activation of two nuclear,


biological, and chemical companies. Two additional TOW light antiarmor battalions were organized, bringing the total of these organizations, which are unique to the ARNG, to three. Organization of a fourth battalion is planned early in fiscal year 1981. Also, two airborne infantry battalions were deleted and four military history detachments were added to the force structure.

Major organizations in the Army National Guard as of 30 September 1980 are shown below:

Major Combat Units

5 Infantry divisions

3 Armored brigades (sep)

1 Infantry division (mech)

4 Armored cavalry regiments

2 Armored divisions

2 Special forces groups

10 Infantry brigades (sep)

1 Infantry group (arctic recon)

8 Infantry brigades (mech) (sep)

Separate Headquarters

17 Engineer groups (cbt), HHC

1 Signal command, HHC

2 Medical groups, HHD

2 Signal brigades, HHC

2 Signal groups, HHD

2 Military police brigades, HHD

2 Military police groups, HHD

1 Air defense artillery brigade, HHB

4 Support groups, HHC

1 Support command (corps), HHC

8 Area support groups, HHC

1 Transportation brigade (CGSCOM), HHC

4 Engineer brigades (cbt) (corps), HHC

20 Field artillery brigades, HHB

2 Corps artillery, HHB

1 Field depot, HHC

3 Medical brigades, HHC

1 Armor brigade, HHC

The ARNG also has approximately 151 separate battalions and numerous separate companies and detachments in the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

The Army Reserve had 30 unit activations, 25 unit inactivations, and 60 unit conversions during the past year. These actions were part of a phased program to upgrade the USAR’s combat service support capability, modernize equipment, and improve the Army’s combat to support balance.

The reorganization and consolidation proposal of the Aviation Requirements for the Combat Structure of the Army III (ARCSAIII) study initiated during fiscal year 1978 was near completion at the end of fiscal year 1980. Army Reserve aviation unit activations during fiscal year 1980 included the 305th Combat Support Aviation Company, Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment of the 311th Aviation Battalion, and the 336th and 374th Medical Detachments (Helicopter Ambulance).

At the close of the fiscal year, the USAR troop basis contained ap-


proximately 3,200 company and detachment-size units. Major organizations in the structure were:

19 USA Reserve commands

1 Infantry brigade

12 Divisions (training)

1 Infantry brigade (mech)

2 Maneuver area commands

1 Infantry brigade (light)

2 Engineer commands

2 Transportation brigades

1 Military Police command

3 Military Police brigades

1 Theater Army area command

2 Engineer brigades

3 Civil Affairs commands

2 Medical brigades

3 Corps support commands

4 Hospital centers

3 General Hospital commands

103 Hospitals (miscellaneous)

9 Maneuver training commands

60 Separate battalions


Building upon the reversal of declining strength noted in last year’s report, the numbers of men and women in the Army’s reserve components continued to grow during fiscal year 1980. The ARNG and the USAR exceeded their overall enlistment objectives, the success of bringing in nonprior service personnel compensating for a slight shortfall in the recruitment of veterans. Both components also met the 50 percent objective set for reenlisting first-termers. The ARNG exceeded its objective of reenlisting 68 percent of eligible careerists; however, the USAR failed to meet its 80 percent goal in this area by a couple of points. The table below shows the strength of Selected Reserve manpower programs, in thousands, at the close of the fiscal year.


Paid Drill Strength


30 Sep 79

30 Sep 80

Wartime Strength*

Peacetime Objective Strength*











*End FY 80 program

Assigned ARNG strength rose each month during fiscal year 1980, reaching 368,254 (37,287 officers and 330,967 enlisted personnel) by 30 September 1980, a gain of 21,280 from the previous September. Enlistments rose to 97,086 which was 102 percent of the objective and an increase of 12,236 over fiscal year 1979 results. Some 51.8 percent were new to the Army, while 48.2 percent were veterans. The continued emphasis on incentive programs and other enlisted options has led to a trend of more nonprior service enlistments as compared to prior service ones. This trend is expected to continue.

Reenlistments and extensions numbered 83,136, a 3,029 gain for


the year over fiscal year 1979. This was a reenlistment-extension rate of 68.2 percent, compared to a goal of 65 percent and a rate of 64.6 percent for 1979. Officer accessions for the year came to 5,952. State officer candidate schools supplied 1,467 new officers and approximately 1,800 cadets were participating in the Simultaneous Membership Program.

Minority strength in the ARNG also increased. The Minority Officer Recruiting Effort helped achieve a gain of 349 minority officers for the year. Progress achieved on the enlisted side brought total minority gains to 4,087. Despite this numerical increase, the percentage of minority members in the ARNG actually declined during the year. As of 30 September, minority strength was 95,023 (3,100 officers and warrant officers and 91,923 enlisted personnel), representing 25.8 percent of assigned strength. Black strength totaled 61,524 (1,443 officers and warrant officers and 60,081 enlisted personnel), forming 16.7 percent of the ARNG’s assigned strength on 30 September 1980. Hispanics accounted for 7.1 percent and other ethnic minorities represented 2 percent of the Guard’s strength.

The ARNG gained 2,206 women members over the course of the year. Entrance requirements for women were made the same as for men at the beginning of the fiscal year and at the end of the year guardswomen strength was 16,740 (1,357 officers and warrant officers and 15,383 enlisted personnel). Women comprised 4.6 percent of the ARNG’s assigned strength.

During fiscal year 1980, the National Guard Bureau developed new policies and plans to increase the number of minority group members in the National Guard technician work force, where representation was low. At the close of the fiscal year, 7.3 percent of ARNG technicians were members of minority groups and 7.8 percent were women. In a related development, new opportunities to hire minorities and women were created through the full-time manning program. By 30 September 1980, 12.5 percent of all appointees to fill full-time manning positions were minorities and 12 percent were women.

The favorable strength trend in the ARNG was due in large part to bonuses and incentives which form the Selected Reserve Incentive Program (SRIP) initiated in fiscal year 1979 to improve manning levels in early deploying units. The program includes an enlistment cash bonus, enlistment education assistance, and a reenlistment and extension cash bonus. High priority units representing 15 percent of the ARNG’s authorized enlisted structure offered all three of these bonuses, while only the enlistment and education bonuses were offered by units representing 35 percent of the Guard’s enlisted structure. Units that participated in the SRIP increased their strength at a


higher rate than other ARNG units. A significant contribution to the efforts to increase ARNG strength is the development of a professional full-time recruiting force authorized by Congress in fiscal year 1978.

During the year, the ARNG continued to meet the minimum standard of enlisting not more than 18 percent of nonprior service personnel falling in mental category IV. Since fiscal year 1978, these enlistments have averaged less than 10 percent of the total. At the same time, mental category I and II enlistments continued to rise steadily. The number of high school seniors entering the ARNG also continued to grow, attributed in large measure to the split training option and enlistment incentives. The ARNG also maintained the minimum standard of enlisting not more than 45 percent non-high school graduates—only 39 percent of the year’s enlistments were in this category.

The ARNG initiated several new officer procurement programs during the year. One involves contacting junior officers and warrant officers leaving active duty and encouraging them to join the Guard. The College Student Officer Program (CSOP) authorizes state adjutant generals to enlist college sophomores at non-ROTC colleges into state OCS programs, and should be particularly helpful in recruiting officers from minority colleges. The Chaplain Candidate Program for recruitment of seminary and theological students was expected to ease the shortage of chaplains.

The ARNG Medical Department Officer Accession Program, initiated in March 1979, continued to have a beneficial effect in reducing the Guard’s shortage of medical officers. At the beginning of the fiscal year, only 43 percent of ARNG medical authorizations were filled; by the end of the fiscal year, the number of medical corps officers on board had risen to 46.5 percent of authorized strength.

The ARNG Military Physician Assistant (PA) Program, initiated in October 1975 to substitute warrant officer physician assistants for Medical Corps officers in maneuver organizations, also continued to have a significant effect in compensating for the short supply of military Medical Corps officers. At the beginning of the fiscal year, only 44 percent (114) of the ARNG physician assistant authorizations (261) were filled; by the end of the fiscal year, the number of warrant officer physician assistants on board had risen to 53 percent (138) of authorized strength.

ARNG enlisted losses for the year were 74,031, the lowest number since fiscal year 1974, and 18 percent below projections. Enlisted losses continued the downward trend from the all-time high of 135,200 experienced in fiscal year 1976. Losses through attrition were down from the previous year due to new management initiatives in


this area, but continued at an unacceptable rate. New loss definitions will go into effect early in fiscal year 1981 that should reflect more clearly the reasons for attrition and promote more effective management.

After several years of decline, the trend for increased paid drill strength in the Army Reserve established in fiscal year 1979 continued. Strength rose from 185,753 in September 1978, to 189,990 at the end of fiscal year 1979, and reached 202,627 on 30 September 1980. Although unprogrammed losses continued to climb, reenlistments improved significantly, and, as shown in the table below, USAR enlistments during fiscal year 1980 surpassed objectives in every category but prior service which had become increasingly more difficult as the active Army increased its retention requirement, thus reducing the available prospects.


NPS* Males

NPS Females

NPS Total

Prior Service











Percent Achieved





* NPS—nonprior service

As in the ARNG, the Selected Reserve Incentive Program was also a significant factor in the improved USAR strength picture. A total of 3,995 recruits entering the Army Reserve received enlistment bonuses and another 34 got enlistment educational assistance. Three-year reenlistment bonuses went to 1,323 soldiers while another 3,086 received six-year bonuses. On 1 June 1980, 103 new units were added to the SRIP, bringing enlistment or reenlistment bonuses to approximately 59 percent of the USAR force structure.

Eligibility for an enlistment incentive requires an individual to be nonprior service with a high school diploma, to have verbal and math scores of 31 or above on the armed services vocational aptitude battery, and to enlist in a designated selected reserve unit for six years. An eligible enlistee may select a $1,500 cash bonus—$750 of which would be paid upon completion of initial entry training, and the remainder in three installments—or educational assistance of up to $2,000 paid at $500 per year. To be eligible for reenlistment bonuses, a reservist must reenlist in a designated unit for three or six years, must have participated satisfactorily for one full year prior to reenlistment, and must have less than nine years service at reenlistment time. The bonus is $900 for three years and $1,500 for six years.

At the beginning of fiscal year 1980, the Department of the Army criteria for transferring certain obligated members to the Individual


Ready Reserve (IRR) for retention as mobilization assets were incorporated in Army regulations governing separation of enlisted personnel. The changes apply to eleven categories of ARNG and USAR unit separations. Guardsmen who are fully trained may be transferred to the Inactive National Guard (ING). This action resulted in the transfer of 1,433 members to the IRR and 654 members to the ING and an increase of ING strength, which stood at 5,534 on 30 September 1980.

In March 1980, the Department of Defense policy providing for transfer to the IRR instead of involuntary active duty for failure to participate satisfactorily in unit drills was implemented. Enlisted personnel who have not completed twenty-four or more months of active duty are considered by a board of officers. If separation is recommended, they may be transferred to the IRR for the balance of their statutory obligation, at which time they will be discharged, normally under conditions other than honorable.

These changes, along with the test of direct enlistments into the IRR, which was extended, and encouragement of Standby Reserve members to transfer to the IRR, helped increase IRR strength for the second year in a row. IRR strength as well as the status of the Standby Reserve is shown below:






+ 194











Prior to fiscal year 1980, Army mobilization planning had assumed that some percentage of the total pool of Regular Army retired personnel and retired reservists would be recalled upon full mobilization. During fiscal year 1980, however, the designation of mobilization tables of distribution and allowance positions for mobilization to be filled by retirees and the creation of automated retiree files progressed to the point that a tentative match of retirees to wartime positions could be made. Once the capability to make the retiree match had been achieved, it was no longer necessary to show the entire retiree pool in the historical summary, since the potential retiree recall would be on the basis of match. By the end of the fiscal year, the Army retiree/position match was 69,249 (23,884 officers and 45,365 enlisted).

In August 1979, the Office of the Secretary of Defense formed the Reserve Compensation Task Force to provide a new evaluation on the       


effectiveness of compensation in attracting and retaining reserve component members. Although not completed by the close of the fiscal year, preliminary findings indicated that demographic trends would mean fewer available enlistees and that the private sector would provide intense competition for them; that reserve component personnel strength requirements could not be met by minor increases in compensation—Rand Corporation and OSD studies show that a 100 percent pay increase would boost accessions by only 20 percent; and that retirement benefits were not an effective incentive for attracting enlistees.

Concurrently with the formation of the OSD task force, the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel began work on developing an analytically supportable Army position for reserve component compensation. After ODCSPER completed its initial research, a Department of the Army Reserve Compensation System Reform Analysis Team was formed to continue the work. The team concluded that the current Reserve Component pay system was adequate to attract enlistees; that the nonprior service enlistment bonus should be doubled to $3,000, the payment schedule revised, and the educational bonus raised; that a proposed revision of the federal military leave program not be supported since it would seriously erode net income of soldiers whose primary employment was with the federal civil service; that ARNG and USAR unit commanders should receive compensation for extra time they give to unit administration; that reserve component personnel be given an inactive duty training travel allowance; that the net income of guardsmen and reservists should be increased through tax incentives or wage differentials; and that factors such as training, promotion potential, leadership, support of family and friends, and job satisfaction were more important in accounting for unprogrammed losses than the current pay system.

Responding to these conclusions, the Army increased the educational bonus and recommended to OSD that revisions to the federal leave program not be supported; that unit commanders be compensated for extra time spent on administrative tasks; and that an inactive duty training travel allowance be authorized. ODCSPER will work closely with OSD to ensure that any changes recommended pertaining to reserve component retirement not cause a loss of midcareer personnel, that the value and awarding of retirement points not be changed, and that accrual withdrawal of retirement monies be optional for reserve component members.

The various studies on reserve component compensation conducted during recent year indicate that the bottom line for reform is in the area of the value of retirement benefits as an effective incentive


for enlistments and reenlistments. The two sides to this argument address the dilemma of a retirement system which economists claim has marginal appeal to young enlistees but has been criticized for providing excessive benefits to recipients at age 60.

During this fiscal year, the Army acted to promote participation in the reserve components by soldiers leaving active duty. In the past, information on ARNG and USAR service was made available during actual separation processing. A total of fifty-five in-service recruiters (twenty-three ARNG and thirty-two USAR) conducted separation briefings on reserve service on twenty-five Army installations in the United States. Another five ARNG and three USAR in-service recruiters provided information to separating soldiers in Europe. Because of the limited number of in-service recruiters contrasted with the high yearly volume of separatees, the Army could not provide reserve component information to every eligible separating soldier. This fact spurred action to invest active Army commanders with the responsibility to advise separating soldiers on ARNG and USAR service prior to their departure for separation points. The new policy will become effective in fiscal year 1981.

To support this effort, the Army approved changes to the reenlistment NCO course of instruction so that Reserve Component subjects would be covered, directed that the reenlistment regulation be revised, approved the assignment of additional in-service recruiters in Europe, and approved the establishment of a pilot program in Korea with three in-service recruiters.

The congressionally directed test of the reserve component technician program noted in last year’s report was concluded on 30 June 1980. The purpose of the test was to determine the feasibility of using reserve component personnel on full-time active duty in lieu of dual status civilian technicians who were also members of the units they served. The ARNG and USAR attracted sufficient personnel to meet their conversion goals (3,161 ARNG positions and 1,276 USAR positions), although there was some difficulty experienced in attracting personnel to wage grade positions, especially in the USAR.

After evaluating the test results, the Army recommended to OSD that additional conversions be made in fiscal years 1981 and 1982, that permanent technicians retain upward mobility opportunities and be permitted to convert to full-time military status if their performance was above average, and that consideration be given to providing incentives to attract and retain wage grade personnel. At the close of the fiscal year, OSD was awaiting the result of an independent analysis of the services evaluation reports that Management Consulting and Research, Inc., was conducting.      


Personnel Management

Attrition, the unprogrammed loss of individuals before they complete their term of service, continued to be a major problem this year, although overall losses for both components dropped sharply. An improved attrition management program which included increased command emphasis on resolving individual problems and voluntary counseling to augment the mandatory counseling already in effect throughout the chain of command was developed to help solve the problem. Training policies were also modified to enable individuals to meet business and family responsibilities and at the same time fulfill their military obligations, and greater attention was given to community involvement and employer support.

In May 1980, the National Guard Bureau inaugurated its Organizational Effectiveness (OE) program to further the systematic military application of selected management and behavioral science skills to improve the effectiveness and performance levels of National Guard organizations under conditions of peace or war. Developed in consonance with the Army’s OE policies, the program is staffed by eighteen OE Staff Officers (OESOs) of the ARNG who support National Guard units in the forty-eight contiguous states and the District of Columbia from regional OE centers at Edgewood, Maryland; Little Rock, Arkansas; and Portland, Oregon. Three additional OESOs are assigned to National Guard Bureau headquarters to provide direction and supervision and OE support to the bureau.

The Long Tour Management Program for Army Reserve officers and enlisted men was expanded during fiscal year 1980. Approximately 1,000 officers and 3,000 enlisted personnel were receiving effective centralized management support under this program by the close of the year. The DOD Authorization Act of 1980 provided that all USAR participants in the Long Tour Management Program convert from special active duty for training to active duty in active Guard/Reserve status. During August 1980, all participants in the program were informed of the change and offered the option to accept or decline the conversion. The conversions were accomplished by the close of the fiscal year.

The Reserve Components Personnel and Administration Center (RCPAC) put the Duplicate Social Security Number Record System into operation in March 1978. The system was developed to purge duplicate strength recording in the various classification of ready reserve strength. During the initial stages of the Deep Purge program, when procedures were being refined and reconciliation actions had not yet been reflected on rosters, the number of duplication’s climbed,


and reached 1,439 cases a month in 1978. By early fiscal year 1980, about 1,200 duplications a month were being identified and reconciled. 

A shortage of qualified personnel led to rescheduling the initial implementation of SIDPERS-USAR from August 1980 to August 1981. The first of three phases, Module 1, will include all of the original SIDPERS-USAR functions except for error suspense procedures, VTAADS interface, unit manning rosters, automated orders, JUMPS-RC pay processing, and historical retirement credits data accountability. Modules II and III, scheduled for implementation in August 1982-83 and August 1983-84, respectively, will add these additional functions.

In addition to the modular implementation, the modified plan uses the existing Reserve Personnel Information Reporting System (RPIRS) as the development baseline. Under this plan, RPIRS processing and distribution functions will be centralized at RCPAC by January 1981. Improved processing procedures, revised programs, and additional features will then be added to RPIRS to create SIDPERS-USAR Module I. The modified plan also provides a system interface branch at each Army and a small System Interface Division at RCPAC instead of one large system interface division at RCPAC. Collectively, they will handle all inputs, outputs, and system support requirements.

Fully implemented during fiscal year 1979, the Officer Personnel Management System-USAR (OPMS-USAR) provides intensive professional development guidance, appropriate mobilization training, and personalized management to more than 97,000 USAR officers. The Enlisted Mobilization Training and Management System-USAR (EMTMS-USAR), initially implemented in fiscal year 1978, provided similar services to more than 20,000 enlisted members of the IRR in fiscal year 1980. Both systems are intended to ensure that the USAR has sufficient trained reservists, with the proper skills, to meet Army mobilization requirements. Each managed reservist has a personnel manager who guides his career, provides professional development advice and guidance, and, in the case of members of the IRR, arranges appropriate schooling and/or mobilization skill training (counterpart training) with units of the active Army. Fiscal limitations this year required the Officer and Enlisted Personnel Management Directorate (OEPMD) to constrain its IRR mobilization training program. To ensure the most equitable spread of limited training funds available, the average mobilization training tour length was reduced to twelve days. Experience over the past three years has shown that twelve days of training are inadequate for most individuals. The nineteen-day average is considered to be the minimum


essential to provide effective mobilization training. RCPAC planned to expand EMTMS-USAR to cover a total of 40,000 IRR enlisted personnel during fiscal year 1981. All enlisted IRR personnel should come under EMTMS’s centralized management by fiscal year 1985.

During the year, the efficient utilization of reserve components personnel resources continued to be enhanced by MOBPERS, an automated system developed to correct deficiencies uncovered during mobilization exercises in 1976 and 1978. Specifically, MOBPERS matches ARNG and USAR strength files with authorized strength files provided by ODCSOPS. The matchup facilitates adding reserve component personnel to the active Army data base upon mobilization by identifying and pre-positioning location and authorization files at mobilization stations on a monthly basis during peacetime.

RCPAC uses MOBPERS to develop the entire unit and personnel status for all reserve component units by installation. Shortfalls are remedied by earmarking IRR personnel as fillers. The installation commander where the filler would report upon mobilization could either place the individual in the unit with the vacancy or elsewhere. By having the basic information prior to mobilization, the installation commander can adjust assignment priorities as required.

MOBPERS also provides a list of excess personnel by MOS for each unit on an installation. The installation commander under the current concept can reassign excess personnel, regardless of component, to other units. This cross-leveling procedure has been and remains a volatile issue for the ARNG, which fears that ARNG units could be stripped of not only excess but authorized personnel as well.

The Office, Chief Army Reserve (OCAR), continued development of the Army Reserve Management Information System (ARMIS), a comprehensive data processing hardware and software management tool, during the year. The system will provide omnifunctional data appropriate to the OCAR mission; extensive pertinent information for analyses, processing, and management review; and a necessary capability to communicate with the Army staff and major commands concerning the Army Reserve. Previously, OCAR relied on hard copy recurring reports received from Army staff agencies and the field. While valuable in defining the status of personnel, forces, or facilities, the fixed format of each report coupled with the inability to combine listings, except manually, introduced an unacceptable level of difficulty in providing effective and timely management analyses of USAR programs. ARMIS should rectify this situation.

Basic ARMIS hardware was installed in May 1979 for use as a development tool. This hardware consists of a Data General Eclipse M/600 minicomputer with related tape and disk subsystems, a high-


speed line printer, visual display terminals, and printing terminals. Basic applications software was available for limited OCAR use in April 1980. The system was secured for limited processing of classified data in September 1980. A high-speed communications link to U.S. Army Management Systems Support Agency (USAMSSA) is being installed (expected completion date is March 1981). This high-speed communications link will make available to OCAR users the full resources of the USAMSSA for support of information requirements and will preclude duplication of resources.

Equipment and Maintenance

Both the ARNG and the USAR increased their inventories of major equipment items during the year, but serious shortages that were hampering training continued to exist. The initial equipment goal for the reserve components, as identified in the ROGAR study, was to provide each unit with an initial issue of wartime equipment that was combat serviceable.

The following chart shows the overall equipment status of the ARNG at the close of fiscal year 1980.

Equipment Level

Dollar Value (Standard Prices)

Requirement (mobilization)

7.2 billion

Authorization (premobilization)

6.7 billion

On hand assets

5.0 billion

Percent fill (mobilization): All assets

69 percent

Percent fill (authorization): All assets

75 percent

Modernization of ARNG equipment during fiscal year 1980 was marked by completion of both the M88 Medium Recovery Vehicle and 27FT Bridge Erection Boat upgrade programs. Completion of the ongoing M109 series howitzer modernization program is scheduled for 1983. The year also marked the start of a program to convert all gasoline-powered M113 armored personnel carriers in the Guard’s inventory to diesel power. To date, 3 percent of the fleet has been converted to the A2 version and returned to ARNG units. These programs represent approximately $15.6 million in equipment upgrade and have resulted in improved readiness for deployable assets in the ARNG inventory.

Implementation of the Division Logistics System (DLOGS), an automated property accounting system, has been an ongoing project in the ARNG since 1972. Eight divisions and seventeen separate brigades currently use DLOGS on property book procedures with one separate brigade scheduled to convert in December 1980. In addi-


tion, thirteen separate brigades perform Class IX procedures on the DLOGS. One minicomputer used with the Decentralized Automated Service Support System (DAS3) is operational in the ARNG and more are scheduled to be phased into nondivisional direct support/general support units starting in fiscal year 1982. By the end of fiscal year 1983, thirty-nine of seventy-one eligible nondivisional direct support/general support ARNG units should be automated with the DAS3 hardware. Divisions and separate brigades will begin receiving DAS3 hardware in fiscal year 1984. Some 63 percent of the units eligible to receive DAS3 are not covered by the current program.

Public Law 96-328, enacted in 1980, allows the Secretary of the Army to prescribe uniform property accountability provisions for all components of the Army and to remit report of survey liability for ARNG personnel. A major feature of this law radically alters the conditions under which a state may be held liable for loss, damage, or destruction of National Guard property. Effective 1 October 1980, the effective date of PL 96-328, only property losses occurring as a result of the performance of state missions can be charged to the states.

Major equipment items issued to the Army Reserve during the year were valued at $44,234,064 as compared to $63,560,859 for fiscal year 1979 issues. An anticipated increase in the inventory of major items as more modern equipment is introduced has been nullified to a large extent due to diversions or withdrawals made in support of an expanding overseas pre-positioning program.

All RU-8D aircraft in the Army Reserve’s 138th Army Security Agency company have been replaced by the newer RU-21 aircraft. Planned redistribution of UH-1 and OH-58 helicopters was delayed because of unit activations and UH-1 helicopter shortages. The obsolete USAR fixed wing fleet remained an area of major concern. Funding constraints precluded purchase of replacement aircraft for the USAR—though many of these fixed wing aircraft were becoming increasingly difficult to maintain making them only marginally safe for aviator training and mission support flights.

Army Reserve equipment assets at the close of fiscal year 1980 are shown below.


Percent on hand

Equipment Level


Dollar Value (millions)



Requirement (mobilization)





Authorization (training)





On hand assets




The fiscal year 1980 Army Reserve construction program totaled $30.0 million. This represents a decrease of $7.1 million from the


fiscal year 1979 budget. Coupled with the $31.7 million in carryover from prior year programs, a total of $61.7 million was available for obligation. Of the total available, $44.6 million was obligated, leaving $17.1 million to be carried over into fiscal year 1981. The construction program for fiscal year 1981 is $43.2 million. The total requirements have increased from $338.4 million at the end of fiscal year 1971 to $800 million. In addition to continued cost escalation, this increase is associated with additional projects which have been identified to replace obsolete or deteriorated facilities.

Existing USAR facilities, ranging from permanently constructed training centers to leased structures of varying adequacy, are used to the maximum. In terms of adequacy, 60 percent of the existing facilities are considered to be inadequate. Long range military construction plans provide for replacement of inadequate facilities, expansion of existing facilities to meet space requirements, and replacement by government-owned facilities of those leased or donated buildings which are either inefficient to maintain or are not adequate to meet needs. New construction-as well as the expansion, alteration, or rehabilitation of existing facilities-is required to provide the facilities needed for ef4fective operation and training.

The Office, Chief Army Reserve and FORSCOM were working together to develop the Facilities Assets Catalog and Tracking System (FACTS) during the year. The new system is designed to promote efficiency and economy in Army Reserve facilities management. It will replace the USAR Facilities Inventory Report, which was judged to be poorly designed, poorly programmed, deficient in organization and documentation, unreliable, and dependent on excessive use of automated resources to produce management information.

The FACTS system, which should be fully operational in 1981, will be located at the FORSCOM Data Processing Installation (DPI) at Fort McPherson, Georgia. A local component of FACTS will be established at each CONUS Army DPI. FACTS will consolidate USAR facilities data into a single, centrally controlled inventory and management information system which will support major command and OCAR requirements. FACTS management reports will contain information about USAR facilities and the units stationed at the facilities. The reports will locate the facility geographically, provide space utilization data, and contain relevant budget history. FACTS will contain no automated decision-making applications, nor any classified or privacy sensitive data.

The ARNG military construction program received $23.7 million in new obligational authority in fiscal year 1980, a decrease of $28.5 million from the fiscal year 1979 appropriation. Another $1.1 million in carryover funds brought the amount available to $24.8 million.   


Obligations for the year were $19.9 million, 80 percent of the amount available. During the year, contracts for 32 major projects and 28 minor ones were awarded. Twenty-two of the major project contracts, which cost $15.6 million, were for armories.

The backlog of ARNG construction projects increased by $4 million during fiscal year 1980 to $740 million: $367 million for armory replacement, additions, alterations, or rehabilitation (523 of the Guard’s 2,791 armories were considered inadequate); $128 million to bring 189 of 1,841 administrative and logistical facilities up to acceptable standards; $156 million for 179 projects at ARNG training sites; and $89 million for minor construction and planning.

Training and Readiness

Forces Command implemented two new initiatives during fiscal year 1980, the Army CAPSTONE Program and the Intensive Management Force List, both of which are designed to improve readiness and mobilization and enhance planning and training efforts based upon wartime missions.

The Army CAPSTONE Program (short title: CAPSTONE) has five major objectives: (1) to align units of all components to meet USAREUR wartime requirements and the needs of the CONUS sustaining base; (2) to provide the basis for developing training and planning associations for the units in each package so that a unit can train and plan in peacetime with the organization it will operate with in wartime; (3) to provide a clearly defined organizational format for force planning; (4) to provide the basis for developing active Army and reserve component programs for POMCUS, modernization, training, and increased readiness; and (5) to define the basis for mobilization stationing of deploying and nondeploying units. FORSCOM distributed implementing instructions to the field in August 1980. All active, reserve, and guard units received notification of their wartime missions as prescribed under Capstone. All organizational associations indicated in the new program were formalized by the end of the fiscal year.

The second new FORSCOM administered program, the Intensive Management Force List (IMFL) provides additional support in meeting reserve component operational and logistical objectives by prioritization of units according to mission importance. Unit categories covered are Rapid Deployment Force, Army; Roundout; Minimum Essential; Risk Reduction; Quick Fix Force; and POMCUS Backup Force. Units within these categories are intensively managed and receive priority in the allocation of resources.

The Affiliation Program has, for the past several years, proved of


value in assisting reserve component units in improving their readiness and deployment posture. The program started in fiscal year 1980 with ninety-three battalions (seventy-seven ARNG and sixteen USAR) and sixty-seven company/detachment-size units (seventeen ARNG and fifty USAR). Removal of three ARNG battalions from the program during the year resulted in an end of year total of ninety battalions and sixty-seven company/detachment-size units. Phase II of the expansion program scheduled for fiscal year 1980 was dropped back to fiscal year 1981 pending realignment of European wartime missions and development of the Capstone Program.

The Full-Time Manning (FTM) program whereby additional fulltime military personnel (ARNG, USAR, and active Army) are attached to early deploying and essential nondeploying reserve component units has been most successful in helping ARNG and USAR commanders improve unit training, logistics, and unit mobilization planning and preparation. The majority of FTM personnel are located in company, battalion, and brigade-size units. The large majority occupy training, administration, supply, and maintenance positions. The fiscal year 1980 program originally called for the assignment of 2,765 active Army personnel, 1,108 guardsmen, and 1,060 reservists to FTM positions, but cancellation of the withdrawal of the 2d Infantry Division from Korea led to a reduction of active Army FTM slots to 1,070. The Total Army Analysis (TAA) 82-86 and FORSCOM’s Intensive Management Force List formed the basis to further identify units and expand the FTM program from the fiscal year 1980 requirement to the level projected for fiscal year 1986. The expansion will be modified as required to reflect ARNG and USAR recruiting success, readiness improvements, and mobilization capability enhancements resulting from this year’s program.

The ARNG participated in the Rapid Mobilization for Direct Deployment to POMCUS (RAMDEP) study, a two-year effort to be completed in December 1980. The study, an outgrowth of the Guard’s Preparation for Overseas Movement/Preparation for Overseas Replacement (POM/POR) exercise in 1978, will evaluate State Area Commands and will ascertain the capability of selected units to be altered, mobilized, and deployed directly from their home stations to POMCUS located in Europe. RAMDEP offers promise for significant reductions in the time required to deploy units and to improve further mobilization readiness and response time.

The National Guard Bureau developed two new mobilization exercises during the year to capitalize on lessons learned through RAMDEP and to improve the mobilization response time of high priority units—Readiness for Mobilization Evaluation (REMOBE) and Mobilization and Deployment Exercises (MODEX). The two ex-     


ercises will be tested. In addition, an ad hoc committee has been formed on the Army staff to develop ARNG/USAR direct deployment guidance and resolve major issues emanating from RAMDEP.

The Reserve Component Deployment Training Program had a positive impact on reserve components and active Army units during 1980. The training opportunities for reserve component units, especially combat service support units in the deployed theater areas, have, in most cases, been unique. These units experienced intense and demanding training, increased readiness, improved MOS postures, and an increased realism to their assigned missions while providing a highly visible sign to our allies which enhances their confidence in the capability and reliability of the United States to meet wartime commitments.

This training year provided the opportunity for 116 reserve component units to conduct realistic contingency and mission-oriented training in overseas environments. The deployment program supports the Capstone program by training units, in most cases, with their wartime gaining commands.

For the first time a battalion-size unit, 3d Battalion, 178th Field Artillery, South Carolina ARNG, participated in the deployment training program. The unit, part of the RAMDEP study pilot program, deployed directly from home station to Europe, drew and turned in POMCUS equipment, participated in the REFORGER exercise and redeployed to its home station. The unit had a very successful training experience that is certain to add another dimension to mobilization/deployment planning and training. In another first, the 112th Medical Brigade, Ohio ARNG, became the first ARNG medical unit to participate in overseas deployment training. From 13-27 September 1980, thirty of the eighty personnel in the brigade participated in a command training exercise called CERTAIN LANCER, part of the overall REFORGER exercise which takes place annually in Germany. The medical brigade, in an Annual Training status, performed the training exercise just outside of Frankfurt, Germany, and was hosted by the 68th Medical Group of the active Army. Together, the 112th and the 68th supported V Corps.

The eighteen USAR units that participated in REFORGER 80 represented the Army Reserve’s largest unit participation to date in this annual exercise. It also marked the first time that USAR, as well as ARNG units, utilized exercise aircraft.

The Battalion Training Management System was first introduced to ARNG and USAR units in fiscal year 1980. It is designed to instruct trainers in the most effective means of training soldiers and bringing together all the available means to accomplish that objective. It consists of four separate workshops designed for different


levels of management in the battalion and is normally conducted over a two-day period (sixteen hours). The program was enthusiastically received by the field and will continue to expand to more units in fiscal year 1981.

A number of organizational changes took place during the year that pertained to individual training for Army reservists.

On 18 September 1978, the Reserve Enlisted Personnel (REP) Section, now called the Individual Training Branch, was released from the operational control of ODCSPER and returned to the control of Personnel Division, OCAR. Concurrently, DA staff proponency for the Training Requirements Generator (TRG) and development of USAR enhancements to the REQUEST system was transferred to OCAR, effective 1 October 1978. The branch’s overall mission has been expanded to include promulgation and implementation of USAR individual training policies; DA staff level management of USAR individual training programs; coordination, programming, and establishment of funding priorities and budget formulation to support USAR individual training within the Reserve Personnel Appropriations (RPA); and review and analysis of policies and plans, as well as new initiatives, concerning individual school training for USAR members to achieve mobilization readiness.

January 1979 marked the further transfer of individual training functions within OCAR from the Personnel Division (DAAR-PE) to the Operations and Training Division (DAAR-OT), as a result of an internal review of responsibilities. This review indicated a critical need for a cohesive OCAR staff element to provide continuous interface of USAR individual training matters with other DA staff elements and major commands; timely and accurate projections of USAR enlisted training requirements; establishment of training priorities according to Army needs; and development and coordination of funding appropriations to support USAR individual training from USAR resources.

Support to Civil Authorities

National Guard personnel continued to fulfill an integral role in providing support and assistance during emergencies throughout the United States. During the year, the National Guard responded 306 times to emergency conditions in 42 states and territories. This involved a total callup of 26,895 Guard personnel and the use of 207,611 c

During this period, National Guard personnel were placed on state active duty twenty times to assist civil authorities in controlling civil disturbance incidents. Incidents occurred in sixteen states and


involved 10,722 troops. Incidents included 5 public employee strikes, 8 civil disturbances, 2 prison disorders, and 5 potential civil disturbances. Guard units assigned civil disturbance control missions conducted up to twenty hours of refresher training in control operations and conducted annual evaluations to determine state of preparedness during the period.

In fiscal year 1980, 16,173 Guard personnel assisted civil authorities during 286 natural disasters and other emergencies in 40 states and territories. Natural disasters accounted for 110 of the callups: 26 were forest fires, 23 were snow and ice storms, 34 were floods, and 14 more were tornados; the remaining 13 natural disaster responses were the result of volcanic eruption, hurricanes and drought conditions. The other 176 emergencies involved 37 search and rescue, 38 water hauls, 36 medical evacuations, 30 support missions, and 71 security/traffic control missions. Chemical spills, emergency shelter, papal visits, structural fires, civilian airplane crash, and Winter Olympic support accounted for 14 missions.

Fiscal year 1980 saw an increase in the community relations role of the National Guard. Added emphasis by the Chief, National Guard Bureau and the state adjutants general resulted in increased local unit activity to improve the quality of life for the citizens of all our communities. Some representative samples of community relations activities include sponsorship of over 300 Scouting organizations by Guard units as well as the creation of a new Explorer Scout program oriented around competitive air rifle marksmanship. Additionally, Guard units assisted local citizens in blighted areas of some of our major cities in converting devastated city-owned blocks into urban community park areas.


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Last updated 17 September 2004