Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1994
Highlights of the Army's Activities
In fiscal year (FY) 1994, the Army faced exacting challenges and wide-scale transition. As the service continued post-Cold War downsizing and force reductions, it encountered increasingly varied obligations and missions. Secretary of the Army Togo D. West, Jr., registered grave concern that "as the Cold War has ended, the world has become a more complex and dangerous place. Our daily commitments now encompass disaster relief along the banks of the Mississippi and in Georgia, peacekeeping operations in Somalia, humanitarian assistance in Rwanda and Zaire, and a deterrent presence on the Korean peninsula." The Army witnessed a 300 percent increase in operational deployments after the end of the Cold War, with soldiers and civilians deploying to more than seventy countries in 1994. While the Army continued downsizing, soldiers, civilians, and units faced the prospect of being sent on repeated deployments to carry out combat operations and operations other than war.
A steep decline in resources threatened to aggravate the difficulties of responding to a variety of complex and dangerous challenges. Financially, the Army's Total Obligation Authority (TOA) dropped 36 percent between FY 1989 and FY 1994. The service's share of the Department of Defense (DOD) budget also decreased over the same period. With shrinking budgets and fewer resources, Army leaders faced difficult choices between supporting operational readiness programs and making needed investment in modernization programs in order to sustain a high-quality force.
Army leaders chose to advance planned personnel cuts to preserve some crucial modernization programs, such as the RAH-66 Comanche armed reconnaissance helicopter and the self-propelled 155-mm. Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS). The Army's rationale for pursuing this course was explained by the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS). He stated that "we have learned the cost of letting the Army's modernization programs stagnate between wars in the past. We have also learned that the cost, in terms of soldiers' lives, is
too high to do so again." Meanwhile, the budget submission for personnel provided for a reduced active component strength of 540,000 soldiers and 341,177 civilians by the end of FY 1994. This figure represented an additional reduction of 35,000 soldiers from the revised FY 1993 active duty end strength and 15,800 civilians from the 1993 strength.
Army leaders faced a major problem in keeping readiness programs adequately funded throughout the year. Contingency operations in particular presented special resource challenges because they were funded from operating accounts. Unanticipated resource challenges led to a pejorative ripple effect throughout the Army. The Army canceled training, reduced vehicle and equipment maintenance, restricted spare parts purchases, and deferred real property maintenance. These actions adversely affected readiness, modernization, and quality-of-life programs.
Recognizing that eradicating unnecessary obstacles to service increases readiness, the Army undertook significant measures in FY 1994 to expand opportunities for women. The role of women enlarged due to a change in DOD policy. In response to guidance from the Secretary of Defense to the services to open more specialties and assignment opportunities to women, active Army representation of women grew to 13 percent by the end of the fiscal year, up 0.5 percent from the start of the year.
Another way of boosting readiness was to make progress in preventing and eradicating sexual harassment and racial and ethnic discrimination. The service continued to examine ways to reduce sexual harassment and complaints of racial and ethnic discrimination. The Army also sought to address better the issue of homosexuals in the Army by implementing new homosexual conduct policy. Under the new policy, sexual orientation will not be a bar to service unless manifested by homosexual conduct. Although homosexual conduct may be a basis for rejection for enlistment, appointment, or induction, the Army will not ask or require its applicants to reveal their sexual preference.
During the fiscal year the Army recognized the need to take significant steps in its transformation from a forward-positioned Cold War army of eighteen active divisions to a power-projection force of twelve active divisions based largely in the United States. In breaking away from the Cold War mold, the Army faced the imposing task of reducing itself in size and placing more responsibility for support on the reserve components. The Army worked to forge a new partnership with the reserve components, one that better leverages the strengths of the Army National Guard (ARNG) and the United States Army Reserve (USAR). The DCSOPS underscored the importance of this new partnership in noting that "central to the Army's ability to execute future missions is improved access to the reserve components." Under terms of a major restructuring agreement, the Guard would continue to provide the US. Army's principal combat
reserve forces, with combat service and combat service support units divided between the Guard and the Army Reserve. To improve the Guard's ground combat capability, the Army plans to associate fifteen enhanced brigades from the ARNG with active units for training. ("Enhanced" units are those that will receive sufficient resources and training to enable them to begin deploying to a crisis within ninety days of mobilization.)
Perhaps more important than redefining the relationship between the active and reserve components, the Army moved from being a threat-based force to a capabilities-based force; and from an army with roots in the industrial age to an army actively exploring the promise of the information age. As the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA), looked to the future, he held the conviction that information-age technology would revolutionize the way the Army conducts military operations. In line with this reasoning, the Army began establishing the conceptual foundations for a future information-age force called Force XXI. At the heart of the Army's vision for Force XXI was the belief that in the future information will be almost as important as ammunition. In its desire to produce a future force that can achieve decisive victory, the Army began developing plans to overmatch its adversaries by integrating state of the art information technologies with its weapon systems. This integration is called digitization. The mission of overseeing and coordinating the integration of Army battlefield digitization activities went to the newly created Army Digitization Office (ADO). Efforts to develop Force XXI represented the first step in a dramatic move toward reconceptualizing and redesigning the Army at all echelons.
Along with efforts to adopt postindustrial technology, the Army revised its modernization concepts. Army modernization was no longer about systems but about capabilities. The Army made the initial steps to bring the power of the information age to logistics and sustainment. Working with the Air Force and the Navy, the Army initiated strategic mobility programs vital to the nation. Operational planning concepts based on force generation, adaptive planning, and innovative force packaging from readiness pools became hallmarks of the post-Cold War transformation.
Fielding new and improved management and information systems also played a pivotal role in facilitating the Army's transition to a more efficient post Cold War power-projection force. The fielding of the Replacement Operations Automation Management System (ROAMS), which better manages personnel flow in military operations and emergencies, and the improved Mobilization Manpower Planning System (MOBMAN), which better supports mobilizations and planning in personnel management, highlighted the trend in major management and information initiatives during the year.
As the Army changed, the role of Army installations also changed. Recognizing the long-standing need to improve the efficiency of instal-
lation management, the Army created the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (OACSIM) in FY 1994. More than ever, installation readiness had an important impact on Army readiness. Army installations became power-projection platforms from which forces are launched and supported in the field. Installations directly supported the Army's ability to recruit and retain high-quality soldiers and civilians, to train and maintain the force, and to project and sustain the force. Recruitment and retention of high-quality soldiers and civilians are directly related to high-quality housing; medical support; morale, welfare, and recreation facilities and activities; post exchanges; commissaries; and family programs. The training and maintenance of the Total Force are tied to the ability of Army installations to provide ranges, training facilities, simulators and training devices, general support maintenance, and depot maintenance and repair, as well as other vital logistical support.
To augment installations as power-projection platforms, the Army invested in rail and airfield upgrades, improved warehousing capabilities, and upgrades to other deployment facilities. Despite these investments,repeated underfunding in base operations adversely affected Army installations during the fiscal year. Installation commanders continued the practice of diverting funds from operational tempo (OPTEMPO) accounts to pay for essential services.
Environmental stewardship remained a high priority for the Army in FY 1994. The service spent $1.7 billion in this important area, a sum equal to 53 percent of the amount the Army spent on OPTEMPO. Guided by an environmental strategy emphasizing compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation, the Army continued to make progress in the protection and preservation of natural and cultural resources.
During the fiscal year the Army continued to transform its financial management practices to conform to the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990. As the first pilot project participant in the DOD, the Army broke new ground with initiatives that revised physical inventory policy, valuation of assets, identification of outcome-oriented performance measures, and management control. Readiness underscored the Army's focus throughout this process.
The Army also made significant advances in changing its business practices. In implementing initiatives of the National Performance Review (NPR), the Army made a concerted effort to cut red tape by waiving restrictive regulations that impeded good business practices. The Army moved ahead in eliminating nonproductive costs and improving the development, testing, acquisition, and fielding of new systems. During FY 1994, off-the-shelf, nondevelopmental items were being purchased at significant savings over the old, red-tape-encumbered system.
National Military Strategy
In July 1994 the Clinton administration issued the new National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. This document recognized that the end of the Cold War fundamentally changed America's security imperatives, bringing more diverse dangers in the world than in the past while providing unparalleled opportunities to make the United States safer and more prosperous. Focusing on these threats and opportunities, the new strategy's goals concentrated on sustaining national security with military forces that are ready to fight, to bolster America's economic revitalization, and to promote democracy abroad. The document envisioned making a difference in the world through engagement, carefully tailored to serve U.S. interests and priorities, and enlargement, fostering the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to the United States, its allies, and American interests. There are three central components of the strategy: to enhance U.S. security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures, to work to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth, and to promote democracy abroad. US. military capabilities are critical to the success of this strategy, which envisions robust and flexible military forces that can deal with major regional contingencies, provide a credible overseas presence, counter weapons of mass destruction, contribute to multilateral peace operations, and support counterterrorism and other national security objectives. A trained and ready, highly versatile Army is key to achieving these national goals.
As the United States moved from a Cold War strategy of containment to a post Cold War strategy of engagement and enlargement, the Army remained focused on maintaining a well-armed, well-trained, and ready strategic force, serving the nation at home and abroad, capable of decisive victory. That vision guided the Army in its efforts to surmount the many challenges that lay ahead.
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Last updated 19 December 2003