Except in the case of documents with numbered paragraphs, when it is obvious from the numbering that material has been omitted, diamonds (♦) are used to indicate the omission of one or more paragraphs.
Return to Self-Rule in Denmark and Norway
Return to Self-Rule in Denmark and Norway
The story of how the resistance forces in Denmark and Norway took over from the occupying power and provided a smooth transition to self-rule is a remarkable one illustrative of the best traditions of democratic government. In both cases without bloodshed or violence, a regime viewed with implacable hatred for five years was displaced and an orderly government set up. The Allies had to prepare for the possibility that they would have to furnish extensive friendly guidance and help in both cases. But when the SHAEF missions moved in after German surrender they found the quislings expelled and an indigenous government in complete control of the situation. Nothing but supply assistance, especially in fuel and raw materials, was needed of the Allies by either country. The food shortage was much more severe in Norway than in Denmark.
Prior to the German surrender supply assistance had already been given to a part of Norway which had been occupied by the Russians. The aid had been terminated quickly, however, by a purely jurisdictional difficulty, and the unfortunate termination casts something of a shadow over the otherwise felicitous relations between the Norwegians and the Allies. During October 1944 the Russians invaded the province of Finmark, in northeastern Norway, and took the city of Kirkenes. In the face of the Russian advance, the Germans withdrew from Finmark, and in their retreat they leveled the small fishing villages along the Arctic coast, destroying docks, boats, and nets, and taking along all the food they could find. Actually the Russians advanced only as far as the Gna River, about seventy-five miles from the easternmost tip of Norway. Beyond their advance was a vast no man's land extending through the rest of Finmark. Informed of the terrible plight of the Norwegians, SHAEF authorized the issuance of civilian supplies to the inhabitants of northern Norway. The documents tell the interesting story of an American officer's negotiations with the Russians to move the first medical supplies into Norway, the abrupt termination of SHAEF's generous gesture by higher authority, and the plight of the Norwegians in the face of jurisdictional niceties. Possibly these niceties were insisted upon by higher authority lest a precedent be set which might lead to the Soviet's dependence upon Allied relief in other areas of Russian occupation.
Immediately on liberation six Allied destroyers moved into Norwegian ports with token Civil Affairs (CA) supplies. Within ten days after Liberation Day twelve vessels were en route to Norway carrying more than 20,000 tons of basic needs, chiefly of food supplies.
In Denmark, as in Norway, the principal assistance rendered by the Allied forces was in civilian supply, but the only substantial needs of the Danes were for coal and POL. In both countries the military phase terminated rather quickly-with the gratified recognition of the missions that effective planning by local undergrounds had made the carrying out of elaborate Allied planning largely unnecessary.
1. ALLIES FIND EFFECTIVE DANISH GOVERNMENT IN OPERATION
POLITICAL SITUATION AFTER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION
[Basic CA Directive for Denmark, CCS to SCAEF, CCS 574-3, App. "B," Special Political Guide, 16 Jun 44, CCAC files, 014, Denmark (3-1-44), sec. I]
1. Constitutional government of Denmark continued under the German occupation until the 29th August 1943, when the German military authorities declared martial law and the Danish Government resigned. There is, therefore, at present no Danish Government in operation, although the administrative system of the country has remained, generally speaking, in working order. The Danish people are virtually unanimous in wishing to restore a constitutional government as soon as possible.
2. a. After the German occupation, King Christian continued
to act as the constitutional head of the Danish State. Since the declaration of
martial law in August 1943, he has ceased to exercise his constitutional functions and has regarded himself as a
prisoner. His conduct throughout has enhanced his reputation among the Danish
people and he is generally regarded as a symbol of national unity and resistance
to the Germans.
b. It is expected that, as soon as Denmark is free from the Germans, King Christian will wish to resume his functions and form a new government from persons not tainted by hostility to the cause of the United Nations. It may be assumed that the personal influence of King Christian, who is the brother of King Haakon of Norway, will be friendly and helpful to the Allied forces of liberation.
3. It is likely that Danish sentiment after the liberation of their country will favor the formation of a coalition government representing the main political parties.
4. a. The Danish Parliament (Rigsdag) continued to meet under
the German occupation until August 1943- In March 1943, a general election was
held throughout the country, which is believed to have been free insofar as
limitations imposed by the German occupation permitted, except that the Danish
Communist Party, which had three seats in the previous Parliament, was
unable to participate as a result of a ban imposed by German pressure in 1941.
b. It is likely that there will be a demand from the Danish people after the liberation of their country for a new election, in which the Communist Party would be allowed to participate. Apart from the Communists, the old party organizations in the country have continued intact under German occupation.
5. The Danish administrative and police services have been maintained to a large degree intact during the German occupation. Civil administration is at present carried on by the heads of the Danish Government Departments, who have power to draw up regulations where legislation would normally be necessary. These Danish administrative services and the local authorities may be regarded generally as well disposed towards the cause of the United Nations and suitable to co-operate with the Allied military authorities pending the reestablishment of constitutional government.
6. The Danish armed forces were disbanded after the German declaration of martial law in August 1943. The attitude of members of these forces has been on the whole patriotic and favorable to the cause of the United Nations.
7. A "Council of Freedom" was formed within Denmark after the declaration of German martial law in August 1943, to co-ordinate the activities of the resistance groups. This Council has not claimed any sort of governmental status or aspired to any role after the liberation of Denmark and the restoration of constitutional government.
8. The Danish Nazi Party obtained three seats out of 148 in the Lower House of the Danish Parliament in the 1943 election. This party has since shown evident signs of dissolution and its members are regarded by the great majority of Danes as traitors.
9. The German minority in South Jutland have behaved throughout as Germans rather than Danes. They have served in the German
Army and cooperated with the German authorities through their local organizations.
10. The Faroe Islands were occupied by British Forces in April, 1940. Greenland was occupied by American Forces in 1941 under an agreement concluded between the United States Government and the Danish Minister in Washington. The overwhelming majority of Danes, including officials, appreciated the military necessities for these occupations and they approve thereof.
DENMARK TO BE TREATED AS A FRIENDLY STATE
[Basic CA Directive for Denmark, CCS to SCAEF, CCS 574/3, 16 Jun 44, 1 CCAC files, 014, Denmark (3-1-44), sec. I]
1. Denmark should be treated, for the purpose of the planning and execution of civil affairs, so far as possible as a friendly state, on the basis that although she is not formally a member of the United Nations she is entitled to such treatment on account of the friendly attitude shown by the great majority of the Danish people to the cause of the United Nations, and by their resistance both active and passive to German occupation, which has contributed to the Allied cause.
4. At all times, the Danish King will be accorded the honors and respect appertaining to his position. ♦ ♦ ♦
HEAD OF SHAEF MISSION INSTRUCTED
[Msg, SHAEF to Maj Gen Richard H. Dewing (Br), Head of the SHAEF Mission to Denmark, 4 Nov 44, CCAC files, 014, Denmark (3-1-44), sec. I]
1. You will be responsible to the Supreme Commander for assistance and advice to the Danish Government on the conduct of all Civil Affairs activities in Denmark, in accordance with agreements made or to be made with the Danish Government.
2. The responsibility for civil administration throughout Denmark rests with the Danish Government.
3. You will endeavour to bring the Danish Government to comply with such Civil Affairs policies as the Supreme Commander may formulate or with such requests as he may from time to time address to the Danish Government through the Mission under your command.
Organization and Command
4. The Mission under your command includes a G-5 component. The command and staff channel is from the Supreme Commander to you with direct communication in Civil Affairs technical matters between the Head of the Civil Affairs component and G-5 Division, Supreme Headquarters.
5. Your Civil Affairs staff has been selected for its knowledge of the problems peculiar to Denmark. You are free to effect any internal reorganization within the Civil Affairs component that you may deem expedient in the light of circumstances and experience.
6. The Port Detachment for Copenhagen and a Minor Port Detachment will be attached for all purposes to your Mission and will be under your command. You will issue appropriate orders to these detachments.
Co-ordination of Civil Affairs Activities
7. You will attach to the appropriate formations and headquarters such liaison officers as you consider desirable. You will set up such Boards or Committees as are essential to coordinate Civil Affairs plans with civilian agencies and to supervise their due execution.
Supplies. You will be responsible for receiving,
screening and consolidating requests for Civil Affairs supplies from the Danish
Government. You will submit such requests to Supreme Headquarters accompanied by
your recommendation. You will call forward supplies, allocated to Denmark as
required. You will arrange for these supplies to be handed over to the Danish
Government at ports or other terminal points. You will account for these
supplies. The whole will be carried out in conformity with the standard and
routine supply procedure laid down by Supreme Headquarters.
The Danish Government is responsible for the distribution of these supplies. You will do all possible to ensure that these supplies are utilised for their proper purposes.
9. Economics. You will assist the Danish Government in their endeavours to stimulate marketing and production of essential civilian supplies in order to reduce the necessity for imports and to provide the maximum export of foodstuffs for other allied countries.
10. You will report to Supreme Headquarters on actual and estimated future exportable surpluses.
You will convey, on the request of the Danish Government, their plans or requests on less immediate export problems and co-ordinate, as far as possible, in consultation with Supreme Headquarters the immediate and long term plans for the export of surpluses.
You will consolidate all requests made by the Danish Government for the importation of raw materials to implement the objects set out in paragraph 6 above, make your recommendations thereon and submit these requests to Supreme Headquarters for approval and procurement.
Finance. You will maintain liaison with the Danish
Government on all problems relating to currency, property control and general
You will not be concerned with the closing of banks, declaration of a moratorium, public finance and advances to local authorities and private enterprises.
Consistent with the foregoing, and where applicable, you will be guided as to policy by the separate financial directive issued by the Supreme Commander relative to Denmark.
12. Questions relating to the cost of supplies and the disposal of enemy assets and property will remain open and will be determined at some future date by agreement among the governments concerned.
13. Political Prisoners. You will arrange with the Danish Government for the release of political prisoners who are citizens or subjects of any allied governments.
14. Enemy Organizations. The eradication of enemy, or enemy inspired organizations and the punishment of persons connected with such organizations is the responsibility of the Danish Government. You will keep Supreme Headquarters informed thereon and submit any reports that you consider appropriate.
15. Displaced Persons. You will be responsible within Denmark for representing Supreme Commander's, AEF, interests in all plans relating to Displaced Persons.
16. Public Health. You will investigate the possibility of Danish doctors, nursing staffs and medical stores being made available for relief in other allied countries.
17. You will refer to Supreme Headquarters, for decision or reference to higher authority, all questions requiring policy decision raised by the Danish Government outside normal and routine Civil Affairs activities.
AFTER SURRENDER OF GERMAN FORCES, DANES FORM A GOVERNMENT
[Cable, SHAEF (Fwd) to 21st AGp for Dewing, 6 May 45, SHAEF-SGS files, 322.01-2, SHAEF Mission to Denmark, FS-OUT 3630]
1. You are entering Denmark as the Supreme Commander's representative with the Danish Government formed by H. R. Buhl who has been appointed by the King.
2. As soon as the necessary formalities have been completed it is anticipated the H. R. Buhl's government will be recognized by the British Government, and it is hoped that similar action will be taken by the U.S. Government. Diplomatic representatives will then be appointed.
3. German forces in Denmark having surrendered to Field Marshal Montgomery, he has been charged by the Supreme Commander with task of implementing such surrender. The Supreme Commander hopes for, and anticipates, the co-operation of Danish government in this matter.
4. A civil affairs agreement regularizing the relations between Supreme Commander and Danish Government will be negotiated though you as soon as arrangements for this purpose can be completed. Meanwhile, and pending further instructions, you should arrange with the Danish government for relations to be established as far as possible on the lines of draft agreement which was forwarded to you on 23 April.
SHAEF MISSION FINDS A GOVERNMENT IN OPERATION
[History of the Danish Mission, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.03, Hist Rcds, Country Unit, Hist Rpts-Denmark]
♦ ♦ ♦ On 4 May 1945, when collapse in Europe seemed imminent, the entire G-5 Division was placed on 24 hours notice to move to the continent, and from then on events moved very rapidly. On the announcement of the surrender of the Germans occupying Denmark, Maj. Gen. R. H. Dewing, CS, DSO, MC, and certain officers of his staff were flown to Copenhagen, and arrived at Kastrup Airfield on the afternoon of 6 May 1945. Two days later a further group arrived at Copenhagen by air, where they immediately assumed their various duties, and the remaining personnel followed, by boat, to Ostend and thence by road through Belgium, Holland and Germany, reaching Copenhagen on 17 May. ♦ ♦ ♦
The Division was established on the 5th floor of Dagmarhus, Copenhagen and immediately commenced the tasks for which it had so long been planning. ♦ ♦ ♦
Legal Section planning in London had embraced two possibilities in Denmark, one that the country should become a fighting zone, the other that there should be a Danish Government in being with whom all legal transactions could be effected. Happily the latter proved to be the case and at a stroke half of the plans the Section
had been for months preparing in London were rendered unnecessary and the amount of work with which it was called on to deal was very drastically reduced.
A SURPLUS OF FOOD BUT A SHORTAGE OF TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL
[Hist of the Danish Mission]
♦ ♦ ♦
Supply and Economics Section held a meeting on 9 May 1945
with representatives of the Danish Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Trade and
Agriculture for an explanation of SHAEF procedure and a discussion in general
terms of Denmark's needs. It was arranged that discussion on the technical level
should be promptly held and the supply programme investigated by working parties
of specialists, and on 12 May the first Four Party Committee Meeting was held.
The general economic situation was found to be as follows:
(a) Rail transportation was at a minimum due to lack of fuel, with no passenger trains operating, while road transport was hindered by lack of petrol, tires, parts and wood for producer gas units to such a point that some difficulty was experienced with the movement of necessities in Copenhagen.
(b) Food was ample and surpluses would be available if transportation was made easier.
(c) Clothing-particularly workers' and children's-was in very short supply.
(d) Electricity and gas were rationed to a degree believed to be the lowest practical operating level.
(e) Unemployment was increasing and the cessation of German employment was causing a considerable amount of additional unemployment.
(f) Factories were in working condition but were short of fuel and raw materials and were much curtailed in operation.
(g) The administrative machinery of the Government was working efficiently at all levels.
Since the most vital Danish problem was that of fuel, the immediate move of the Solid Fuels Sub-Section of SHAEF was requested, and by 13 May this had arrived and was established in Dagmarhus. On the same day a letter was sent to the General Purchasing Agency outlining the capabilities of Danish industry, and two days later the Solid Fuels Sub-Section requested 30,000 tons of coal for May and 80,000 for June.
While fortunately not so acute as the coal situation, that of POL was shown to be very serious . . . For the transport of POL only small tankers were available and these could not travel to England.
No time was wasted in remedying this serious state of affairs, for on 18 May 1945 a Port Detachment proceeded to Aabenraa and on the following day the first convoy of lorries carrying POL arrived and the work of unloading commenced, proceeding smoothly in the following days.
The transition to active work in Denmark from passive planning in London had thus been smoothly accomplished and by 21 May supply estimates for the second period of 90 days were in course of preparation, while at Aabenraa supplies were beginning to trickle into Denmark and definite allocations were proceeding at SHAEF. ♦ ♦ ♦
FOOD SURPLUSES EXPORTED TO DEFICIT AREAS
[Hist of the Danish Missions]
♦ ♦ ♦ The beginning of June found Supply and Economics Section hard at work along the lines already followed during May, the work of bringing supplies into Denmark and exporting foods out of Denmark continuing uneventfully. On June 1st, at a meeting of the Allied Executive Surplus Foods Committee, the Danish authorities agreed to arrangements suggested regarding the export of food and it was planning that 4,000 tons of butter, 1,700 tons of bacon and 1,500 tons of eggs should be loaded and shipped during the first week of the month.
In addition to substantial shipments to the U.K., a considerable quantity of food was sent from Denmark to Norway, 13,546 tons being shipped between 18 May and 4 June, in addition to an unknown, but probably large, amount sent as a gift from the Danish people. Sweden received during the same period 891 tons. ♦ ♦ ♦
2. JURISDICTIONAL NICETIES CUT SHORT DISPATCH OF RELIEF SUPPLIES TO NORTHERN NORWAY
SHAEF PROPOSES TO SEND RELIEF TO NORTHERN NORWAY
[Msg SHAEF to CCAC, CM-IN 8469, 9 Dec 44, MEL355, CCAC files, 400, Norway (5-26-44)]
2. Reports indicate civilian population in northern Norway are in grave situation through lack of supplies owing to German scorched earth policy in areas evacuated by them.
3. Requests have been received from Norwegian Government and approved by Commanding General, Task Force, Norway, for authority to ship civilian supplies to northern Norway for distribution there, particularly in Kirkenes area, which is presently occupied by Russians.
4. Russian Government has advised Norwegian Government that it has no objection to importation of relief supplies.
5. This . headquarters has accordingly authorized the dispatch of up to 6,000 tons of civil affairs supplies for relief of this area. These supplies will come from credits authorized to US for Norway and sub-allotted by U.S. to British Scottish Command for civil affairs operations in Norway.
THE FIRST ALLIED OFFICER IN LIBERATED NORWAY IS AN AMERICAN WITH RELIEF
[Col Paul B. Boyd, Head 2/19 CA Unit on Temporary Duty North Russia and Norway, Rpt, 18 Dec 44, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.08, Hist Rpt, Norway, Jkt I ]
On verbal orders GOC-in-C Scottish Command, the undersigned officer proceeded to north Russia and Norway with medical supplies for the civilian population via Catalina flying boat.
Departure was made . . . on 6 Dec 44 with 1000 lbs of medical
supplies. . . . The Catalina was manned by a Norwegian crew furnished through 18
Group Coastal Command and consisted of a crew of ten. The pilot and captain of
the ship was S/Lt Hartmann....
Take off was .... from Shetland Islands, 6 Dec 44, .... and landed at Petsamo, Finland .... 7 Dec 44 ....
.... We had difficulty in finding any one to understand English or Norwegian but were finally ushered into the office of the Post Commandant, a naval officer with captain rank. After some time an interpreter was secured, and we informed the Russians that we desired transport to Kirkenes in order to arrange for truck transport for our medical supplies from that end. This was eventually agreed to, providing a Russian naval officer accompanied us, and we were scheduled to leave for Kirkenes at 1300 hrs, being told that it was approximately a five hour drive. Lunch was served to the crew on board the Russian destroyer. The Russians were very co-operative and went to some length to ensure our comfort.
At 1300 hrs S/ Lt Hartmann and myself, accompanied by a Russian Lt Comdr., started for Kirkenes. Along the road were evidences of war. Farm houses and small towns were totally destroyed. ♦ ♦ ♦
We crossed the Finnish-Norwegian border at Furumo after some
difficulty with the sentry but the Russian naval officer handled the situation.
After entering Norway a great change was evident. There were few Russian
soldiers and no movement along the roads except for natives with horses and
Contact was made with the Norwegian Mountain Company at the headquarters near Kirkenes. ♦ ♦ ♦
From the standpoint of Civil Affairs the situation is bad.
About half of the population remain in Kirkenes, and they are sleeping at least
ten people to the room. There is a diphtheria epidemic, scabies is prevalent,
and a lot of dysentery. The food situation is bad, and there are no potatoes or
fish available. Some flour has been supplied by the Russians, but they have been
given to understand that that cannot be continued. Fortunately the Germans left
good stock piles of coal, and they succeeded in destroying only a small amount....
A truck was secured to return to Petsamo with us and pick up the medical supplies. ♦ ♦ ♦
SCAEF NOT AUTHORIZED TO PROVIDE SUPPLIES FOR AREAS NOT UNDER HIS COMMAND
[Msg, CCAC to SHAEF, CM-OUT 86221 (GOV 189), 3 Jan 45, CCAC files, 400, Norway, 5-26-44]
1. Provision by you of combined supplies for that part of Norway or any other areas occupied by forces not under your command is not authorized. Any further proposal with regard to such areas must be referred to the Combined Chiefs of Staff for instructions.
2. With regard to the supplies referred to in MEL 355 [above], you are authorized to deliver them in the United Kingdom to the Norwegian
Government against receipt, subject to later settlement. 2
IN SENDING SUPPLIES TO NORTHERN NORWAY SCAEF WAS ACTING IN AN EMERGENCY
[Ltr, Maj Gen Frank F. Scowden, Chief, Sup and Econ Branch, G-5, SHAEF, to Hilldring 22 Jan 45, CAD files, 400.38 (2-20-43), sec. 12]
This is in reference to GOV 189 in which we are instructed not to ship relief supplies to areas, not under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Commander without prior consultation with CCS. I thought you might be interested in conditions leading to the shipment of relief supplies to Finmark, prior to our receipt of GOV 189.
Shortly after the Russians had occupied Kirkenes, the Scottish Command, on behalf of the Norwegian Government, represented to this headquarters that unless prompt action were taken to provide relief supplies for civil population, a critical food situation would prevail in this area and might result in starvation for a part of the population....
At that time I discussed the matter with Lt. Col. [Arthur E.] Palmer [Jr.] of the International Division, who is here, and he stated that insofar as he knew, the question of supply of relief items to area occupied by the Russians had not been presented to Combined Chiefs. He was under the impression . . . that it had been considered by the American side and that their view was that it should be done only after a specific request for assistance had been received from the Russian Government. This coincided with my views on the subject.
Accordingly, when the Kirkenes situation arose, a cable was dispatched to the Scottish Command with information copy to CCAC authorizing the use of Civil Affairs supplies previously allotted to that headquarters for Norway, provided a request for such assistance was obtained from the Russian Government. The Russian Government, through its Embassy in London, informed us that it had no objections to the proposed shipment of supplies. The supplies authorized amounted to 6,000 tons of which 2,000 were items procured and owned by the Norwegian Government. . . . a report by Col. Paul B. Boyd, who later made a trip to the above area with urgently needed medical supplies [indicates that] the prompt turnover of civilian relief supplies by SHAEF has saved many civilians from death by disease and starvation. ♦ ♦ ♦
NORWEGIANS ARE TOLD TO GET THEIR SUPPLIES FOR FINMARK FROM CIVILIAN AGENCIES
[Min, 2d Mtg, Four Party Sup COMM., 3 22 Feb 45, app. 2 to Historical Rpt, SHAEF Mission, Norway, 1-30 Apr 45, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.08, Hist Rpt, Norway, Jkt 2]
16. SHAEF Responsibility for Finmark . . .
Colonel Boyd explained the attitude of SHAEF toward the shipment of further supplies to Finmark. He pointed out that for the first 90 days, a total of 5,183 deadweight tons were shipped. Of this total, 3,515 deadweight tons represented Civil Affairs Supplies (transferred to the Royal Norwegian Government on quantitative receipt in the UK) whereas 1,668 deadweight tons had been procured by the Royal Norwegian Government through civilian agencies.
For the second 90 days, a proposal was made to SHAEF asking permission to send a total of 4,648 deadweight tons, of which 2,684 deadweight tons would be Civil Affairs stores (to be transferred to the Norwegian Government on quantitative receipt in the UK) while 1,964 deadweight tons would be procured from civilian agencies by the Norwegian Government. The reply of SHAEF to this proposal was a teleprint stating that no more CA supplies could be sent into that portion of Norway where the occupying troops were under Russian operational control, that the Norwegian Government should be advised to attempt procurement of supplies from civilian agencies, that the Norwegian Government should make efforts to obtain shipping, and that only in the event that supplies were not available from civilian agencies should a request be made to SHAEF for transmittal to CCS.
THERE IS PRECIOUS LITTLE A GOVERNMENT CAN BUY IN THE OPEN MARKET
[Aide-mémoire, Norwegian Embassy, Washington to the Dept of State, 28 Feb 45, as contained in JCAC [Joint Civil Affairs Committee] 1, 15 Mar 45, CCAC files, 400, Norway (5-26-44)]
♦ ♦ ♦ 1. As regards supplies for civilian population, permission has now been received as
far as the Russians are concerned to send supplies from Scotland to Northern Norway. . . . However, it appears that SHAEF and Scottish Command maintain that supplies from SHAEF stock in Great Britain can be sent only to territories liberated and controlled by SHAEF. The Norwegian Government has been informed that it is free to buy in the open market. This however, is illusory as practically every commodity is being controlled by the United Nations authorities and very little of these can be bought outside such control. ♦ ♦ ♦
The present situation, according to which neither SHAEF nor the Russians accept the responsibility for civilian supplies, is untenable. . . . The only solution seems to be that supplies from SHAEF stocks be made available for civilian population of the parts in Norway liberated and to be liberated. As SHAEF has already reserved supplies for all of Norway, it would seem that sending of supplies should not be hindered by the present uncertainty as to the responsibility for the territories in question. 4 ♦ ♦ ♦
3. THE UNDERGROUND RESTORES INDIGENOUS GOVERNMENT IN NORWAY
SCAEF IS GIVEN GENERAL POLITICAL GUIDANCE ON NORWAY
[CCS Directive to SCAEF on Civil Affairs in Norway, CCAC 78-1, 20 Apr 44, CCAC files, 014, Norway (8-16-43), sec. I]
1. For purposes of planning for the conduct of civil affairs the Norwegian Government will appoint a military mission to serve in liaison with the Civil Affairs Section for Norway. Appropriate consideration will be given to the policies recommended by such military mission. Members of the Norwegian military mission may be invited to accompany Allied civil affairs officers as you think fit. The Norwegian members will serve as advisers to Allied civil affairs officers.
7. During the military phase, unless military necessity
demands otherwise, you will co-operate with the Norwegian Government to enable
it to take such measures as it deems proper with respect to:
a. The dissolution of all Nazi inspired organizations and all laws which discriminate on the basis of race, color, creed or political opinion which have been imposed upon the Norwegians by the Germans.
b. The impounding or sequestering of property belonging to Germany and her associated powers or their nationals not required for military purposes.
c. The dissolution of political parties and organizations which have collaborated with the enemy.
d. The taking of necessary measures to permit religious worship and such freedom of speech and assembly as is consistent with military necessity.
8. You will arrange for the arrest and internment of the leaders of the parties and organizations in sub-paragraphs 7 a and 7 c and of any other persons whose detention is considered necessary in the interest of the Allied cause or the maintenance of order. All such persons who are Norwegian citizens will be turned over as soon as possible to the competent Norwegian authorities to be dealt with in accordance with Norwegian law as soon as practicable.
12. King Haakon enjoys the undivided loyalty and regard of his people. The Monarchy is generally regarded by them as the rallying point of all Norwegians in the fight against Germany.
13. The present Norwegian Government, which was elected in 1936 for a period of four years, had its mandate extended indefinitely by the Norwegian Parliament when the King and Government left Norway in 1942. In the Spring of 1943, in accordance with Article 3 of the Atlantic Charter, it declared its intention of resigning on returning to Norway in order that the King, in consultation with the outgoing Government and the "Home Front" (i.e., the underground resistance movement) might appoint an interim government to carry on until the Norwegian people were able to choose their own government by means of a general election. The Government has constantly kept in touch with the leaders of the "Home Front" and has been careful to seek its concurrence on all important matters, including the policy underlying the Civil Affairs Agreement. The "Home Front" is re-
garded by the Government as the eyes and ears through which it keeps in touch with trends and opinions at home.
AFTER FIVE LONG YEARS THE NORWEGIAN PEOPLE ARE ONCE MORE FREE
[Statement From the Royal Norwegian Govt Info Office in London, 12 May 45, as Quoted in Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5 Div, Hist Rpt, 1-31 May 45, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.08, Hist Rcds, Jkt 2]
♦ ♦ ♦ "By virtue of Germany's unconditional capitulation, the German forces in Norway have laid down their arms. The Norwegian Home Front and Forces of the Interior are now in charge in Oslo and all over Norway. The transition has proceeded with remarkable smoothness and ease, thanks largely to the discipline shown by the Norwegian people and to the careful advance planning by the Home Front and the Norwegian Government. An Allied Military Commission arrived in Oslo on Tuesday [8 May] to arrange the formal signing of the surrender instrument. On Wednesday the Commission issued a communiqué announcing the withdrawal of all German troops from all the principal towns by midnight on Friday.
"Obeying the Home Front order that they should `maintain calm, dignity and discipline,' the Norwegians abstained from provocative acts and refused to take the law into their own hands. The people marched in processions and sang their songs in an orderly fashion, and no clashes or bloodsheds were reported. Even some German soldiers were carried away by the general enthusiasm and were shouting `Hurrah for Free Norway!'
"On the afternoon of 8 May, as vast crowds continued to celebrate in Oslo, two flying boats, with Norwegian flags on their fuselages and manned by Norwegians, circled over the city and then landed at Fornebu. The Allied Military Delegation had arrived. They proceeded immediately to Oslo and continued later to the German Military Headquarters at Lillehamrner to settle the formalities of surrender. Later they returned to Oslo and established headquarters at Hotel Bristol, where the British flag now waves alongside the Norwegian.
"The reception of the Delegation in Oslo was overwhelming. Never has the Norwegian capital witnessed such scenes of rejoicing. The crowds surged around their cars, cheering and singing the British and Norwegian National Anthems as though for five years they had lived only for this moment. ♦ ♦ ♦
ARRIVAL OF CIVIL AFFAIRS REPRESENTATIVES
[Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5 Div, Historical Rpt, 1-31 May 45, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.08, Hist Reds, Jkt 2]
♦ ♦ ♦ On 9 May 45, Lt. Col. E. A. J. Johnson, Chief of the Economics Branch, arrived in Oslo by plane as the first Civil Affairs Officer to enter the country since the surrender of the German forces. Colonel Johnson was joined in Oslo on II May by Col. E. R. Summer, Chief Staff Officer; Lt. Col. John Enrietto, Chief of the Legal Branch; Lt. Col. E. Ross Jenney, Head of the Public Health Section, and Lt. Col. R. F. E. Laidlaw, Chief of the Public Safety and Welfare Branch, and on 13 May Brigadier [P. H.] Hansen himself arrived in Norway. ♦ ♦ ♦
Brigadier Hansen's capacity here is Head Civil Affairs, Norway and Staff Officer and adviser to Gen. Sir A. F. Andrew M. Thorne, G.O.C. Allied Land Forces Norway, 5 on Civil Affairs matters.
In imposing the surrender terms of SCAEF upon the German forces in Norway, General Thorne's main responsibility is to disarm the considerable remnant of the Wehrmacht forces in Norway and to accelerate the evacuation from Norway of some 83,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war as well as the unexpectedly large number of approximately half a million Germans now in this country.
In assisting General Thorne in his task, it is Brigadier Hansen's responsibility to keep disease and unrest among the civil populace at an absolute minimum. ♦ ♦ ♦
A WELL-ORGANIZED UNDERGROUND CAN BE THE EFFECTIVE MEANS OF TRANSITION
[Lt Col John Enrietto, Chief of the Legal Branch, Allied Land Forces Norway, Rpt as Quoted in Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5 Div, Hist Rpt, 1-31 May 45]
The country had just experienced the sudden but well-organized emergence of the underground organizations into power and control. The Germans were in the process of systematic withdrawal from populated centers and were to be found on the streets and highways, armed and
in contact with the Resistance Group, the regular constabulary, so far as it had not been purged, and the civilian population.
This constituted probably one of the most unique episodes of history, for the change-over from a regime, viewed with implacable hatred for five years, to an ad hoc government by a resistance group was smooth, controlled, restrained and thoroughly effective. The conclusion from this is that by proper organization and discipline of an underground organization, such as Milorg in Norway, it is possible to effect a substitution of an indigenous government for a government of an occupying power without political turmoil and without relaxing the control and restraint upon the people.
The judiciary and the legal machinery of government had been
purged of quisling elements within a few days, and new appointments were made
without resentment. This again bespeaks the effectiveness of a government in
exile keeping in close contact with underground organizations, permitting the
personnel of that organization to:
a. Do the purging necessary in the governmental structure, and
b. to fill the vacancies with personnel previously agreed upon, so far as any positions are concerned, with the exile government.
FOOD, DRAFT ANIMALS, FUEL, AND RUSSIAN PRISONERS THE IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
[Lt Col E. A. J. Johnson, Rpt as Contained in Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5 Div, Hist Rpt, 1-31 May 45]
♦ ♦ ♦ The first problem presented to me was what Disarmament should do about a large number of Russian prisoners who had allegedly not been fed for several days. Inasmuch as the responsibility for the relief of refugees and displaced persons was a Norwegian responsibility, I promptly referred this to the acting Minister of Supply and Reconstruction, and food was dispatched at his request to the prison camp.
The next urgent problem had reference to draft animals. During the occupation, the Norwegian farmers would borrow horses from the Wehrmacht for agricultural purposes during the planting season, and since the planting season was now at hand, they asked for authority to proceed as they had in the previous years. Whereas it would have been better to have made an outright release of the requested number of horses, time did not allow of any statistical survey, and as a consequence Disarmament issued orders to the Germans to loan horses to farmers who required them.
Next only to these immediate problems of food and draft animals was the problem of fuel for the Norwegian State Railways. The entire railroad system was operating at a very low efficiency. The Todt organization had provided railway fuel, and inasmuch as that organization was no longer operative, the effective operation of the railroads made immediate coal import imperative. A Signal was dispatched pointing out the urgency of the coal situation. This in turn was relayed from Edinburgh to SHAEF, Main, by telephone where plans were made for the allocation of some locomotive coal for shipment to Norway.
In order to insure that Civil Affairs supplies could be received and distributed to Norwegian ports, contact was made with the Ministry of Supply and Reconstruction. A schedule of available Civil Affairs supplies was laid before the Minister of Supply so that the Ministry might have time to make proper plans for the receipt of supplies in several Norwegian ports for which they were destined. All the representatives of the Ministry of Supply and Reconstruction betrayed great satisfaction with the supply plans that have been made, their one criticism being that an inordinate amount of biscuits had been provided and that this might in turn hamper the improvement of the Norwegian biscuit factories. ♦ ♦ ♦
STRICT LEGALITY OBSERVED IN DEALING WITH QUISLINGS
♦ ♦ ♦ This [emphasis on constitutionality and legal procedure] is best illustrated in the arrest, imprisonment and preliminary hearing accorded Vidkun Quisling. The preliminary hearing which, under Norwegian law, is required within 24 hours after arrest but was somewhat delayed in the case of Quisling, took place promptly at noon Saturday, 26 May 45, at the Tinghuset before Dommer Guldbransen. Despite a crowded court room, batteries of cameras, photographers' lights and all the paraphernalia of modern publicity, this preliminary examination was conducted in a restrained, impressive and dignified manner. There was no demonstration or display made by any of the crowd; no dramatics were attempted by any of the participants.
In my judgment, this is largely attributed to five years of persistent psychological discipline of the people, which was based upon repeatedly dinning into them the standards of dignity, strength and discipline. . . . The usual incidents of cutting of hair of women, who col-
laborated or consorted with the enemy, have taken place but with no great disturbances and regarded as rather a minor form of punishment.
Towards women who married Germans, or who consorted with Germans during the occupation, no specific policy has been evolved. It seems to be the Norwegian attitude that these women will be such social outcasts that they will find it necessary to go to Germany or to emigrate elsewhere. .. .
GERMAN FORCES SURRENDERED IN NORWAY NOT TO BE TREATED AS PRISONERS OF WAR
[Enrietto Rpt ]
♦ ♦ ♦ A somewhat startling departure in the field of international law is the determination by SHAEF that members of the German armed forces in Norway who surrendered effective 2301 8 May 45 would not be declared prisoners of war but would be treated as disarmed military personnel, subject to the command and control of the Allied Joint Commanders in Norway. Apparently, from questions asked by the German Commander, their impression has been that they are prisoners of war. ♦ ♦ ♦
In the meantime, the Commander of the Wehrmacht in Norway requested that the German Command be permitted to exercise complete military jurisdiction over the members of the German armed forces. A directive on the subject was issued to him, specifying the extent to which such jurisdiction could be exercised, and provided for an over-riding authority in the Commander Allied Land Forces Norway to remove any case from their jurisdiction. In general the jurisdiction was modelled upon the military government legislation for Germany.
The effect of the foregoing was to create in international law an entirely new class of persons, viz, disarmed military personnel operating under a military organization and military law of a foreign country with only the top command and control changed by the act of surrender. Such persons are not prisoners of war nor are they displaced persons, but represent a class in between whose privileges and burdens arc not specified by any body of established law nor by any international convention.
The creation of such a class is inevitable in the case of a mass surrender involving large numbers of persons such as was entailed by the mass surrender of 8 May 45....
A further interesting development is the distribution of staff responsibilities in respect of that body of persons. Normally, prisoners of war are an A/G-1 responsibility. However, in this operation C. A. Legal Officers have been made responsible, because of the international character of the problem, for all legal matters respecting the surrendered Germans, and JAG'S functions have been limited to legal matters relating to the Allied troops operating in this territory. ♦ ♦ ♦
THE SUPPLY SITUATION ON LIBERATION
[Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5, Hist Rpt, 1-31 May 45]
The outstanding problem of the Supply Branch is the procurement of an adequate supply of fuel. By this is meant both coal and POL (petrol and diesel oil in particular).
Norway has been thoroughly stripped of commodities of all sorts. There is a real shortage of food and of all other items of supply. It has never been a country which produced sufficient items of food and clothing for its own requirements within its boundaries.
There is now one potential source of indigenous supplies. This is the captured German stocks. It is, of course, necessary to retain enough of these to fill the allotted rations to the Germans. Thereafter, there are certain needs of the Allied military forces which will have a call against these goods.
There will remain a considerable quantity of goods of various sorts which may be of use to the Norwegian economy. Though these may amount to large quantities, they are not always items which are particularly needed, nor particularly useful to the Norwegian civilian operations. ♦ ♦ ♦
Immediately on liberation, six Allied destroyers moved into various Norwegian ports. Each of these vessels carried a "token" shipment of C. A. supplies. The composition of each of these shipments was:
|Vitaminized Choc||1.5 tons|
|Canned Meat||5.0 tons|
|Evap. milk||3.0 tons|
|Med. Sups||0.5 tons|
Within 10 days from Liberation Day, 12 vessels had been loaded with C. A. supplies and
were en route to Norway. These vessels carried more than 20,000 tons of basic supplies. They are being distributed from Oslo all- the way to Troms6. Roughly, the shipments were made up as follows:
|Shoes & Clothing||3%|
To summarize the food position: 15,000 tons have now been moved to Norway, 8,000 more tons are presently being loaded. 21,000 tons are still available in the U.K. and will be moved in early lifts. A further 21,000 tons will move by direct shipment from the U.S. and are scheduled to arrive in July.
Substantial quantities of coal have been programmed: 23,550 tons for May and 45,000 tons with the possibility of an additional 25,000 tons for June. ♦ ♦ ♦
The shortage of fuel-both coal and POL is one of the biggest
problems here. Again and again, this obstacle is encountered. There is no
Every gas works in the country is shut down, not because of destruction but because there is no coal.
The railroads are in reasonably fair shape, in so far as equipment and right of way are concerned. But the shortage of fuel has reduced operations to a bare minimum of the most important lines.
The economy of Norway depends on its tremendously complex water transport system. Here again, the boats are adequate, but the scarcity of petrol, diesel oil and coal endangers operation.
Norway's fishing industry is the big potential source of thousands of tons of surplus food for world supply. The vessels and the gear, though worn, are serviceable. POL and coal are necessary to insure this activity. ♦ ♦ ♦
THE KING RETURNS AND THE MILITARY PHASE IS ENDED
( Hq, Allied Land Forces Norway, CA, G-5 Div, Historical Rpt, 1-30 Jun 45, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.08, Hist files, Jkt 3,]
On 7 June 45, five years to the day after the pressure of German invasion forced King Haakon VII and his Government to leave Norway to continue the war against the aggressor from the British Isles-and one month after the reception of the first news of the surrender of the German armies to the Allies-His Majesty the King returned to his liberated people.
About one hour before King Haakon VII set foot on liberated
Norwegian soil, Brigadier P. H. Hansen, VC, DSO, MC, Head of Civil Affairs
Norway, rode from his office through the flag-decked streets of jubilant Oslo to
the Royal Palace. He carried with him a letter from SHAEF terminating the
Military Phase of the Norway operation. This letter announced to the Norwegian
Government that the complete responsibility for civil administration in Norway
was restored to His Majesty the King and to the Norwegian Government, confirming
that the military situation was such that in accordance with para. 2 of the
Inter-Governmental Agreements of 16 May 1944 full and complete responsibility of
civil administration in Norway be exercised by the Norwegian Government, subject
to certain arrangements necessary to enable the British-U.S. forces to conduct
the following operations:
(a) The disarmament and removal of German Army, Navy and Air Force personnel, together with German auxiliary organizations and civilian agencies and the disposal of enemy property.
(b) The repatriation of ex-prisoners-of-war and displaced persons.
(c) The orderly withdrawal of Army, Navy, and Air forces from Norway.
Though of historical value, this declaration has in no way affected the work of Civil Affairs, which, in any case, has always worked in very close co-operation with both governmental and local authorities. These responsibilities will continue until the Allied Forces are eventually withdrawn.
Of the many Civil Affairs responsibilities in Norway, which
are now beginning to assume full shape, the more important are the following: To
assist the Royal Norwegian Government with -
(a) The provision of supplies for the civil population, including coal and POL.
(b) Disposal of refugees and displaced per sons.
(c) The establishment of Military Courts for the trial of Germans. ♦ ♦ ♦
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Last updated 18 February 2004