Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1994


Support Services

Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR)

The Army Family Action Plan (AFAP) provides a process in which the Army monitors and improves the quality of life for all Army members (active duty soldiers, reserve component soldiers, retirees, Department of the Army civilians, and family members). As part of the AFAP process, forums or symposia develop and set priorities for issues, a steering committee reviews progress on resolution of the issues, and an AFAP document provides feedback to the community. This program operates at installation, major command (MACOM), and Headquarters, Department of the Army, levels.

Each October the Army hosts a worldwide AFAP conference in Washington, D.C., where after a week of working group meetings delegates present their key issues to the Vice Chief of Staff, Army. Because these issues reflect the prominent forces and stresses faced in units and communities throughout the Army, the AFAP enables the Army's leaders to identify and deal with important influences on readiness and retention.

The Army MACOMs submitted ninety-seven issues of concern during FY 1994 for review at the October 1994 AFAP Planning Conference. One third of the issues involved pay, entitlements, and retiree benefits. Approximately one-fourth of the issues dealt with topics related to force support. Soldier education was the primary focus of the conference, and one-fifth of the issues addressed medical and dental concerns such as access to care, health care at closing installations, and expanded dental insurance.

Conference delegates gave twenty-seven issues priority as key concerns and elevated them to the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA), to be approved for action by the Army Staff. A vote of the 130 delegates in attendance at the conference told the Army's leaders that the major concern of the Army's members in 1994 was insufficient pay. The rest of the "Top Five" issues for the 1994 AFAP were survivor benefits for service-connected deaths, the computation of child care fees, the erosion of retiree and survivor health benefits, and Army family and retiree access to military and


civilian health services. Other key issues were the shortage of funding for housing and barracks, substance abuse and violence among Army youth, and increased commissary access for the reserve components.

In FY 1994, during its first full year of operation, the MWR Board of Directors assumed an active leadership role, providing vision and direction to steer Army MWR toward growth and financial stability. The MWR Board of Directors is composed of the Army's commanders for U.S. Forces, Korea; U.S. Army Forces Command; U.S. Army, Europe; U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command; U.S. Army Materiel Command; and U.S. Army, Pacific. Meeting biennially, the Board of Directors is responsible for approving major MWR management strategies, plans, and programs.

During the year, a period characterized by downsizing and diminishing resources, the MWR Board of Directors supported four major initiatives. First, the Board established financial standards to serve as bench­marks for MWR programs and encourage fiscal responsibility at all levels of operation. These standards were designed to help commanders by identifying appropriated fund levels of support for mission-essential programs and establishing nonappropriated fund fiscal goals. These standards provided a uniform method of evaluating local financial performance. Second, the Board produced the Army MWR Vision for the 21st Century and the Army MWR Strategic Action Plan. Taken together, these two documents set forth goals, objectives, and actions designed to ensure that MWR becomes a customer-driven program managed with business-like practices. Third, the Board conducted a standard patron survey to support MWR triennial needs assessment. Over the next two years and once every three years thereafter, each installation and the Army as a whole will have valid marketing research data upon which to base program innovation and modification. Fourth, the Board supported adoption of an automated information system, which will enhance the manager's ability to collect, process, and store the financial and operational data needed to optimize programs. This computer-based system will be funded centrally at a cost of $40 million and fielded at every installation in the Army.

The Army Family Team Building Program was designed to provide training for soldiers, deployable civilian employees, and family members to enable them to cope better with the stress of deployment and family separation. In 1992, as a result of lessons learned from the Persian Gulf War, a diverse working group, representative of the Army, convened to examine options that might reduce the demands and frustration of deployment and family separation. The working group recommended that soldiers, deployable civilians, and family members receive training in the expectations of military life, as well as their individual responsibilities, for self and family preparation. This concept, called Army Family Team


Building, was approved in February 1993 by the CSA. The program has three purposes: to improve overall readiness of the force by teaching and promoting personal and family readiness through progressive and sequential education; to assist the Army in adapting to the changes from reduced budgets and downsizing; and to respond to family issues using lessons learned from recent deployments.

Army Family Team Building training for soldiers was introduced into the Army Training and Doctrine Command school system in November 1993. Training for civilians began in April 1994. Family member training (for active, National Guard, Army Reserve, and civilian family members) began in June 1994. Successful implementation of the Army Family Team Building Program ensures that all members of the Army are better informed about Army missions and the expectations of military life, readiness responsibilities during separation and deployment, and systems available to support more self-reliant, independent, and self-sufficient lifestyles.

The Army Community and Family Support Center (CFSC) established a Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers (BOSS) program to address the needs of single soldiers in 1989. BOSS is the communication link between single soldiers, including single parents and geographic bachelors, and the command. Through BOSS, soldiers address single-soldier concerns through the chain of command and provide valuable input to the command.

The BOSS program made tremendous strides in FY 1994 as the CFSC staff conducted and participated in a variety of events. At the fourth annual Army-wide BOSS training conference in November 1993, CFSC and civilian instructors trained more than 120 soldiers, senior noncommissioned officers, and civilian program managers. During May 1994 a Commissary Patron Awareness Program was launched at 15 installations to familiarize young soldiers with savings that can be realized by shopping at commissaries. The CFSC staff conducted formal BOSS training for 180 soldiers at twelve posts, and by the end of September 1994 BOSS programs were in operation at all installations with garrison populations of more than fifty single soldiers.

Food Service

In March 1994 the MWR Board of Directors endorsed plans to reverse losing trends in club operations through the adoption of brand-name food and beverage establishments. In May 1994 at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, a contractor conducted the first of a series of food, beverage, and entertainment assessments. Similar assessments were conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado, and Fort Lee, Virginia. These assess-


ments contributed to the decision to introduce brand-name food and beverage establishments to club operations.

An initial list of brand-name food and beverage establishments was developed by a group from the CFSC and the MACOMs, later formalized as the Food, Beverage, and Entertainment Steering Committee. Food and beverage brand-name establishments included Primo's Italian restaurant (pizza, pasta, and subs); Sam's Roadhouse restaurant (steaks, ribs, and chicken); the Main Street restaurant (regional American cuisine); Reggie's (deli-style sandwiches and specialty burgers); and a sports arena/high energy nightclub. On 15 June 1994, Primo's, with seating capacity of 152, opened at Fort Hood, Texas, becoming the first of the Army's brand-name restaurants. Primo's was a cooperative effort of Fort Hood, U.S. Army Forces Command, and the Community and Family Support Center.

In July 1994 the Executive Committee of the MWR Board of Directors approved $1 million in new-venture funding to support the development of brand-name food and beverage establishments at Army installations. Funds would become available in FY 1995 and be limited to $200,000 per project with at least an 80 percent/20 percent split between the Army MWR Recreation Fund and the installation. Installations desiring to compete for the FY 1995 new-venture funding were advised to submit their requests to be reviewed and rated by the Steering Committee, which is scheduled to meet in December 1994.

Health and Medical Programs

During FY 1994 the provisional U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) began merging the functions of the Office of the Surgeon General and the Health Services Command. The merger represented a move toward a more accessible, deployable, accountable, and integrated Army Medical Department (AMEDD). As part of the Army's streamlining and downsizing efforts, the Army redesignated and reorganized the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (USAEHA) as the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) on 1 August 1994, with a provisional status and a commanding general. The USAEHA had supported the worldwide preventive medicine programs of the Army, the Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies through consultations, supportive services, investigations, and training. USACHPPM assumed command and control over USAEHA, which included USAEHA, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland; USAEHA District Support Activity-North, Fort Meade, Maryland; USAEHA District Support Activity-South, Fort McPherson, Georgia; and USAEHA District Support Activity-West, Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Colorado. In addition, USACHPPM assumed the mission funds and assets


within the Division of Preventive Medicine, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.; assumed control over the Army Pacific Environmental Health Engineering Agency in Sagami, Japan; assumed control of the 10th Medical Laboratory in Landstuhl, Germany, on 1 October 1994; and established new directorates in Health Promotion and Wellness, Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance, and Field Preventive Medicine. USACHPPM will provide second- and third-echelon support to Health Service Support Areas (HSSAs) and their headquarters, medical treatment facilities, Medical Commands (Provisional), and other Department of the Army and DOD elements. First-echelon preventive medicine will continue to be provided by Preventive Medicine Services under the Medical Treatment Facility commanders and through preventive medicine units.

In March 1994 the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency, and the U.S. Army Health Facility Planning Agency merged to establish the provisional U.S. Army Medical Research, Development, Acquisition, and Logistics Command (USAMRDALC). The provisional USAMRDALC was estab­lished as a transitional organization. USAMRDALC temporarily assumed responsibility for the management of medical materiel for the Army and for planning, programming, and budgeting for construction of new medical facilities. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), planned for establishment it November 1994, will replace the provisional USAMRDALC.

In April 1994 the provisional USAMRDALC participated in an Advanced Warfighter Experiment at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, where the Army tested new battlefield applications of digital technology to support the development of Force XXI. A USAM­RDALC Telemedicine Project Management Team demonstrated key medical care applications for the digitized battlefield, such as telementoring, the projection of medical expertise from rear to forward areas, and digital moulage, the transmission of medical imagery over tactical radio.

During the fiscal year one of the most sweeping reorganizations in the history of Army dental delivery occurred with the establishment of a separate Dental Command (DENCOM) as a subordinate element of the MEDCOM. Driven by downsizing and reorganization of the Army and the AMEDD, the new DENCOM established an Army Dental Service Delivery System under a single dental command with worldwide authority over all Table of Distribution and Allowances dental units. Dental units were grouped under eight Dental Service Support Areas. Adjustments were made in the sizes of dental commands, resulting in 31 dental activities and 20 smaller dental clinic commands. During this period clinics provided treatment to 1,794,791 active duty soldiers, 36,999 active duty


members of other U.S. services, and 522,300 others. Dental commands performed a total of 18,141,194 dental procedures. The DENCOM also operated two Area Dental Laboratories that provided prosthetic support for units worldwide on a triservice basis.

The Veterinary Command (VETCOM), a major subordinate command of the MEDCOM, was provisionally activated on 12 November 1993. The VETCOM's major activities include food safety and animal medicine. The VETCOM is the DOD executive agent for food safety and quality assurance, as well as animal medicine. A top priority in food safety and quality assurance is involvement in the operational ration program. The VETCOM provides veterinary services to DOD-owned animals that include horses, dogs, and marine animals, as well as offering preventive medical services to privately owned pets at DOD installations.

The VETCOM commanded and controlled seven veterinary service support areas in the continental United States (CONUS) and Hawaii in FY 1994. Veterinary services of the Medical Center and Medical Department activity were consolidated into seventeen veterinary service support districts. A significant reduction in overhead was accomplished, and authorizations were redistributed in VETCOM to support better the DOD mission.

During the fiscal year the AMEDD revamped its purchasing procedures. The purchasing reform stemmed from the findings of two blue ribbon presidential commissions that investigated ways to improve the federal government in the 1980s. The commission advocated adopting commercial business practices. Following this recommendation, the AMEDD investigated the commercial market. Looking at the relationship between commercial medical distributors and civilian hospitals, the AMEDD found that these hospitals made extensive use of prime vendors for medical products supply (pharmaceuticals and other medical-surgical items). A prime vendor is defined as "a single distributor of brand specific medical supplies for a given group of hospitals in a given geographic region." By committing to a single source whose warehouse is off hospital property, hospitals were able to obtain better pricing, receive next-day delivery, reduce or convert warehouse space, and reduce employees. The AMEDD committed to the use of prime vendors to obtain the same benefits. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Defense Personnel Support Center wrote and administered prime vendor contracts to support the AMEDD, beginning in 1993.

In FY 1994 contracts were in place that enabled twenty-three out of forty AMEDD hospitals to obtain their pharmaceutical support from prime vendors. Although the strength of prime vendors is delivery to fixed facilities with established, stable demand patterns, the AMEDD also had customers with mobile missions who activated and deployed to crisis areas


worldwide. During the fiscal year the AMEDD expanded the use of prime vendors to one of these units, the 147th Medical Logistics Battalion, in its peacetime role in the United States. Within months, a portion of the 147th deployed to Guantanamo, Cuba, for Operation SAFE HAVEN and used prime vendors for support. This marked the first use ever of prime vendors to support Table of Organization and Equipment units outside the United States. Later in the year the 32d Medical Logistics Battalion, using a different prime vendor, supported Operation SAFE HAVEN in Haiti.

In FY 1994 the Army also adopted plans to revamp its medical military occupational specialties (MOS's). More than 30,000 active duty and 35,000 reserve component soldiers will be affected by a restructuring of twenty-two MOS's in the medical field. The changes, to take effect 1 October 1994, will make the medical specialist MOS 91B a prerequisite for most other medical MOS's. People in most medical specialties will enter the Army as 91Bs. After eighteen months they may apply for Additional Skill Identifier (ASI) training. Once trained, they will be qualified to work in their ASI. When they reach the rank of sergeant, first class, they will revert to 91Bs.

Being consolidated as ASIs under 91B are MOS's 91H, Orthopedic Specialist; 91J, Physical Therapy Specialist; 91L, Occupational Therapy Specialist; 91 U, Ear, Nose, and Throat Specialist; and 91 Y, Eye Specialist. In addition, master sergeants and sergeants major in the 42E MOS, Optical Laboratory Specialist, will become 91Bs. The 91N MOS, Cardiac Care Specialist, will be eliminated and its ASI attached to the 91B MOS.

Initial training as a 91B will also be a prerequisite for continued schooling in the MOS's 91K, Medical Laboratory Specialist; 91Q, Pharmacy Specialist; 91P, Radiology Specialist; and 91D, Operating Room Specialist. At the rank of master sergeant, 91Ds will convert to 91Bs. The restructuring will not change unit authorizations and is expected to increase promotion prospects for affected soldiers.

Army Chaplaincy

The drawdown of the Chaplain Corps continued during FY 1994 in order to reach the Corps' allocated strength numbers. The Corps participated in the Voluntary Separation Incentive Program, the Voluntary Early Release and Retirement Program, and Selective Early Retirement Boards to help meet its end-strength numbers. The downsizing affected all personnel, including officers and noncommissioned officers.

The continuing shortage of Roman Catholic priests as chaplains posed an additional concern to the Corps. Roman Catholics composed approximately 25 percent of the population of the United States in FY 1994, but Roman Catholic chaplains composed approximately 10 percent of the 


Chaplain Corps as their numbers continued to decline. The number of Roman Catholic chaplains declined from 140 to 122 during FY 1994 out of an active and reserve component force of more than 3,000 chaplains, of which more than 1,200 were active duty chaplains.

The Chaplain Corps did expand in one area in FY 1994. As part of a continuing policy of reconfiguring its personnel structure to mirror the increasing diversity of the nation's population, the first Muslim chaplain entered the Corps. In response to approximately 4 percent of active duty soldiers being Muslim, Captain Abdul Rasheed Muhammad became the first chaplain representing a non-Judeo-Christian faith. Along similar lines, the Chaplain Corps also authorized a Buddhist chaplain position.

Army Pay

The Clinton administration submitted a defense budget for 1994 that did not provide for a military pay raise. Congress, however, approved a 2.2 percent raise, effective 1 January 1994, that applied to basic pay, basic allowance for quarters, and basic allowance for subsistence. The Employment Cost Index (ECI), a gauge of growth in private sector wages used to measure relative differences in military and civilian pay, revealed that military pay lagged behind civilian pay by 12.3 percent as of 1 January 1994. The law mandated that future military pay raises equal the previous year's ECI minus one-half of a percentage point. The Department of Labor announced that the ECI increased 3.1 percent over the previous year, indicating a 2.6 percent pay raise for 1995. The administration's five-year economic plan called for military and civilian raises of zero for FY 1994 and a one percentage point reduction from law for the succeeding five years. This was a part of the deficit reduction package sponsored by the administration.

Army Housing

The Army continued efforts to provide better living conditions to its soldiers in FY 1994. For the single soldier, the Army's goal was to transform existing barracks into single-soldier communities. The Army's Whole Barracks Renewal Program provided funds for the construction of new barracks and the renovation of older barracks to make them more like homes. Enhancements under this program included 110 square feet of living space for each junior enlisted soldier, walk-in closets, more parking space, and a laundry, day room, kitchen, and mailroom in each soldier community building. Supply and administrative areas currently in many barracks will be moved to separate company operations facilities. At the goal of $250 million a year for this effort, it will take approximately twen-


ty-three years to upgrade the Army's entire inventory of aging, substandard barracks. Until they can be upgraded or replaced under Whole Barracks Renewal, failed infrastructure systems in older barracks will require extensive maintenance and repair efforts managed under a new program, Bridging the Gap. During the fiscal year installations through­out the Army implemented local bridging-the-gap initiatives to make life better for single soldiers. Projects included repairs to such major components as heating and air conditioning systems, roofs, latrines, laundry facilities, plumbing, and electrical systems. Projects like these were accomplished using installation engineer assets, job order contracting, civilian contracts, troop labor, and self-help.

Army family housing provides essential support to military families, especially at installations where off-post housing is limited and very expensive. With the Whole Neighborhood Revitalization Program, the Army initiated a major effort to upgrade its over-aged family quarters to current standards. A major portion of the Army's family housing inventory in FY 1994 was between thirty-five and forty years old, in poor condition, and in need of revitalization. Funding for Army Family Housing has declined 30 percent since FY 1985, while the inventory has declined only 17 percent, thereby limiting the Army's ability to maintain even current standards. The Army's goal is to upgrade or replace, but not increase, the inventory over a period of years.

Army Safety Program

Through the comprehensive application of risk management, accident prevention, regulatory compliance, and safety education, promotion, and planning, the Army Safety Program continued to decrease the number of ground and aviation accidents during FY 1994. Ground accidents involving major property loss, personal injury, or fatality, categorized as Class A through C, declined from 9.04 per thousand soldiers in 1990 to 6.04 in 1994, a one-third decrease in overall accidents. Accidents involving privately owned vehicles (POVs) remained the number-one killer of soldiers. Since 1990, however, POV accidents and fatalities have declined overall by 68 percent for automobiles and 52 percent for motorcycles. In Army motor vehicle operations since 1990, accidents have been reduced by 53 percent and fatalities by 24 percent. While the number of personnel injury fatalities has increased by eight percent since 1990, the total number of personnel injuries has decreased by 46 percent. Furthermore, the rate per thousand revealed a decrease in overall personnel injuries by about one­third, reflecting a general decline in Army accidents. The Army has also reduced the number of training-related accidents since 1990 by 51 percent and fatalities by 48 percent. In part this decrease reflects the downsizing


of the Army, but the rates of training accidents and fatalities per thousand showed significant decreases of 36 percent and 31 percent, respectively. Class A Aviation flight accidents-resulting in property damage of $1 million or more or resulting in a fatality or permanent total disability were 1.64 per 100,000 flight hours in FY 1994, compared to 1.83 in 1990. FY 1994 marked the second lowest accident rate during the period 1990-1994. The lowest rate occurred in FY 1992, with 1.57 accidents per 100,000 flight hours.

Army Career and Alumni Program

During FY 1994 the Army Career and Alumni Program (ACAP) continued to demonstrate its effectiveness in counseling active duty soldiers who were voluntarily or involuntarily separating from the Army. ACAP is a comprehensive program that orchestrates a broad spectrum of transition assistance services for military personnel and their families as they prepare to leave active duty. In a highly organized process, soldiers and family members receive career guidance, benefits counseling, and civilian job search assistance through a combination of in-house and contractor services. The program also makes use of services available from the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Labor, and state employment organizations. The ACAP synchronizes available transition services, and it provides clients with skill training for private sector interviews, a personal resume, a working knowledge of the civilian job market, and a personalized individual transition plan.

Since its inception in 1990, ACAP has reduced by three weeks the time it takes clients to find their first job, with resultant cost savings to the federal government in unemployment compensation benefit payments to eligible soldiers in transition. These cost savings have also contributed to a reduction in Army payments of unemployment compensation for ex-service members (UCX) from $265 million, with 78,729 eligible clients, in FY 1992 to $17 million, with 58,852 eligible clients, in FY 1994. The UCX per capita cost fell from $3,365 in FY 1992 to $1,991 in FY 1994.

Army and Air Force Exchange Service

The Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) faced the impact in FY 1994 of significant changes that were initiated in 1993 to prepare for the challenges of the future. The immediate challenges, however, proved greater than anticipated and led to a decline in AAFES revenues and in dividends paid to Army installations in FY 1994. AAFES attributed this decline primarily to the continued rapid drawdown of its primary active duty customers, especially in Europe, and the leveling of deferred


payment plan sales. While the reductions of active Army, National Guard, and Army Reserve forces were anticipated, the rapidity of the reductions and the impact of the earlier than planned withdrawal in Europe were significant. For example, active duty customers, including family members, declined by 10.2 percent between 1992 and 1994. This reduction was not offset by an increase in retirees. Nor could the reduction in customers be offset by increased marketing efforts. At the same time, the leveling of deferred payment plan sales occurred faster than expected due to AAFES' action to limit new account credit levels for junior enlisted personnel, E-1 through E-4, to $500. AAFES then suffered a 21 percent decline in deferred payment plan sales. AAFES earned $269.5 million in FY 1994, a decline of 14.5 percent from 1993, and paid Army installations a dividend of $110.73 million in FY 1994, as compared with $123.37 million in FY 1993.

In a significant departure from its traditional activities, AAFES started providing dental services in FY 1994, through an agreement with the MWR Panel and the DOD. In June AAFES began offering family-member dental care at the Fairbanks Dental Clinic at Fort Hood, Texas. The new service resulted from an Army Health Services Command policy change in 1993. Under the revised policy the families of active duty soldiers in CONUS eligible for the family member dental plan were restricted to space-available and emergency dental care in Army facilities. AAFES launched its dental care initiative at Fort Hood after the new policy substantially reduced access of Army family members and retirees to military dental facilities.

Command Information

In FY 1994 the Office of the Chief of Public Affairs devoted special attention to supporting major Army deployments and contingency operations. Army Public Affairs journalists, photographers, and broadcasters covered these events at home and abroad. For instance, when the Mississippi River flooded homes throughout the Midwest, Army Public Affairs reported on Army soldiers filling sandbags and evacuating the waterlogged; and when an earthquake damaged property and disrupted lives in Los Angeles, California, Army Public Affairs was there covering soldiers picking up the pieces. Overseas, Army Public Affairs coverage included humanitarian assistance to Rwandan refugees, Haitian relief efforts at Guantanamo, Cuba, and deployment of Army soldiers to Zagreb, Croatia, in support of United Nations humanitarian relief operations in Bosnia.

The Office of the Chief of Public Affairs broke new ground in broadcasting during the fiscal year. Soldiers Radio and Television devel- 


oped a new television newscast, "Army Newswatch," to provide a global look at men and women serving in the Army. "Army Newswatch" made its debut on 28 July 1994. By the end of the fiscal year the program was being broadcast to fifty-one Army installations and more than 30 cities in the continental United States. The broadcast also was shown in thirty-four countries through the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service.

Army Tuition Assistance Program

Army tuition assistance policy underwent a significant revision in FY 1994. Demand for tuition assistance exceeded available resources from FY 1991 to FY 1994. This dilemma caused tuition assistance inequities and policy inconsistencies throughout the Army that resulted in soldier complaints to Congress. To correct these problems, in April 1994 the Army leadership convened a task force made up of a cross-section of Army personnel. Based on task force recommendations, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs directed that a new Army tuition assistance policy be implemented on 1 October 1994.

Under the new policy all active duty soldiers will be authorized up to nine semester hours (or the equivalent) per fiscal year at 75 percent of tuition cost, not to exceed established maximums, for courses leading to a certificate or degree. Soldiers serving in CONUS will be subject to the following maximum amounts per semester hour:

a. Lower level (freshman and sophomore years)  
b. Upper level (junior and senior years)
c. Graduate level

Soldiers serving outside CONUS will be subject to maximums established by existing education services contracts. In addition, soldiers without a high school diploma will continue to be authorized 100 percent tuition assistance for courses leading to completion of their diploma or equivalent.

The changes are intended to ensure a standardized, consistent Army-wide tuition assistance policy during a period of fiscal constraint. The previous fifteen-semester-hour policy was not consistently implemented. Many installations ran out of tuition assistance money before the end of the fiscal year or lowered the amounts to fit reduced budgets and increased demand. This caused confusion and soldier dissatisfaction, especially as soldiers experienced different applications of tuition assistance policy as they moved from one installation to another.


Army Postal Operations

In FY 1994 Army postal operations moved closer to adopting nine-digit contingency zip codes. The Department of the Army Postal Conference held in March 1994 examined the use of contingency zip codes differentiated by the use of "APO AE 093." Two Forces Command units, the 27th Engineer Battalion and the 129th Adjutant General Company (Postal), conducted small-scale testing that provided valuable information on adopting nine-digit contingency zip codes. Based on the success of the limited test, the Army planned to make final the Forces Command postal improvements and initiate the program Army-wide.

The use of nine-digit contingency zip codes during Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY in Haiti at the end of FY 1994 provided a full-scale test of the new zip codes as well as of the ability of MACOMs to activate and provide mail routing for the units. Zip codes were assigned at the company level, enabling the U.S. Postal Service to sort mail in CONUS for dispatch to the area of operations. Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY also saw the increased use of reserve component postal companies supporting postal operations in a contingency theater.

Total Army Quality

The intent of the National Performance Review, according to Vice President Albert Gore in May 1993, was to bring to the federal government the "quality revolution" that pervaded business and industry in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In that same period the Army had already made great strides toward the institutionalization of Total Army Quality (TAQ), the Army's management philosophy adopted in 1992. In February 1993 the Army published a TAQ concept plan for implementation, Leadership for Total Army Quality, which defined the methodology, tools, and techniques to perform systematic analysis of organizations and business practices to achieve desired improvements. By FY 1994 TAQ was established in all Army MACOMs, most of which had instituted command visions and guiding principles and had developed a structure to manage change within the organization.

The Army's efforts to imbed TAQ continued during FY 1994 with the service's nomination of five Army organizations for the President's Quality Awards, which recognize organizations that demonstrate exceptional results. For the first time in the history of the award, an Army organization, the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center, won the Quality Improvement Prototype Award. The Red River Army Depot was recognized as a finalist for an award as well.


Army Sports Program

The Army's sports program provides soldier-athletes the opportunity to participate in armed forces, national, and international competitions. The Army began the 1994 Armed Forces Sports calendar year by winning the Armed Forces Boxing Quadrennial Championship. For the first time in armed forces championship history, one service, the Army, won all twelve weight divisions. Other notable Army sports accomplishments included the Army Women's Basketball Team sweeping undefeated through the Annual Armed Forces Women's Basketball Championship double elimination tournament; the Army Men's Basketball Team taking the Marine Corps to the "if necessary" game of the double elimination 1994 Armed Forces Men's Basketball Championship (losing in the final); the Armed Forces Wrestling Team, led by World Class Athlete Program Army wrestlers, capturing the United States National Greco-Roman Wrestling title; and the Army Wrestling Team taking first place team titles in both Greco-Roman and Freestyle Armed Forces Wrestling Championships.

Construction, Facilities, and Real Property

The Corps of Engineers had a productive year, executing 98 percent of its total FY 1994 and prior military construction (MILCON) projects. The ARNG executed 79 percent of its FY 1994 and prior MILCON projects. Table 17 summarizes these projects.


Percent of Forecast
Projects ($ Million)


($ Million)
Military Construction, Army 94   857.1




Army Family Housing 32 257.1 31 304.5 118
Base Closure Account 35 378.9 32 334.4 88
Military Construction, Army Reserve 19 144.0 16 126.0 88
Corps of Engineers Execution Totals 180 1,637.1 181 1,611.2 98
Military Construction, Army National Guard 133 297.7 99 234.0 79

The Guard's MILCON backlog and unfunded requirements, however, totaled more than 3 billion, representing nearly 2,000 construction projects. The backlog continued to grow from previous years because of equipment modernization, new missions, unit reorganizations, health and


safety criteria modernization, and revitalization and rehabilitation of aging facilities. To continue to accomplish its mission as it waited for new construction, expansion, or modernization of existing facilities, the Guard made maximum use of existing facilities, leased facilities, and temporary facilities.

The Army Reserve MILCON program in FY 1994 was formulated to meet the requirements of the high-priority contingency-force pool units, to perform new-mission training tasks, and to address the worst cases of unit overcrowding and deteriorated facilities. The MILCON backlog is holding steady in the Army Reserve, $2.0 billion in FY 1993 and $1.9 billion in FY 1994, only because the downsizing of units has temporarily off­set the backlog growth. The backlog will continue to grow because the pattern in annual funding does not meet requirements for revitalization. Until the Army Reserve can receive MILCON funding to meet revitalization needs and start reducing the backlog, units will continue to suffer from lack of adequate training, storage, and maintenance facilities. All shortfalls affect training, supply, maintenance, readiness, morale, recruiting, and retention.

The backlog of maintenance and repair (BMAR) is a measurement of the condition of the Army's owned real property. The BMAR comes from the planning of a maintenance and repair project, which is included on the Annual Work Plan of installations, and remains an unfinanced requirement at the end of the fiscal year. The BMAR reflects specific categories of facilities: barracks, utility systems, training facilities, community facilities, and hospital and other medical facilities are examples. BMAR properties require some form of maintenance to return facilities to a usable condition.

Continued deferment of a BMAR project tends to cause the project to become more expensive when actually completed. For example, deferring maintenance means that facilities deteriorate to an extent requiring more costly repairs or replacement. In addition, the deferment of utility-type projects may result in payment of extremely high costs due to violations of environmental compliance standards.

The President's FY 1994 budget request for real property maintenance was $0.833 billion. At that level, less than half of the annual recurring requirements could be funded. Therefore, commanders had to make hard choices concerning what projects would remain unfunded. The FY 1994 BMAR level increased approximately 28 percent over the FY 1993 estimate. The major FY 1994 BMAR increases were in unaccompanied personnel housing, maintenance shops, and utility systems, all with an adverse impact on readiness, quality of life, soldier retention, and the environment.

FY 1994 marked the first year of operation for the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (OACSIM). Among


the OACSIM's most significant accomplishments during the fiscal year was the development and publication of the Installation Management Action Plan (IMAP). The IMAP is the Army guidance to implement installation management strategy goals published in the OACSIM pamphlet Installations: A Strategy for the 21st Century. The IMAP reflects the Army's Long-Range Planning Guidance, the Army Plan, and the installation strategy. The IMAP provides impetus to existing installation planning initiatives and is not intended to supplant long-range planning. The actions listed in the plan are recommended starting points for development of an IMAP tailored to installation needs.

The IMAP was developed in response to field requests for guidance to achieve eight goals that were identified by a Headquarters, Department of the Army, process action team. These goals included reshaping installations to meet power-projection specifications; formulating soldier and civilian employee programs to enhance the quality of life; improving the living and working environment for soldiers, families, and civilians; achieving total integration of environmental stewardship into installation operations; establishing and funding an investment plan for installations to revitalize or replace infrastructure facilities; completing a functional installation-level redesign that will offset the impact of downsizing and continuing resource constraints by improving service and reducing costs of running installations; forming community, interservice, and interagency partnerships for facilities and services to improve operations, customer service, and fiscal effectiveness and efficiency; attaining resource management flexibility for the garrison commander through policies, procedures, and systems that will enable installations to operate as business activities and maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of resources; and transforming the Army's human resources programs to build a participative, committed, installation management team capable of meeting the uncertainties and technological complexities of a constantly changing environment.

Other significant OACSIM accomplishments during FY 1994 included the development, staffing, and publishing of FM 100-22, Installation Management. FM 100-22 outlined the functions and responsibilities of installation and garrison commanders. The OACSIM also reformed the garrison commander selection process. Beginning with the command selection boards held from December 1993 to January 1994, O-5 and O-6 garrison commanders were centrally selected by a Department of the Army Command Selection Board. In addition, the Garrison Commander Pre-Command Course was developed to provide new garrison commanders instruction in dealing with the political, social, and economic complexities of running and managing installations. The first class graduated on 3 August 1994.


During FY 1994 the OACSIM received approval from the CSA for implementation of Part 1, Infrastructure, of the Installation Status Report (ISR). The ISR is a three-part automated reporting system designed to provide commanders and the Army Staff with an assessment of the quantity, quality, and costs of installation facilities, natural and man-made environments, and services. Part II, Environment, and Part III, Services, were set for future development. The OACSIM also supported the fielding of eight Installation Support Module (ISM) applications to twenty-four installations in FY 1994. The ISM program is designed to increase efficiency at the installation level through the automation of day-to-day information processing. The eight applications fielded were: Personnel Locator; Education Management Information System; In-Processing; Out-Processing; Drug and Alcohol Management Information System; Master Schedule of Activities; Transition Processing; and Transition Orders.

As part of the Whole Barracks Renewal Program, the OACSIM on 2 February 1994 received the CSA's approval of the "1+1" standard for barracks design. The new standard incorporates quality-of-life enhancements to make barracks more like a home to single soldiers. The "1+l" design provides two private rooms with walk-in closets for living and sleeping; a service area equipped with counter, sink, refrigerator, and space for a microwave oven; and a bathroom shared by no more than two soldiers. The first project using this design was initiated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, in May 1994.

During FY 1994 the OACSIM produced several publications to assist Army housing occupants. Department of the Army Pamphlet 210-8, Housing Utilization Management, provided management tips and techniques to improve the availability of on-post housing for occupancy by soldiers and their families, thereby reducing costs and waiting times for families to move in. The "Housing Relocation Assistance Program User's Guide" provided information on the availability of on-and off -post housing to soldiers relocating due to permanent change of station. The Interior Design Manual for Single Soldier Housing was published to establish consistency in the quality, design, and furnishings for unaccompanied-personnel housing.

Finally, the OACSIM introduced Bridging the Gap, an Operations and Maintenance, Army, program to place needed emphasis on barracks maintenance and repair. The program provides interim maintenance and repair pending renovation of barracks or replacement under the Whole Barracks Renewal program. Health, safety, and "worst first" projects were given priority; next were projects repairing major components (such as heat, ventilation, air conditioning, roof, latrine, laundry, or utilities distribution systems) or showing potential energy savings. (See also previous discussions on the subject in the Army Housing section.)


During the fiscal year three major issues plagued the OACSIM and the Army's installation community. First, a shortage in Army Family Housing funds resulted in the closing of housing units. Second, shortfalls in funding base operations (BASOPS) requirements resulted in the continued deterioration of infrastructure and the shift in funding from operations tempo to BASOPS areas. Third, with a 40 percent reduction in the Army budget, quality-of-life initiatives suffered as the Army worked to meet critical readiness objectives.

During FY 1994 the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Logistics, and Environment) (OASA-ILE) provided extensive appraisal and real estate acquisition support for fast-track, high-profile military projects that included development of the Engineer Proving Ground, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Training Center in Southbridge, Massachusetts, the National Museum of the U.S. Army, the Yakima Firing Center, and expansions at the National Training Center. The OASA-ILE provided oversight of an extensive study to improve execution of real estate actions for the U.S. Army Reserve; made the first two conveyances of base closure property (Fort Ord) under the Pryor Amendment legislation that governs the disposal of base closure property; granted interim leases for portions of closed bases at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, and Lexington-Bluegrass Army Depot, Kentucky; disposed of sixteen housing sites, receiving more than $9 million for the Army base realignment and closure account; institutionalized the Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Contingency Real Estate Support Team (CREST) in Army doctrine and with major commands (MACOMs); deployed USACE CREST members to Korea in response to a request from the Commander in Chief, Pacific, to support contingency operations; and initiated suit against the State of Hawaii for tax discrimination against property leased to the Army. The settlement of the suit resulted in the government's recovery of more than $1 million plus interest.

An Army National Guard concern in FY 1994 was the stagnation of funding for Real Property Maintenance Activities (RPMA). Aging and inadequate facilities inhibit training, performance, and productivity. Adequate facilities are required for training and mobilization. Limitations on the types of MILCON projects that can be approved severely reduced the Guard's flexibility to fund critical and high-priority projects. The Army National Guard operated more than 3,000 owned armories and 90 leased ones at 2,700 locations in more than 2,400 communities in all fifty states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the District of Columbia. In addition, the Guard supported the operation and maintenance of 21,477 training, aviation, and logistical facilities on 3,393 installations in 2,670 communities. Overall, RPMA funded 58 percent of the Guard's total requirements. There were insufficient operational funds to


maintain and operate the Guard's major training areas during the fiscal year. This level of funding will force the deferral of facility maintenance and repair, thus increasing expenditures and accelerating the closure of necessary facilities because they no longer meet environmental and safety requirements.

In FY 1994 the Guard received $153.6 million for real property operations and maintenance, three percent less than in FY 1993. The federally supported square footage grew, however, from 55.1 to 55.2 million square feet. In FY 1988 $3.41 per square foot was available to operate and maintain Army National Guard facilities. In FY 1994 the amount was only $2.42 per foot, or $2.03 in constant FY 1988 dollars.

The Army Reserve is faced with integrating the installation's MILCON backlog with other reserve facility requirements. Funding is insufficient to meet essential revitalization goals ($63 million per year) and to decrease the $2.0 billion backlog. In FY 1994 four active installations were transferred to the Army Reserve for command and control. Forces Command provided funding assistance to facilitate the installation transfer. Additional transfers of installations to the Army Reserve, providing opportunities to enhance training and mobilization readiness, are anticipated. As these transfers occur, funding must be available to continue to revitalize facilities and infrastructure and to respond to new missions. As in the past, a combination of addition and alteration projects and new construction will be used to provide for the Army Reserve's essential mission needs. Almost half of the Army Reserve facilities in FY 1994 were inadequate in meeting training, storage, and maintenance needs.

Legacy Program

In FY 1994 the Army received $16,932,000 from the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program. The service distributed this money to 222 natural and cultural resources projects.


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Last updated 19 December 2003