Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1984
Health and Medical Care
The Army of Excellence must have high quality medical care for its members. However, resource constraints make health care providers balance medical care against cost containment to provide the best care possible within given resources. The U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) introduced measures improving various programs-among them the Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) and the Tri-Service Medical Information System (TRIMIS)-that promised to lower costs and expenditures. The Office of The Surgeon General (OTSG) resorted to contracting, the joint services health benefits delivery program, and DOD/VA sharing to improve and expand primary care capability. Taken together these methods will provide a cost effective direct care system for Army military personnel and Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS) subscribers. AMEDD also reviewed CONUS Army psychiatric facilities to determine whether CHAMPUS beneficiaries could receive the same 'care as that received in civilian facilities, but at a lower cost. During FY 83, close to 17 percent ($138 million) of CHAMPUS hospital costs went to 18,416 admissions, mainly routine in nature, for inpatient psychiatric care. Adolescents and children accounted for 35 percent of. the admissions and were responsible for 65 percent of the CHAMPUS inpatient psychiatry hospital costs. AMEDD planned a trial adolescent inpatient psychiatric facility to provide the same services as those offered by civilian institutions.
AMEDD held quality assurance seminars in CONUS and Europe for hospital commanders, clinical services chiefs, and. training program directors, designed to improve health care treatment. In February FY 85, the initial formal training course for hospital quality assurance coordinators will be held in San Antonio, Texas. The AMEDD also completely revised its quality assurance regulations during FY 84, emphasizing the examination of a doctor's credentials before entry onto active duty to ensure that all military physicians meet professional medical standards before entering
the Army and treating military beneficiaries. Along with a continuing evaluation of quality assurance programs, this improvement enabled the Army to provide a high level of quality health care.
As a part of the Over-40 Medical Screening Program, soldiers older than 40 received a cardiovascular screening as part of their routine periodical medical examinations. Now in its third year, this screening analyzed seven potential risk factors: age, sex, blood pressure, smoking habits, fasting blood sugar, electrocardiogram results, and serum cholesterol levels. Physicians evaluated each soldier's screening data to determine safe participation in the Army physical readiness test. As of June 1984, a total of 49,208 soldiers had been screened with early detection of life-threatening cardiovascular disease, saving an estimated 1,186 lives.
The AMEDD successfully finished a twelve-month pilot health promotion program to increase military readiness. The Task Force on Fitness and the Organizational Effectiveness Consultants Division produced and assessed the effectiveness of a stress management program. Based upon the final results, a corporate fitness program will be established for all 4,500 military and civilian Army staff personnel in 1985. This program, designed to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of cultivating good health at the workplace, will determine, to a large extent, future federal personnel policies concerning fitness programs.
The Army implemented its new weight control program in FY 84 to enhance the health and physical fitness of the soldier. The AMEDD contribution was to furnish medical evaluation and body fat percentage testing. The program did decrease the number of overweight soldiers. Another related project conducted an extensive cross-sectional study of the correlations between weight and strength. The results will be used in future weight control and fitness programs. As a part of its program to deglamorize alcohol and reduce its use for health reasons, the Army prohibited all Army Club sponsored events, such as Happy Hour, which offered reduced pricing or unlimited alcoholic beverages.
The health hazard assessment program monitored the materiel acquisition decision process to identify, analyze, and suggest controls for potential dangers to the physical well-being of the Army's members. Its aim was to remedy health hazards before equipment and materiel reached the field. The Army investigated likely hazards such as excessive vibration of machinery, toxic exhaust gases, shock/recoil tolerances, toxic chemical leakage, radiation leakage, and excessive noise.
In the area of medical readiness, the AMEDD provided the chairman/DA member of the four service Military Field Medical Systems Standardization Steering Group. Composed of general/flag rank medical officers, the group agreed on the exclusive use of specific medical materiel sets and non-medical support equipment by all Deployable Medical System (DEPMEDS). One of the items of new nonmedical equipment, which the group approved as a component of DEPMEDS, was the standardized fabric-wall tent, extendable modular, personnel (TEMPER). It will replace the general purpose tents now in use, as well as the Medical Unit Self-Contained Transportable (MUST) inflatable shelters. Furthermore, MUST expandable shelters will be replaced by DOD rigid wall tactical shelters.
Besides modernizing the medical aidmen's bags to improve emergency field medical care for combat soldiers, the AMEDD standardized the number of items in medical assemblies that will reduce logistical work load and materiel losses due to expiration of drug potency. The AMEDD reconfigured the medical battalions that support all armor and mechanized divisions to the main support battalion and forward support battalion concept. Moreover, the new light infantry division received a new medical battalion that displayed increased mobility with fewer resources. In August 1984, the Army organized the 18th Medical Command to support the Eighth U.S. Army, Korea. Army planners also assigned a 200 bed combat support hospital to the Western Pacific to meet wartime contingencies. The AMEDD made significant progress in the aeromedical evacuation field as aeromedical evacuation units in Europe and. Korea received the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter ahead of schedule. By the end of calendar year 1984, all units in Panama will also be equipped and CONUS units will receive the Black Hawks beginning in 1985.
The primary mission of the Army Medical Department is to care for the health of the soldiers, especially during combat. The Army Medical Research and Development Command's two-fold mission is to study ways to prevent disease among troops and to improve their chances for recovery if wounded. During FY 84, the command successfully tried, on humans, a new recombinant oral vaccine for diarrheal diseases. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research investigators also worked to bring a malaria vaccine closer to reality and field tested new drugs in Thailand against heretofore multi-drug-resistant malaria. The command's researchers studied tank crews and infantry platoons using military operational protective gear to determine crew performance limitations in a chemical environment. Scientists also explored potential anti-chemical warfare agents, several of which showed promise.
The AMEDD's health care facilities contributed to active force readiness by providing health care, training health care providers, and supplying a fixed operating bed capacity for mobilization. At the beginning of FY 84, the health facility modernization program had 15 projects under construction with a value totaling over $422 million. The Army scheduled 14 projects for FY 85 with a value close to $164.8 million. A breakdown of AMEDD officer strength is shown in Table 36.
TABLE 36 - AMEDD OFFICER STRENGTH
|FY 83||FY 84||Change|
While the Army Medical Department treats the soldier's medical and mental well-being, Army chaplains minister to the soldier's spiritual needs. During FY 84, the chaplains attended several courses dealing with family counseling. Thirty-six chaplains were selected for resident instruction at civilian and military schools and more than 100 active duty chaplains were enrolled in Command and General Staff College nonresident courses as well as workshops on homilectics, multicultural ministry, and mobilization planning. Another 233 chaplains graduated from the Chaplain Basic Course and 97 from the Chaplain Career Course held at the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School.
Congress mandated, despite Department of Defense concerns of incapability with the civilian sector, a 4 percent military pay raise effective 1 January 1984. The fifth Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (Q,RMC) concluded in FY 84 by recommending enhanced military compensation, survivor benefits, and adjusting certain types of incentives, as well as special pay. The QRMC rejected the Grace Commission proposals because the latter would
lower individual entitlements and costs without improving the ability of DOD to meet defense requirements. The Q,RMC recommendations await review by the President and Congress.
Army Family Housing became an integral part of the Corps of Engineers Facilities Account during FY 84 as funding increased 27 percent over FY 83's level. Deferred Maintenance and Repair fell from $747 million to $635 million. Army Family Housing established a Consolidated Family Housing Office in Oahu to manage nearly 19,000 housing units for all services. During FY 84, the Army developed and deployed the Housing Operations Management System, a computerized method that automates installation housing functions. Furthermore, the Army awarded the first manufactured housing contract in USAREUR during FY 84. The Corps of Engineers continued to acquire more housing, both new construction and leased; to upgrade substandard units; to renew the aging inventory; to and reduce high cost housing.
The family housing new construction program (see Table 37) authorized the building of 865 housing units at a cost of $58,625,000 at eleven installations and one community center costing $7,3100,000.
TABLE 37 - FAMILY HOUSING NEW CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM
|Installation||Units||Cost Estimates (in thousands)|
|Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD||106||$6,816|
|Fort Greely, AK||38||4,633|
|Fort Stewart, GA||244||12,637|
|Fort Polk, LA||200||13,436|
|Aliamanu, HI (community center)||NA||7,300|
The Army authorized $1,002,000 to the Family Housing Post Acquisition Construction Program. These funds went to the program's two subprograms: $73,367,000 for improving 12,179 units in the line item improvement program and $26,623,000 for energy
improvements to 38,283 units under the energy conservation investment program.
During FY 84, the Army approved the following unaccompanied personnel housing accommodations:
|New Construction||4,955 persons|
|New Construction||3,971 persons|
Congress and DOD policies required all services to use all available local adequate community housing assets before acquiring additional government housing. To meet these policies, Headquarters, Department of the Army, developed the methodology for the Segmented Housing Market Analysis (SHMA) during FY 84. The SHMA provided a more precise accounting of available community assets and enhanced the Army's ability to justify the acquisition of housing units when the community's capability was inadequate.
Public Law (PL) 98-115 authorized pilot programs, ending at the close of FY 85, for providing family housing to the government. The Military Family Housing Leasing Program and the Military Housing Rental Guarantee Program sought to increase the number of housing units available for assignment or rental by military personnel and their dependents. Both programs had private contractors constructing dwelling units for long-term government use. Forts Hood, Polk, Campbell, and Rucker were test locations for these programs. The Army, because of congressional interest and direction, initiated a two-year study to determine the cost of upgrading and maintaining historical family quarters. Based on the conclusion of the study, the Corps of Engineers identified over 2,000 units requiring repairs and/or replacement over a five-year period.
Morale, Welfare, and Recreation
This area covers many disparate functions. During FY 84, 283 Child Development Services facilities (childcare), with a total of over 115,000 children, operated at 162 Army installations. Forty percent of the children were infants or toddlers and 62 percent lived on post. These day care operations raised morale of the soldier-parent and improved welfare by providing a safe place for military dependents to stay while their parents were on duty.
In October 1983, the Army again began operating slot machines, as a revenue source and recreational pursuit, in clubs and Armed Forces Recreation Centers in Europe, Japan, and Korea. Machines for Panama were installed in August of the same year. During the fiscal year, they brought in $16.2 million for NAF Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) projects.
The Clubs and Community Activities Management Directorate and TAGO developed a 30 hour course to teach managers and their staffs methods to operate a business successfully. Since its beginning in March 1984, the course instructed over 900 MWR managers and staffers from all TRADOC installations.
One hundred and sixteen performing units presented 3,133 DOD or combined DOD/USO performances at military installations throughout the world. Close to 525,000 personnel attended.
Fiscal year 1984 saw a large increase in nonappropriated funded (NAF) as well as MCA funded MWR construction due to past changes in MWR policies and procedures. Table 38 provides details.
TABLE 38 - CHANGES IN MWR POLICIES
|No. Proj.||$0.M||No. Proj.||$0.M||No. Proj.||$0.M|
Clothing and Personal Equipment
Three Army clothing and equipment boards met during the year. The CSA approved several of their recommendations, including reinstating the female garrison cap and phasing out the women's black beret; adding side pockets to the female slacks; adopting a Hot Weather Battle Dress Uniform; reducing the number of AG415 shirts and AG344 trousers in the clothing bag; modifying the Temperate Weather Battle Dress Uniform; and adopting a new black combat boot.
Under the Dining Facility Modernization Program, Major Army Commands identified 221 facilities requiring modernization during fiscal years 1984 to 1990 at a cost of $182 million. Ten facilities were modernized in FY 84 with 11 planned for FY 85 and 20 for FY 86. The remaining facilities will be renovated from FY 87 to FY 90.
A total of 1,113 dining facilities, including those 103 contractor-operated, provided meals worth $248 million during the fiscal year. In addition, the Army signed a contract with Burger King allowing it to open and operate fast food restaurants on its installations. This was the first such service-wide contract signed by the Army. Heretofore, each base or installation had approved its own contract for fast food services.
Commissary and Subsistence Operations
The U.S. Army Troop Support Agency, in coordination with the U.S. Army Health Services Command, installed the AMEDD Property Accounting System (AMEDD PAS) in the commissary system to improve property accountability. AMEDD PAS identified a substantial number of items of excess equipment in the stores. By transferring excess equipment to those stores planning to purchase it, the commissary system saved money, which will be used for construction.
Casualty and Memorial Affairs
On 3 April 1984, the Vice Chief of Staff directed ODCSPER to review the Army Casualty System and determine whether improvements were needed. After an extensive review, including discussions with other services as well as civilian coroners and morticians, DCSPER transferred the Casualty and Memorial Affairs Directorate. The Adjutant General Center, to the U.S. Army Military Personnel Center and redesignated it the Casualty and Memorial Affairs Operations Center (CMAOC), as of I July 1984.
The CMAOC partially solved a shortage of personnel to manage peacetime requirements by long-term assignment of Reserve Component personnel. It also improved its mobilization plans by identifying augmentation staffing requirements.
Two of CMAOC's organic units, Arlington National Cemetery and the Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILH) participated in the ceremony conducted for the burial of the Unknown Soldier from the Vietnam War. CMAOC also completed the concept design of the Permanent Visitor's Center and Parking Facility at Arlington National Cemetery. Casualty and memorial affairs statistics for FY 84 are shown below:
1. Service members who died on active duty 827
2. Retirees who died over 120 days after retirement 6, 176
3. Very seriously ill/seriously ill service members in overseas commands 407
4. Records of emergency data 718,228
1. Remains of CONUS active duty service members/dependents processed by Army 782
2. Remains processed through the six overseas mortuaries 834
3. Remains identified at Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii 9 (WWII: 1 SEA: 7 Current: 1)
4. Ground burial at Army post cemeteries 568
5. Ground burial at Arlington 2,791
6. Ground burial at U.S. Soldier's and Airman's Home National Cemetery 23
7. Cremated remains inurned at Arlington 955
8. Presidential exceptions to permit ground burial at Arlington 0
ODCSLOG continued work on a draft. revising FM 10-63, the basic graves registration field manual. Pending approval by all of the services, publication was set for no later than March 1985. It will be the first revision of FM 10-63 since 1959. In addition, ODCSLOG received funding approval for the purchase of $2 million of essential war reserve stockage graves registration materiel. Procurement will begin in FY 87.
This year, the Army commemorated the 40th anniversary of its invasion of Northwest Europe, which aimed to destroy Nazi tyranny. In a year of ceremonies to mark the momentous events of 1944, the memorial service on the Normandy Beaches was the highlight, since the President, the Secretary of the Army, and senior Army leadership attended. Units from CONUS and USAREUR supported the various observances.
Army Safety Program
During FY 84, FORSCOM and USAREUR developed model plans to use civilian safety professionals in major field training exercises. These safety professionals reviewed operations plans, performed risk assessments of training scenarios, and evaluated training to document the use of accident prevention techniques.
TRADOC established the TRADOC Privately Owned Vehicle Accident Prevention Program. This program was a multifaceted approach to preventing automobile accidents. It combined the
functions of military police, safety, club management, public affairs, chaplain, etc., and focused their efforts on a command-wide effort to reduce fatalities as a result of highway traffic accidents. As a result of an improvement in accident investigation procedures, the Army was able to improve the operational aspects of training, as well as enhancing equipment and maintenance procedures.
The Military Postal Service again provided full postal services to service members stationed worldwide during FY 84. Deployments to Central America, the Eastern Mediterranean, Grenada, the Indian Ocean, and Lebanon highlighted the flexibility of postal services to respond to new tasks and demonstrated again the importance of postal operations to troop morale. These operations, though not trouble-free, provided adequate postal support under a broad range of geographical, operational, and environmental conditions.
The Grenada operation and the destruction of the Marine Corps barracks in Beirut by a truck bomb led to Congress authorizing postage-free personal letter and sound-recorded mail for military personnel serving in those areas. Because of legislative enactments, the Military Postal Service Agency, at the end of FY 84, was working on an Executive Order that would determine who would identify free mail areas.
The Military Postal Service instituted ZIP+4 (the nine digit ZIP code) on 1 July 1984 and all stateside DOD activities finished their coding during the fiscal year. Coding of military post offices started during the year and will be finished by 31 March 1985.
Since the current DOD-USPS (United States Postal Service) Postal Agreement was signed in February 1980, the two agencies have negotiated the postage-free delivery of intratheater personal correspondence. After the Military Postal Service Agency estimated that USPS would lose nearly $1 million annually, the USPS decided to absorb the loss and agreed, on 27 January 1984, to the Intratheater Delivery Service. This service started on 2 April 1984. Restricted to personnel eligible to use the military postal service, the service delivers personal first-class letters, post cards, and audio cassettes weighing 12 ounces or less within the Atlantic, Latin America, and Pacific theaters. None passes through USPS channels and official, business, and commercial correspondence is ineligible for shipment.
The Institute of Heraldry accomplished the following during the year. This includes the reimbursement of $123,000 for services provided to non Army agencies.
|Manufacturing drawings, paintings, and illustrations||721|
|New items developed||225|
|Metal and textile items inspected||150,800|
The items listed below demonstrate the scope and variety of the Institute of Heraldry's work during the fiscal year:
1. For the Army:
U.S. Army Community and Family Support Center plaque, pin, and shoulder sleeve insignia.
National Guard Master Recruiter Badge Army Service Lapel Button
Army Research Institute Plaques
U.S. Army Triathlon Award (Designs)
2. For the Navy:
Thirty coats of arms for Navy ships
3. For the Air Force:
Two hundred artwork cases for organizational emblems
4. For other agencies:
Sculptured replica of the White House for use in the White House Press Room
Logo for the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee
Emblem for DOD Medical Examination Review Board
Emblem and Drawing of Flag for DOD Inspector General
Seal for Fifth U.S. Coast Guard District
Coat of Arms for U.S. Coast Guard Training Center, Cape May
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Last updated 8 March 2004