Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1985
Modernizing and Equipping the Army
in any environment is of the highest priority to the Army. Essential elements in achieving this capability are improvements and more effective utilization of existing equipment; fielding new, more advanced equipment; and a viable research and development effort to provide long-term flexibility. Care must be taken to make sure that there is a proper balance of equipment between heavy and light forces, combat and support units, and forward deployed and augmenting forces. In this regard, the decision has been made to acquire new weapons in battalion unit sets to ensure that necessary support equipment is on hand.
The unprecedented introduction of new arms and materiel to U.S. Army, Europe, continued throughout fiscal year 1985. More than 400 types of new equipment, including some 50 new weapon systems, are being fielded. This has not only bolstered the Army's capabilities and engendered high enthusiasm among the soldiers who use the equipment, but it has also permitted the transfer of high quality equipment replaced by the new items to later deploying units, especially among the reserve components, and improved their ability to train and carry out their mobilization mission.
The reserve components also received large quantities of new equipment, including the M 1 Abrams tank and the Bradley Fighting Vehicles. During fiscal year 1985 more than $1.5 billion in new and redistributed equipment was issued to the reserve components, as compared to $950 million in new and redistributed equipment deliveries the previous year. Over the next six years the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve will receive some $10.8 billion worth of modernized and redistributed equipment. Plans are now being carried out for the complete modernization of the reserve component tank fleet with the M1 Abrams or the M60A3 tank; the upgrade of all air
defense units with Roland, Chaparral, Improved Hawk, and Stinger missiles; and the modernization of all attack helicopter units with AH-1S Cobra/TOW or AH-64 Apache.
The Army paid increased attention during the year to finding better, more cost effective and more efficient ways to develop, procure, and field equipment. The Office of the Competition Advocate was created within the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (ODCSLOG) in January 1985 to improve competition among the contractors who supply the Army. The new office will recommend annual competition goals, approve plans for organization and personal accountability, oversee competition procurement training, and seek ways to eliminate barriers to competition. During fiscal year 1984, 42.3 percent of the Army's contracts were awarded competitively, compared to 41.6 percent the previous year, and 40.3 percent in fiscal year 1982.
At Department of Defense level, creation of the Office for Contracting Integrity within the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) was expected to strengthen that agency's ongoing efforts to curb contractor fraud and lead to even further debarments of firms because of fraudulent practices. During 1984 DLA debarred 132 contractors from doing business with the federal government and suspended another 80 firms. The 216 actions represented a 44 percent increase over the 150 actions taken in 1983.
NATO acceptance of the follow-on forces attack (FOFA) strategy early in the year gave increased impetus to a strong research and development effort. The new strategy envisages strikes deep into eastern Europe with new conventional weapons while keeping NATO's first priority of defeating the enemy's front line forces. It would require intensive development of so-called "emerging technologies," which would have applications in several areas of primary interest to the Army, including electronic war systems for helicopters, a terminally-guided weapon for the multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), autonomous precision-guided munitions for 155-mm. tube artillery, an advanced artillery locating system, a stand-off radar surveillance and target acquisition system, a medium-range remotely piloted vehicle for battlefield surveillance and target acquisition, and a short-range anti-radiation missile.
The sections which follow describe some of the more significant happenings this year in the Army's efforts to equip its forces and the research and development initiatives pursued to insure that modernization will continue into the future.
The M 1 Abrams tank program, now in its sixth year of production, moved forward as additional active Army and Army National Guard battalions converted to the Army's primary weapon system for closing with and destroying enemy forces. Production began during the year on the M 1A1 version of the Abrams, which will be equipped with a 120-mm. gun in place of the M1's 105-mm. gun, and which will also feature a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) over-pressure protective system. By 30 September 1985, 3,017 Abrams tanks had been produced. When production is completed in the early 1990s, almost 8,000 tanks will have been built, more than half of which will be M1Als.
Work continued during the year in upgrading the M60AI tank to an A3 configuration. Important improvements in converting A1s to A3s include the addition of a gun stabilization system, a laser range finder, a solid state computer and thermal shroud, and a thermal imaging sight. By the early 1990s the tank mix in both the active Army and the reserve components should consist of M60A3 and M1 and M1A1 tanks, and the older M48A5, M60, and M60AI series tanks will have been eliminated.
Complementing the Army's tank arm on the battlefield is the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems (BFVS). The infantry and cavalry versions of the Bradley, equipped with high-density, tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided TOW antitank systems, 25-mm. cannons, and 7.62 coaxial machine guns, provide high maneuverability and fighting "punch" for both daytime and night operations. Production of the BFVS has expanded to a rate in excess of 50 per month and fielding has been expanded. To date the 2d Armored Division, the 3d Infantry Division, and one Army National Guard battalion are equipped with the Bradley. To insure that the Bradley remains the finest infantry fighting vehicle in production, tests are being conducted to establish and improve the Bradley's ability to survive hits from weapons which overmatch its armor. The U.S. Army Ballistic Laboratory is in charge of testing, with user input provided by the U.S. Army Infantry School.
To assist the infantry, armor, and artillery on the battlefield, the Armored Combat Earthmover (M9) moved closer to fielding. After final testing at Fort Hood in the Spring of 1985, the Army leadership made a production decision. The M9 will provide support to both light and heavy forces.
The BFVS will replace selected M 113A2 Armored Personnel Carrier as a squad carrier and scout vehicle, because the tatter's mobility, firepower, and armor protection limitations make it less suitable as a fighting vehicle. But the M113 carrier fleet will continue to be upgraded for use in transporting troops, equipment, and cargo during combat operations. Currently this involves improvements in the cooling, heating, and suspension system to A2 status. Additional improvements to begin in fiscal year 1986 for the new M 113A3 version of the carrier will include new armor and other survivability items to increase crew protection, and an upgraded engine and transmission to accommodate additional weight.
The AH-64 Apache, the Army's first attack helicopter specifically developed for the day/night, adverse weather, anti-armor mission, is under production and fielding will begin in 1986. Its main armament will be the laser-guided Hellfire missile system. Successful Hellfire firings from the AH-64 Apache were completed at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, this year.
Complementing the Apache in the attack helicopter fleet is the AH-1S Cobra/TOW, which began service in 1977. This year efforts continued to upgrade the AH-1 to the "S" configuration, to provide the Cobra/TOW with a night firing capability, and to implement the Cobra Fleet Life Extension Program (C-FLEX), which provides for improved rotors, blue-green cockpit lighting, improved TOW reliability, and upgraded radios.
In other Army aviation matters, the Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) underwent successful operational tests and has entered production. The AHIP involves conversion of the OH58A observation helicopter to an improved scout helicopter capable of providing commanders a highly mobile, survivable, and responsive means to find the enemy, keep the enemy under surveillance, and provide command and control for attack helicopters and artillery. The LHX family, the Army's next generation of rotorcraft, will be designed to meet the requirements of the AirLand Battle and Army 21. They will replace the current Army fleet of Vietnam vintage AH-1, UH-1, OH-58, and OH-6 helicopters. The LHX will be developed around two basic configurations-a scout/attack (SCAT) model and a utility version. Both will share common engines and a fully integrated and automated cockpit arrangement. During the summer the $40 billion LHX program came under fire from congressional critics anxious to cut defense costs in the face of mounting federal deficits. Secretary of the
Army Marsh responded to the program critics by announcing that a final decision on the program had not been made and that less expensive alternatives were being considered.
Deployment of TOW-2 was completed in USAREUR, EUSA, and Panama. Deployment continued in U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM). Also, during the past year, a modification program that will enable the Improved TOW vehicle to fire TOW-2 missiles was completed and fielding of the Squad Automatic Weapon (M249) was suspended.
The Sgt. York Division Air Defense (DIVAD) Gun System was designed to counter the challenge posed by the proliferation of Soviet ground attack aircraft and antitank guided missile-launching helicopters. On 27 August 1985 the Secretary of Defense terminated the Sgt. York program. His decision was based on tests carried out earlier in the year which showed that the system's performance did not meet the growing military threat and that the marginal improvements provided by the system when compared to the capability of current air defense weapons were not significant enough to warrant continuing it. The Army immediately began to study future needs to provide forward area air defense.
The lessons learned from the Sgt. York experience proved that one weapon alone, or even multiple weapons acting independently, cannot defeat the air threat. The Army has worked with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to develop an effective and affordable program as quickly as possible to fill the void in the forward area. Ongoing Army programs are being combined with new technology to integrate weapons, sensors, and command, control, and intelligence architecture into an integrated, highly effective system to counter the entire spectrum of the air threat to the forward area through the 1990s and beyond. The Forward Area Air Defense System (FAADS) concept is designed to provide total coverage in the division area and permits the enemy no preferred attach option. The strategy relies heavily on nondevelopmental items (NDI) and preplanned product improvements (P3I) to rapidly overcome current air defense deficiencies and keep pace with the advancing threat.
The FAADS concept consists of weapons delivery elements tied together by a command, control, and intelligence (C2I ) network which integrates FAADS into the Army command and
control system architecture. The C2I initiative incorporates a family of sensors (ground and airborne, active and passive) with improved data processing and distribution capability. This subsystem will correct serious deficiencies in targeting, air defense operations, and command and control. The process to start full-scale engineering development for system software has been expedited along with the plan to execute an NDI strategy for the ground sensor. The full C2I system should be ready for fielding to divisions in fiscal year 1991.
The Nonline of Sight (NLOS) component will defeat HAVOC class helicopters and ground armored vehicles which are not visible to line of sight systems. The most promising candidate to accomplish this mission is a Fiber Optic Guided Missile (FOG-M), which is controlled through a fiber optic link from a ground station and is capable of locating and engaging targets by passing the seeker image through the fiber link to the remote gunner.
The Line of Sight-Forward-Heavy (LOS-F-H) component is designed to provide direct fire coverage and is capable of moving and surviving with forward battle elements. Industry solutions to this requirement have been evaluated. An ongoing cost and operational effectiveness analysis will assist in defining system requirements so that an NDI source selection demonstration can be held in fiscal year 1987, and fielding of the weapon to operational units can occur in fiscal year 1990.
The Pedestal Mounted Stinger solution to the Line of Sight-Rear (LOS-R) will consist of multiple Stinger missiles and a gun integrated on a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) to provide high firepower and mobile protection of the rear area assets of the divisions. Request for industry proposals is expected in mid-1986, and fielding of this component should occur in fiscal year 1989.
Various combined arms initiatives are being acquired for the air defense battle. These include air-to-air Stinger on the OH-58C/D initially and then potentially on a variety of platforms; improved air defense sights for the Bradley Fighting Vehicle and then other possible improvements to the sight, fire control, and gun rate of fire; and improved tank ammunition capable of both helicopter and tank engagements.
Patriot, the Army's new all-altitude missile system, will be the keystone of the Army's theater air defense. Its fast reaction capability, high firepower, and ability to operate in a severe electronic countermeasure environment are features not available in Nike-Hercules and Hawk, systems which Patriot will re-
place. Following a review of operational test results that confirmed the system's reliability, software, and electronic countermeasure capabilities, and a determination that adequate logistical support was available, the first Patriot battalion deployed to Europe this year. A total of 103 Patriot systems will be procured, 14 of which will be provided to German forces. Germany will purchase an additional 14 systems and the Netherlands has purchased 4.
The proven Improved Hawk missile continued as the mainstay of the Army's low to medium altitude air defense. Ongoing and planned improvements to the system include measures to increase performance in an electronic jamming environment, emission control modifications to reduce radar exposure to enemy antiradiation missiles, an optical tracking system that provides an alternate means of tracking targets, and a low altitude simultaneous engagement capability for use in saturation raids. Design modifications and testing will be initiated in 1986 with delivery of modification kits projected to the field in 1988.
A number of improvements are under way to maintain the effectiveness of the Chaparral, the short-range air defense (SHORAD) surface-to-air missile system, through the 1990s. These include use of a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) night sight to provide the Chaparral night and some adverse weather target acquisition capability, and an improved missile guidance system to enhance capabilities against infrared countermeasures.
The Stinger, a shoulder-fired, infrared homing missile system, provides air defense coverage to even the smallest combat units. It has been operationally deployed in Germany since 1981 and is replacing the Redeye system. This year plans moved forward for deploying a more advanced system (Stinger-Post) in fiscal year 1987, at which time a reprogrammable microprocessor will also be incorporated in the Stinger.
Pershing II, a modular, evolutionary improvement to the Pershing IA ballistic missile system, began deployment to Europe in December 1983. New motor stages and a terminally guided reentry vehicle gives the Pershing II more than twice the range as well as improved accuracy over the Pershing IA. Deployment to Europe continued on schedule during the first part of the fiscal year 1985, but a fatal incident involving the accidental burning of the first stage rocket motor of a Pershing
II near Heilbronn, West Germany, in which three .U.S. soldiers died and nine were hospitalized, caused modifications in training. The cause of the accident was identified as electrostatic discharge. Fielding of the Pershing II was expected to be completed in December 1985, as scheduled.
This marked the third year of fielding for MLRS batteries. The system supplements cannon artillery by delivering large volumes of firepower (improved conventional submunitions) quickly against enemy targets. Germany, one of five partners developing the MLRS, is working on a scatterable mine warhead for the system. Codevelopment with France, Germany, and the United Kingdom of a terminal guidance, warhead to defeat armor has begun.
Procurement of the M109A2 Self-Propelled Howitzer was completed in 1985. The M109A3 Howitzer, a depot conversion of the older M109AI configuration, is equivalent to the M109A2. Modifications to the M109A2/A3, which should extend the effectiveness of the system to the year 2000, include improvements in reliability, availability, maintainability, the addition of a capability to operate in a nuclear, biological, and chemical environment, improved armament, and the incorporation of electronics, communication, and a ballistic computer.
Fielding of the Battery Computer System (BCS) to artillery batteries continued on schedule in 1985, and a product improvement plan was initiated to expand the system's memory. It is capable of stand-alone operations or of accessing the battalion-level TACFIRE system. It will also be able to function with the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS), which will replace TACFIRE.
The M981 fire support team vehicle (FISTV), a modified M 113A2 armored personnel carrier, gives field artillery fire support teams the capability to direct rapidly mortar, artillery, and air-delivered fire support using any of its four radios; and to designate targets for laser-guided munitions such as Copperhead and Hellfire. Delivery of the first production model of the FISTV was made in December 1984.
In other fire support actions, production of the field artillery ammunition support vehicle (FAASV) continued and deployment is scheduled for next year; the Ground/Vehicle Laser Locator Designator (G/VLLD) entered full-scale production; fielding of the Firefinder artillery locating radar (AN/TPQ-37) and mortar locating radar (AN/TPQ-36) continued; and the
delivery rate of the Copperhead 155-mm. cannon-launched guided projectile was increased.
The Aquila remotely piloted vehicle (RPV), a small propeller-driven, automatically controlled, pilotless aircraft, is designed to fly in hostile territory and locate targets, allow adjustment of artillery fire from remote distances, and laser-designate targets for destruction by laser-seeking artillery or missiles. It will also have the capability to perform reconnaissance, damage assessment, and other functions. The RPV is currently in engineering development, where some difficulty has been experienced due to the highly sophisticated tasks expected of it.
The Joint Starts Radar System will locate and track moving targets at extended ranges on the Army 21 battlefield. It will provide target location updates for indirect artillery fire and the in-flight guidance required for longer range missiles. Elements of the program are in full-scale engineering development and a contract for a limited production of the ground station should be awarded this year.
Quick Fix is a tactical, helicopter-borne jamming system configured for use in the EH-1H, EH-IX, and EH-60A helicopters. Each aircraft will be capable of intercepting and jamming radio communication. The EH-IX and EH-60 versions will also be able to locate communication transmitters. Several interim EH-IH systems were fielded this year; the interim EH-IX system is in production; and the EH-60 Quick Fix is in development.
The Army continued work on the chemical stockpile modernization program during the year. The binary chemical DF facility was completed for the 155-mm. binary chemical projectile. Meanwhile, advanced development on the MLRS binary chemical warhead continued. Chemical stockpile modernization remains a critical element in ensuring that the U.S. regains a credible chemical warfare deterrent.
The chemical demilitarization program continued with the construction of a BZ disposal plant at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. Demilitarization planning has now been expanded to include destruction of the entire unitary chemical stockpile.
The Army continued efforts to improve the defensive aspects of deterring chemical warfare. It completed development of portable collective protection systems for use in existing
structures and continued developing an improved protective mask. A fully tracked armored smoke carrier which provides large area smoke screening on-the-move was type classified standard.
Improved nuclear projectiles for U.S. and NATO cannon artillery units deter conventional and nuclear attack and provide a means of responding flexibly to attacks should deterrence fail. Production of the improved eight-inch (W79/M753) nuclear projectile, begun in 1981, continued this year. And while Congress had blocked efforts to produce the improved 155-mm. (W82/XM785) nuclear projectile in fiscal year 1984, the fiscal year 1985 DOD Authorization Act, signed into law on 19 October 1984, restarted this important program subject to certain conditions. These included placing a cap of 925 on the number of modern nuclear projectile warheads (W79 and W82) that could be produced; imposing a production cost limit of $1.1 billion for the warheads; prohibiting production of an enhanced radiation version of the warheads; placing special emphasis upon improvements in the safety, security, range, and survivability of the warheads; and delaying production on the W82/XM785 improved 155-mm. nuclear projectile until the Secretary of Defense submitted an implementation plan to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also, replacement of obsolete artillery fired atomic projectiles in Europe with the improved warheads would have to be carried out within the nuclear stockpile limits agreed to by the NATO Defense Ministers in October 1983, which required withdrawal of 1,400 tactical nuclear warheads from the European stockpile in addition to the 1,000 warheads withdrawn in 1980.
The Secretary of Defense submitted the required implementation plan in February 1985, thus opening the way for resuming engineering activities for the XM785 nuclear projectile. The Department of Energy resumed preproduction activities in August 1985.
Combat Service Support
Fielding of the UH60-A Black Hawk helicopter, the Army's replacement for the UH-1 "Huey" in air assault, air cavalry, and aeromedical evacuation missions, continued throughout the fiscal year. The Black Hawks were grounded in the spring following two fatal crashes that took the lives of fourteen soldiers and a civilian instructor pilot. One of the accidents was
caused by failure of the rotor blade spindle resulting from metal fatigue. Corrections have been made to insure that the spindles do not fail in the future, and the Black Hawks were flying again by midsummer.
The CH-47D Chinook helicopter, the Army's medium-lift helicopter, was also grounded during the year following a crash which did not involve the loss of life. This incident was caused by mechanical failure of the aft transmission. The upgrade of CH-47A, B, and G models to an improved D configuration continued throughout the year. The improvements include new fiberglass rotor blades, a new transmission and drive system, modularized hydraulics, a new electrical system, advanced flight controls, a trip hook cargo system, and an auxiliary power unit. These improvements should result in better reliability, maintainability, productivity, and survivability.
The HMMWV and the commercial utility cargo vehicle (CUCV) are complementary, light load carrying vehicles which will replace the current fleet of M880s, Gama Goats, Mules, and Jeeps. The HMMWV, after undergoing extensive initial production and user testing, was released to Army units, with initial fielding at 9th Infantry Division. Initial quality problems associated with the CUCV appear to have been resolved and fielding of the vehicle continues.
The Army's heavy load fleet is being updated with the new ten-ton, eight-wheel drive heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT). The new truck is an assemblage of commercial components which meets high priority ammunition and fuel transport needs for the MLRS, Patriot, and Pershing II (CONUS). The HEMTT satisfactorily completed its third production test in December 1984 with high marks for substantially stronger front and rear axles and new cranes.
The Logistics Unit Productivity System (LUPS), an ODCSLOG initiative significantly changing the way the Army performs its logistics mission, will significantly increase per capitz combat service support (CSS) productivity when key CSS units convert from a labor-intensive Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE) to an equipment-intensive TOE. Materiel items required to convert these units are being procured under management of ODCSLOG.
Soldier support covers items that directly support the individual soldier. This includes organizational clothing and indi-
vidual equipment, chemical and biological defense equipment, night vision devices, and individual weapons.
Improved items of clothing are currently under development that will enhance the soldier's ability to carry out his or her mission, maximize survivability, and minimize stress and encumbrance. Future development will focus on better cold and hot weather clothing, and improved individual clothing and equipment for protection against noise, fire, blast overpressure, nuclear flash, and chemical agents.
Chemical-biological defense (CBD) equipment is being developed to ensure survival on the chemical-biological contaminated battlefield and reduce the severe degradation to mission accomplishment which the present gear causes. CBD equipment development and acquisition includes the NBC protective mask, NBC protective clothing, collective protection, detection and warning, and decontamination equipment.
Night vision devices allow the individual soldier to function as well at night as during day operations and under conditions of haze, fog, and smoke. Future technology will focus on reducing the life cycle cost of these devices, miniaturization, and weight reduction.
Individual weapon improvements are also an important segment of the soldier support mission. Improvements in the M16A2 rifle permit the use of NATO's standard 5.56-mm. round. The Advance Combat Rifle, currently in the technology phase of development at the Armament Research and Development Command, should be ready for fielding around the year 1995. It is expected to provide a significant improvement in performance over the M16 rifle. A contract has recently been signed with Beretta, U.S.A., to replace the aged .45-caliber pistol with a 9-mm. handgun which will fire NATO standard 9mm. ammunition. The new handgun will be more accurate, reliable, and more effective than the revered .45-caliber pistol due to dual action firing mechanisms and ambidextrous safeties.
Return to Table of Contents
Last updated 4 March 2004