Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1981


Reserve Forces

Force Structure

Since 1968, when the Army National Guard (ARNG) and the Army Reserve (USAR) completed their last major reorganization, annual changes in the reserve components force structure have been kept to a minimum consistent with Total Army requirements to reduce personnel turbulence and, concomitantly, improve unit readiness. During fiscal year 1981 Forces Command activated 29 units in the reserve components, inactivated 24 units, reorganized 74 units, and relocated 37 units.

The Army National Guard added a fourth TOW light antiarmor battalion to its structure and consolidated existing combat and combat support elements in the Kentucky ARNG to form an additional separate armor brigade. In other actions the ARNG converted two engineer companies from float bridge to assault float bridge, added a chemical company (nuclear, biological, chemical defense) to the structure of both the 50th Armored Division and the 49th Armored Division, and activated a combat support aviation company as part of the 29th Infantry Brigade. Other activations included a medical group headquarters, a medical clearing company, and a medical detachment; an ammunition group headquarters, two ordnance battalion headquarters, four ammunition companies, and four maintenance companies; and a transportation company and seven transportation detachments.

As a result of Public Law 96-600, which authorized Guam to have a national guard, an ARNG headquarters element for the Territory of Guam was organized on 21 July 1981. It will serve as the nucleus for organizing a combat support battalion headquarters, a medical company, a signal company, a military police company, and two engineer detachments.

Plans moved forward to improve the ARNG's military intelligence structure, which Congress had determined was ineffective. FORSCOM developed a plan for the activation of 18 combat electronic warfare intelligence (CEWI) units (8 battalions and 10 companies) beginning in fiscal year 1982 to support the ARNG's 8 combat divisions and 10 separate brigades.

Major units in the Army National Guard as of 30 September 1981 are shown below:


5 Infantry divisions
1 Infantry division (mechanized)
2 Armored divisions
10 Infantry brigades (separate)
8 Infantry brigades (mechanized) (separate)
4 Armored brigades (separate)
3 Medical brigades
4 Armored cavalry regiments
2 Special forces groups
1 Infantry group (arctic reconnaissance)
131 Separate combat and combat support battalions
18 Hospitals
761 Separate companies and detachments
337 Separate headquarters

A forward element of the Army Reserve's 412th Engineer Command consisting of twenty-three inactive duty training spaces was established at Mannheim, Germany, on 15 May 1981. The Army Reserve plans to establish additional forward elements in Europe to perform planning, coordination, and liaison duties between their parent units and USAREUR units with which the reserve units would serve upon mobilization and deployment. Plans were also being developed to locate independent forward deployment USAR units to Europe.

TRADOC, FORSCOM, and the Army staff continued work on the realignment of the twelve USAR training divisions and the 5th Training Brigade. This action followed a determination that the existing structure was not responsive to either current training workloads or training base expansion, that it included nontrainers and installation support positions, and that there was little standardization among units in terms of functions and training support. Actions were under way to correct these deficiencies. Positions have been packaged into several categories-trainers, immediate training support, immediate base support, peacetime-only requirements, and elements which would not mobilize with the divisions. All purely peacetime requirements will be documented on a TDA (table of distribution and allowance) augmentation to the divisional MTOE (modified table of organization and equipment) so that training division MTOEs will be more standardized. Immediate training and base support positions will be noted and listed on a divisional MTOE. Bands will be given an independent MTOE, and aviation sections will have their own TDA.

At the close of the fiscal year the Army Reserve troop basis contained approximately 3,250 company- and detachment-sized units. Major organizations in the structure were as follows:


19 USA reserve commands
12 Divisions (training)
2 Maneuver area commands
2 Engineer commands
1 Military police command
2 Theater army area commands (TAACOM)
3 Civil affairs commands
2 Corps support commands (COSCOM)
3 General hospital commands
9 Maneuver training commands
1 Infantry brigade
1 Infantry brigade (mechanized)
1 Infantry brigade (light)
2 Transportation brigades
3 Military police brigades
2 Engineer brigades
2 Medical brigades
4 Hospital centers
106 Hospitals (miscellaneous)
60 Separate battalions


The number of reservists and guardsmen participating in troop unit training increased in fiscal year 1981 as recruitment, reenlistment, and retention programs continued to produce good results. Army Reserve drill pay strength was 220,122 as of 30 September 1981, a gain of 17,495 over the previous year. The Army National Guard's assigned strength climbed to 390,659 as compared with 368,254 on 30 September 1980.

Recruiting achievements in the Army's reserve components can be seen in the table below. Both the ARNG and the USAR exceeded their enlistment goals.

ARNG    Objective    Actual
NPS Males    45,100    47,021
NPS Females    5,500    5,426
NPS Total    50,600    52,447
Prior Service    45,150    43,989
Total Program    95,750    96,436
HSG NPS*    30,360    33,403
Category IV NPS 18% Ceiling    13.2
NPS Males    22,520    22,103
NPS Females    7,757    9,776
NPS Total    30,277    31,879
Prior Service    33,464    34,760
Total Program    63,741    66,639


USAR (continued)  Objective    Actual
HSG NPS*    18,166    19,580
Category IV NPS   30% Ceiling    29.9

*Includes high school seniors and General Education Development.

A key factor in the success of the recruiting effort has been the increased funding available for recruiting resources, especially in the areas of full-time recruiter pay, bonuses, and educational assistance. Funding levels of USAR enlisted recruiting resources for the past three years are given below.

   FY 79    FY 80    FY 81
Enlistment Incentives a 1.3    3.0    3.7
Military b  19.9    22.3    27.4
Recruiter aid support  0.5    0.7    0.8
Civilian pay  5.4    6.0    8.4
Advertising  11.1    12.6    13.4
Recruiter support c  8.7    9.3    10.4
Headquarters support (ADP) -    -    -
Communications   -    -    -
Training  0.5    0.5    0.9
Facilities   -    -    -
Total dollars 47.4    54.4    65.0

a Includes enlistment bonus, educational assistance, and affiliation bonus.
b Includes full-time recruiter pay. Does not include man-day space (MDS) or retention NCOs.
c Includes vehicle leases.

ARNG enlisted recruiting resources are given below in millions of dollars.

   FY 79    FY 80    FY 81
Enlistment incentives a  4.0    9.1    1.2.9
Military pay b  26.1    30.9    40.2.
Recruiter aide support (MDS) 1.0    2.1    3.3
Training  1.0    1.2    1.5
Civilian pay  1.7    1.8    2.1
Advertising  4.8    4.3    5.5
Recruiter support c  2.9    3.1    7.2
Headquarters support (ADP)  0.2    0.2    0.3
Communications  1.0    1.1    1.5
Facilities  -    -    -
Total dollars  42.7    53.8    74.5

a Includes enlistment bonus, educational assistance, and affiliation bonus.
b Includes full-time recruiter pay. Does not include man-day spaces or retention NCOs.
c Includes vehicle leases for fiscal year 1981.


The reenlistment records of both components over the past two years are indicated below.

  FY 80 FY 81
First Term  
FY Goal *    51.0%    50.0%    54.0%    50.0%
Eligible    19,654    8,540    18,904    10,000
Achieved    10,506    4,302    10,019    5,555
Achieved    53.4%    50.4%    53.0%    55.6%
FY Goal *    68.0%    80.0%    72.0%    80.0%
Eligible    102,275    33,658    89,752    35,215
Achieved    72,630    25,744    63,174    28,876
% Achieved    71.0%    76.5%    70.4%    82.0%

* Based on percent of eligibles.

A major element of the reenlistment effort was the Selected Reserve Incentive Program (SRIP). The intent of the program is to influence members to reenlist in early deploying units and selected skills by offering $900 for a three-year and $1800 for a six-year commitment. The bonus is aimed at increasing the personnel readiness of these selected units and military occupational specialties (MOS). The application of eligibility restrictions allowed only about 21,000 of the 108,000 reenlistment-extensions to receive a bonus in fiscal year 1981.

As indicated in the table below, high retention rates have helped to keep annual losses relatively low as compared with total enlisted strength. Attrition, however, continued to be a serious problem. Almost 51,000 of the ARNG's losses for fiscal year 1981 were unprogrammed, that is, individuals who left before completing their term of service. During the past year the ARNG began forming a full-time attrition and retention force. Thus far 77 personnel have been assigned to work with the states on their attrition and retention programs. An additional 179 personnel were scheduled to join the force in fiscal year 1982.

ARNG    FY 79    FY 80    FY 81
Enlisted paid end strength     309,679    329,298    350,645
Total losses    84,196    74,031    73,070
Percent  27.2    22.5    20.8
Enlisted paid end strength    154,408    169,165    187,245
Total losses     51,176    46,434    49,045
Percent    33.1    27.3    26.2


Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) strength rose slightly during the year as an increase in officer enrollment more than offset a drop in enlisted strength. In January 1981 a bonus program was begun which offered $600 to qualified members leaving the active and reserve components who would commit themselves to a three-year tour in the IRR or the Inactive National Guard (ING). It did not prove successful and was discontinued at the end of the fiscal year. Screening of the entire Standby Reserve, started on 1 July 1981 and scheduled for completion during fiscal year 1982, served to reduce further the number assigned to it. The status of the IRR and the Standby Reserve as of 30 September 1981 is shown below:

IRR    Strength    Change
Officer    50,190    +12,334
Enlisted    162,735    - 4,705
Total    212,925    + 7,629
Officer    4,156    -14,311
Enlisted    858    - 82
Total    5,014    -14,393

The policy of retaining eligible personnel in the ING rather than discharging them substantially increased this Ready Reserve resource during the year. ING strength as of 30 September 1981 was 8,871, a gain of 3,337 for the year. ING members were attached to units and would be available for military service in the event of mobilization.

Minority strength in the ARNG increased during fiscal year 1981, but at a slightly slower pace than overall strength gains, and reflected 25.7 percent of assigned strength as of 30 September 1981. Total minority strength at the end of fiscal year 1981 was 100,379-3,318 officers and warrant officers and 97,061 enlisted personnel. Of this total, 65,012 (16.6 percent) were Blacks, 27,623 (7.1 percent) were Hispanics, and 7,744 (2 percent) were other minorities. Minority women represented 2 percent of total minority officer representation.

The National Guard Bureau participated in Department of Defense workshops at national conventions of several organizations concerned with the problems of minorities, including the NAACP, GI Forum, the National Urban League, Blacks in Government, and Federally Employed Women, Inc. The recruitment


of Black officers received continued emphasis that was enhanced by the visits of the chief of the National Guard Bureau to historically Black colleges. Lt. Gen. La Vern E. Weber, Chief, National Guard Bureau, received the Roy Wilkins Award at the 1981 NAACP National Convention for this active support in the recruitment and advancement of Black officers in the National Guard.

At the end of the year there were 19,622 women in the ARNG-1,653 officers and warrant officers and 17,969 enlisted personnel. Women made up 5.1 percent of the enlisted ranks, 4.3 percent of officer strength, and 5 percent of overall strength-up from 4.5 percent at the end of the fiscal year 1980. Minority women represented one-fifth, or 330, of all women officers and 37.6 percent, or 6,751, of all enlisted women. The selection of women for state Officer Candidate Schools, ROTC, and the Simultaneous Membership Program has been the primary impetus for the increased accession of women into the officer ranks as well as for the increase in minority officers.

Led by innovative officer procurement programs, such as the Simultaneous Membership Program (SMP) and the Early Commissioning Program (ECP), the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) has emerged as a key source of officer accessions for the ARNG. During fiscal year 1981, approximately 1,200 officers were commissioned in the ARNG from ROTC. The assignment of fifty-one ARNG officers to ROTC detachments under the Expand the Base (ETB) program and the additional funding of ROTC scholarships for the Selected Reserve were significant factors in the current and projected increase of officer accessions from ROTC. ROTC was well on the way to becoming the primary source of new officers entering the ARNG.

The ARNG medical accession program, which was initiated in March 1979, has reduced the ARNG's shortage of medical officers. At the beginning of fiscal year 1981, only 46.5 percent of the positions authorized for ARNG medical officers were filled; by the end of the fiscal year, the number of medical corps officers on board had risen to 50 percent of authorized strength. The implementation of the fiscal year 1982 ARNG medical recruiting force should also help diminish the physician shortage. A total of thirty-two officers plus three enlisted personnel will make up the recruiting force. Plans have been initiated to place these people in twenty-eight states.

In the Army Reserve, AMEDD (Army Medical Department), enlisted strength assigned to troop program units increased to 22,905 by the end of fiscal year 1981. This total represented 76.6


percent of authorized strength and a growth of 7.6 percent over the previous fiscal year. Gains were also made in the number of medical corps officers serving the Army Reserve medical units and in the Individual Ready Reserve.

Personnel Management

In April 1981 the ARNG and USAR received authorization to man combat, medical, and military police units of battalion size and smaller up to 125 percent of wartime enlisted strength. The new overstrength policy also authorized lieutenant and captain positions in these units to be filled up to 125 percent of authorized strength.

In another move to provide additional personnel to selected units for improved training and mobilization readiness, the full-time manning (FTM) program was expanded during the year. Full-time manning for ARNG units increased from 1,108 ARNG and 624 active Army positions to 1,889 and 784, respectively. FTM positions in USAR units increased from 2,519 (2,073 USAR and 446 active Army) in fiscal year 1980 to 3,661 (2,923 USAR and 738 active Army) in fiscal year 1981. FORSCOM was authorized to apply 770 active Army spaces and 2,520 Army Reserve and Army National Guard spaces to the program in fiscal year 1982.

In addition to active Army and reserve component members, full-time support was provided by military technicians (federal employees occupying technician positions who must be members of the ready reserve as a condition for employment) and civil service personnel (federal employees other than military technicians). Under the congressionally directed test to determine the feasibility of using reserve component personnel on full-time duty in lieu of dual status civilian technicians, which ended 30 June 1980, 4,437 positions were converted (3,161 ARNG and 1,276 USAR). Because the Army was attracting enough personnel to meet its conversion goals, the budget was programmed for and Congress approved continued conversion in fiscal year 1981 of 2,836 (2,473 ARNG and 363 USAR) technician positions.

In order to pull the full-time support program together, a Full-Time Support (FTS) Force Management Plan (FMP) and Objective Force was designed. The FMP will consist of personnel management policies and numerical characteristics for each component of the objective force and will cover accession, professional development (including training and education), distribution and utilization, continuation, evaluation, promotion,


and separation (including retention in other programs). The plan will recognize the inherent differences between the USAR and ARNG work forces, as well as the various categories of personnel in the FTS programs (Active Guard/Reserve, military technician, civil service, and active component).

ODCSPER prepared a proposal to increase the number of additional unit-training assemblies authorized each year from twelve to twenty-four and to permit scheduling for administrative and support activities as well as for training. OSD had not acted on the proposal by the close of the reporting period.

The Army Reserve expanded its Long-Tour Management Program to cover over 5,000 USAR personnel serving full-time in Active Guard/Reserve status. They are working in a number of areas, including control and policy, career management, recruiting, retention, full-time manning, Army Reserve Technician Redesignation Program, JUMPS-SIDPERS, and reserve component projects. The greatest expansion was in the full-time manning program, which provides full-time support for reserve component units to increase their mobilization readiness.

In the first full year of operation, the National Guard Bureau's (NGB) Organizational Effectiveness (OE) program provided consultant support to National Guard units throughout the nation on a broad spectrum of organizational issues. More than 50 percent of OE field operations were conducted at the general officer level (separate brigade, division, and state headquarters). Several senior Army and Air National Guard officers attended training courses of the U.S. Army Organizational Effectiveness Center and School (USACECS), and forty ARNG general officer commanders participated in FORSCOM High Performance Programming Seminars.

The Office, Chief Army Reserve, gave additional focus to the myriad issues related to mobilization planning by establishing a Mobilization and Plans office on 1 April 1981. The office has worked with other mobilization agencies to resolve deficiencies uncovered in recent mobilization exercises, has participated in the preparation for future exercises, and has helped identify new issues relevant to real and potential mobilization situations.

At the Reserve Components Personnel and Administration Center (RCPAC), the Mobilization Plans and Requirements Office updated the five-year plan for personnel mobilization that it had issued early in fiscal year 1981, in light of comments submitted by the Army staff, FORSCOM, TRADOC, and DARCOM. This update ensured compatibility of efforts throughout the Army's personnel mobilization community. The plan set goals


and methods of achievement for each RCPAC activity and encouraged a cooperative effort to produce the best possible mobilization procedures.

RCPAC used separate systems to support personnel management of Army reservists, one for officers and one for enlisted persons. The pilot program for officers-The Officer Personnel System, the Army Reserve (TOPSTAR)-began in November 1974 under the direction of the Chief, Army Reserve. Its success led to the approval of the Officer Personnel Management System-U.S. Army Reserve (OPMS-USAR), which was fully implemented in three phases from fiscal year 1977 through fiscal year 1979. The pilot program involving 5,000 enlisted personnel began in fiscal year 1978. Another 40,000 were added by the close of fiscal year 1981; and 40,000 more will be added in fiscal year 1982. Full implementation of the enlisted system was scheduled for completion in fiscal year 1987, at which time around 280,000 enlisted reservists would be under active management. RCPAC added improvements to both systems during fiscal year 1981, and work continued on the development of a combined Officer En listed Personnel Management System (OEPMS).

Module I of SIDPERS-USAR (Standard Installation Division Personnel System) became operational during fiscal year 1981, replacing the Reserve Personnel Information Reporting System (RPIRS). In addition to the data processing support formerly provided by RPIRS, module I of SIDPERS-USAR contained a telecommunications link to the CONUS armies data base, an automated retirement point accounting subsystem, a consolidated data base that included all members of troop program units, and a limited interface with JUMPS-RC for data verification. Module II of the system was still being developed at the close of the fiscal year.

In April 1981 a detailed functional system requirement for SIDPERS-ARNG was completed. Later in the year, staffing for the project was arranged. SIDPERS-ARNG will be implemented in two phases, beginning in the fall of 1983.

The microfilming of reserve records (MICORR) to convert the Official Military Personnel File (OMPF) of all troop program unit and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) members to microfiche moved forward during the past, year. To date, RCPAC has filmed approximately 40,000 office personnel files on updatable microfiche using the transparent electro photographic process manufactured by the A.B. Dick Co. By the close of the fiscal year, RCPAC was concentrating on updating these records, while a private firm under contract to the Army was at work converting


86,000 officer and enlisted records down to the grade of E-6 to microfiche, which RCPAC will then maintain. About 275,000 records of personnel in grades E-1 through E-5 will be converted later.

In September 1979, FORSCOM submitted a mission element needs statement (MENS) for an automated data processing network that would link all levels of the reserve components unit command and functional structure and would provide more timely and accurate data on personnel and logistical readiness. Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), approved the MENS for the new network, which was called the Continental Army Management Information System (CAMIS), on 25 October 1979. Resources were obtained in the 1983-1987 Program Objective Memorandum (POM) and CAMIS, a Class III system under AR 18-1, Automation Management. The product manager charter required for a Class III system was prepared by FORSCOM, staffed from interested commands, agencies, and HQDA, and approved by the Assistant Secretary of the Army (IL&FM) on July 1981. As the fiscal year drew to a close, FORSCOM was preparing to staff a complete CAMIS office and to develop the system for fielding during fiscal years 1985 and 1986.

In a follow-up action to the Army Command and Control Study-1982 (ACCS-82), the Office, Chief Army Reserve (OCAR), with FORSCOM support, requested proposals to develop a comprehensive USAR Automation Management Plan (USARAMP). The main purpose of the plan would be to acquire and field automated data processing support for the USAR that could be integrated with active Army systems and to facilitate the transition to wartime operations. The BDM Corporation won the contract for developing the plan. Completion was scheduled for January 1982.


During fiscal year 1981 the status of ARNG equipment improved slightly, with the value of equipment on hand increasing by approximately $500 million. At the end of fiscal year 1981, the ARNG needed an inventory valued at $11.8 billion to meet full wartime mobilization requirements. To meet peacetime authorizations, the requirement was $10.4 billion. Equipment on hand was valued at $8.1 billion, leaving a shortfall of $3.7 billion from the wartime equipment requirement of $11.8 billion. On hand assets met 78 percent of the peacetime authorization and 69 percent of the wartime requirement.


The following shows the overall status of ARNG equipment at the close of fiscal year 1981.

Equipment Level    Dollar Value
Standard Prices
Requirement (mobilization)  
11.8 billion
Authorization (premobilization)  
10.4 billion
On hand assets  
8.1 billion
Percent fill (mobilization): All assets  
69 percent
Percent fill (authorization): All assets  
78 percent

The ARNG continued to modernize its logistics management capability. Eight ARNG divisions, thirteen separate brigades, and three round-out brigades were operating under the Division Logistics System (DLOGS), but they were using antiquated UNIVAC 1005 equipment which was difficult to maintain and probably could not be supported in a theater of operations. Extension of the DLOGS to the four remaining brigades has been deferred indefinitely because of a lack of computer hardware. Looking toward modernization, one nondivisional direct support unit has received the new Decentralized Automated Service Support System (DAS3). This system automates routine supply management and provides the commander with constant inventory visibility. DAS3 will be extended to an additional forty-eight ARNG Direct Support-General Support (DS-GS) units during the next two years. Replacement of the DLOGS (UNIVAC 1005) with the DAS3 system is scheduled for fiscal years 1985-1987.

ARNG materiel readiness programs were effective, and operational readiness rates for most equipment were comparable to the active Army. One problem area has been the increasing shortfalls in stock-funded repair parts. The fiscal year 1982 shortfall is projected to be $83 million. This has forced a decrease in the amount of repair parts stocked at United States Property and Fiscal Offices (USPFO), an increase in order and shipment times, and a reduced capability to support mobilization.

Increased use of equipment located at Mobilization and Training Equipment Sites (MATES) and Unite Training Equipment Sites (UTES) has placed considerable strain on the ARNG logistics system. Manpower ceilings and constraints on technician funding have forced a growing portion of maintenance to be performed by unit personnel rather than by technicians, which results in the loss of training time.

Funding for ARNG organizational clothing and equipment continued to be a problem during fiscal year 1981. Procured from


the Army Stock Fund, adequate amounts of unit support items, such as medical field sets, tentage, tool and test sets, chemical defense equipment supplies, fire direction sets, mounts and installation kits, winter clothing, safety items, sleeping gear, and camouflage screens, are critical to unit mobilization and deployment readiness. At the current programmed rate of support, ARNG clothing and equipment shortages (totaling over $518 million at the end of fiscal year 1981) will not be filled until fiscal year 1987 at the earliest. Problems in this area are compounded by budget constraints, rapidly rising costs, and increased sophistication in authorized items of military equipment.

Thirty-four items or weapons systems are planned for introduction into the ARNG during fiscal year 1984 through fiscal year 1988 under the Army's force modernization program. The number of new systems programmed for introduction include the UH-60 helicopter, the M 1 tank, the M 198 howitzer, air defense weapons, mortars, combat vehicles, and personnel armor systems for ground troops.

Force modernization in the Army Reserve also increased during fiscal year 1982 through restructuring, mission realignment, and equipment upgrade. Thirty-one new equipment items were earmarked for the USAR between fiscal years 1982 and 1991.

Army Reserve equipment assets at the close of fiscal year 1981 are indicated below:

Equipment Level    Dollar Value
 % on
Requirement (wartime)  
Authorization (peacetime)  
On-hand assets  


Facilities and Construction

The Army Reserve military construction program for fiscal year 1981 amounted to $46.9 million, including $3.7 million from a special appropriation to meet general construction needs in the reserve components. The total cost represented an increase of $16.9 million over the previous year's budget. The addition of $17.1 million in carryover funds brought the total amount available to $64 million, of which $50 million was obligated, leaving $14 million in carryover funds for fiscal year 1982. The construction program for fiscal year 1982 was budgeted at $39 million, and congressional action to increase this amount by ap-


proximately $25 million was anticipated. Total construction requirements have risen from $338.4 million at the end of fiscal year 1971 to $898 million this year. In addition to continued cost escalation, this increase is related to additional projects needed to replace obsolete or deteriorated facilities.

There were approximately 1,000 USAR facilities at the end of fiscal year 1981, ranging from permanent training centers to leased structures. Approximately 60 percent of the existing facilities were inadequate. Long-range military construction plans provide for replacement of deteriorated facilities, expansion of existing facilities to meet space requirements, and replacement of leased facilities with those that are government owned.

The Army National Guard military construction program received $42.3 million in new obligational authority in fiscal year 1981, an increase of $18.6 million over the fiscal year 1980 appropriation. Unobligated balances from prior years totaling $5 million brought the amount available to $47.3 million. Obligations for the year were $37.1 million, 78 percent of the amount available. During the year, contracts were awarded for 41 major projects totaling $30.3 million, or 87 percent of the amount programmed. This represented an improvement of over 6 percent when compared with the previous year. Major contracts included 19 armory projects and 24 nonarmory projects. Also awarded were 56 minor construction projects amounting to $4.8 million. Of the $740-million backlog of ARNG construction requirements, $651 million worth were identified as major construction projects.

Training and Readiness

The limited time allotted for training reserve component units to perform wartime tasks (thirty-eight or thirty-nine days per year) put a premium on developing and carrying out effective training programs that promote unit readiness and enhance individual proficiency.

The Battalion Training Management System, introduced in the reserve components in fiscal year 1980, has proved an effective tool in tailoring training to meet the specific needs of each unit. The Army Training Board, proponent of the system, conducted cadre course manager training for personnel at Army Readiness and Mobilization Regions, Readiness Groups, and Army Reserve Commands, who in turn ran numerous workshops on management concepts and principles for reserve component unit personnel. The knowledge brought back from the workshops


has helped unit commanders to select appropriate soldier manuals and Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) tasks, to establish priorities based on the importance of the tasks to the unit's preparation for performing wartime missions, and to determine whether training in these tasks should be accomplished during inactive duty training or annual training.

An evaluation of the Army reserve components' nuclear role, completed in January 1980, concluded that their artillery should have a dual nuclear-conventional capability. In response to the study, a working group composed of representatives from the Army staff and major commands recommended a number of actions to improve the administration and support of reserve component nuclear training programs. These actions led to an expansion of the affiliation program and the establishment in the Army National Guard of annual training assemblies to help artillery units attain and maintain a nuclear weapons proficiency equal to each unit's conventional readiness standards. FORSCOM Readiness Groups established nuclear weapons publications accounts and received responsibility for tactical nuclear training assistance. FORSCOM has been working with MILPERCEN to ensure that, whenever possible, personnel assigned to Readiness Group field artillery assistance teams have experience with nuclear operations. In addition, nuclear trainers have been assigned to nuclear weapon support units, and ancillary equipment has been redistributed based on the type and number of units being supported.

Reserve component specialized training included greater participation in command post exercises-WINTEX/CIMEX 81, LOGEX 81, and POTENT PUNCH 81-and in major field training exercises-BRIMFROST 81, OCEAN VENTURE 81, BORDER STAR 81, FLINTLOCK 81, SOLID SHIELD 81, and REFORGER 81. An additional 193 early-deploying reserve component units received deployment training in Europe and the Pacific during their annual two-week active duty training stint.

The number of USAR units or cells participating in overseas deployment training increased to 85. Of these, 78 went to Europe, 6 to Japan, and I to Korea. As the number of units deployed increased, the number of participants per unit decreased. This trend is expected to continue, and future deployments will probably involve an increase in participation by cells rather than by whole units.

Ninety-seven Army National Guard units or cells conducted annual training overseas. Many of the units trained with the commands to which they would be assigned under the CAPSTONE


program in the event of war. An additional twelve ARNG units or cells took part in the annual REFORGER field training exercise.

For the second time, a battalion-sized unit, 2d Battalion, 152d Infantry (M), 38th Infantry Division, Indiana ARNG, participated in the deployment program. The unit deployment from its home station to Europe, drew POMCUS equipment, took part in the REFORGER exercise, turned in POMCUS equipment and redeployed to its home station: The unit had a very successful training experience that is certain to add another dimension to its mobilization-deployment planning and training. For the first time an ARNG division headquarters took part in overseas deployment training. The Headquarters and Headquarters Company of the 38th Infantry Division deployed a tactical operations center (approximately 125 people) to Europe and participated in command post exercise CARRIAGE CLOCK, part of the overall REFORGER exercise. The 38th Infantry Division was hosted by VII Corps.

The National Guard Bureau, in coordination with FORSCOM, developed a new training initiative in fiscal year 1981 called the Key Personnel Upgrade Program (KPUP). Its objectives are to improve individual skills of key ARNG personnel through a one-on-one relationship with an active Army counterpart, to expose ARNG unit leaders and staff officers to active Army training and operational duties, and to foster Total Army policy through direct association between active Army and ARNG leaders. Despite limited funding, 200 personnel from ARNG divisions, combat brigades, and armored cavalry regiments participated in the new program. The response from both ARNG and active Army units has been positive, and plans are being developed to increase the program in fiscal year 1982.

Mobilization training for Individual Ready Reserve members progressed during fiscal year 1981, despite dollar constraints. Training included 6,669 mobilization augmentee or designee tours, 1,243 active duty site support tours, and 13,733 counterpart or school training tours.

Following the successful conclusion of a pilot program in 1978, the IRR aviation training program experienced steady growth in the number of aviators trained. In fiscal year 1980 the program covered 440 flying tours, 43 school tours, 102 mobilization designee tours, and 36 site support tours. In fiscal year 1981 participation increased to 500 flying tours, 78 school tours, 108 mobilization tours, and 52 site support tours. Approximately 450 aviators received training during the year, a figure that was expected to rise to about 800 per year by 1983. The program


has been successful in producing qualified copilots to fill active Army pilot shortages in event of mobilization and has reduced the requirements to train replacement aviators for the active Army, which costs over $100,000 for each new aviator.

In competitive sports, the USAR shooting team continued to strengthen its position as the dominant force in the field of competitive shooting in the United States. Of 95 major U.S. championships, including the National Gallery Championship, the Interservice International Championships, the National Rifle and Pistol Championships, and the U.S. International Shooting Championships, the Army Reserve won 40 titles. USAR shooters captured 9 of 14 places on the U.S. Air Gun Team, which competed in the world championships, and 16 of 57 positions on the U.S. shooting team, which will compete in the Championship of the Americas.

In the thirty-fourth annual Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers Congress and Military Competitions held in Oirschot, The Netherlands, 3-7 August 1981, U.S. reservists placed first and second in the overall category and first in the novice team category. Other team and individual accomplishments included best overall marksmanship team score, best overall combined obstacle course team score, best orienteering team score, as well as two second-place finishes in submachine gun and rifle and a first-place win in pistol.

The CAPSTONE program started the fiscal year with all major Army commands and subordinate commands in receipt of the FORSCOM Implementing Plan. All depicted organizational associations were formalized and all associated units had been informed of their assignments. Major commands of the active Army and reserve components conducted coordinated planning and established training associations keyed on inactive duty training and annual training. Major elements of the CAPSTONE organizations participated in command post exercises, field training exercises, and logistic and REFORGER exercises. The Overseas Deployment Training Program was keyed to CAPSTONE organizations. The expanded Affiliation Program linked more active Army units with their reserve component associates.

The Affiliation Program continued to be one of the most valuable tools in helping reserve component units to improve their readiness and deployment posture. The program started fiscal year 1981 with 90 battalions and 67 company- or detachment- sized units. During the year 11 battalions and 134 company or detachment-sized units were added. This expansion was the


first major step in aligning the Affiliation Program with CAPSTONE.

Recent developments during the year, including- CAPSTONE and the creation of the Rapid Deployment Force, made it advisable to take an in-depth look at the concept of affiliation before proceeding with further expansion. FORSCOM initiated such an analysis during July 1981.

The final report on the Rapid Mobilization for Direct Deployment to POMCUS (RAMDEP) was completed and submitted to HQDA and FORSCOM on 30 January 1981. RAMDEP exercises clearly demonstrated that direct deployment was feasible, but that many refinements would be needed before the concept could become a reality. In a follow-up action, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS) formed an ad hoc committee to develop an action plan to deploy reserve component units directly from their home stations. The committee consisted of representatives from the ODCSOPS, the Army National Guard Bureau, and the Office, Chief Army Reserve. By June 1981 the group had drafted direct deployment guidance for inclusion in the Army Mobilization Planning System (AMOPS). The guidance directed FORSCOM to develop direct deployment requirements and training and to select reserve component units for a direct deploying role. Nomination and selection of direct deploying units by FORSCOM is expected to be completed by June 1982.

Support to Civil Authorities

Fiscal year 1981 again saw the National Guard, in its role of organized militia, respond to the call from state authorities to help preserve and protect life and property and maintain order. This year 20,843 Guard personnel responded to 374 call-ups involving civil emergencies in forty-three states.

Guard personnel were placed on state active duty fourteen times to assist civil authorities in civil disturbance control operations. The calls involved eleven states and 5,122 personnel. These operations included 5 employee strikes, 5 civil disorders, and 4 potential civil disorders. Additionally, units were alerted to provide assistance in the event of a threatened postal strike.

During fiscal year 1981 there were 360 call-ups in forty states to assist civil authorities in dealing with other emergencies. Natural disasters accounted for 87 call-ups-46 forest fires, 19 floods, 9 snow and ice storms, 2 windstorms, and 11 tornadoes. Twenty-nine support missions were performed to preserve life


and protect property endangered by natural disasters. Included was the effort to eliminate the disastrous and elusive medfly in California, which caused massive damage to fruit crops there. Medical evacuation and support required 139 missions, and search and rescue operations involved 64 call-ups. Droughts and other water emergencies required 30 water hauls; and the presidential inaugural, security-traffic control, train wrecks, chemical spills explosions, emergency shelters, EOD (explosive ordnance disposal) support, and power outages accounted for the remaining 13 missions. A total of 15,721 National Guardsmen were called for duty in these areas.



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Last updated 17 September 2004