Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1972



Military Personnel

When Congress extended the draft in September 1971, the Army was limited to an average strength in fiscal year 1972 -already well under way- of 974,000. This authorization was 50,000 man-years lower than that previously established in the President's fiscal year 1972 budget. This was the first time in recent history that the Army's man-year authorization was reduced after the budget strength had been approved and the operating year was in progress. Prior to the congressional action, the Army was moving toward a fiscal year end-strength on a planned glide path. The President's fiscal year 1973 budget contained a strength phasedown for fiscal year 1972 that was geared to the programed strength for fiscal year 1973; monthly losses were scheduled to exceed gains in smooth increments. To comply with congressional limitations, Army strength in the last half of the year had to be reduced to a level significantly below that authorized in the fiscal year 1972 budget, creating dislocations.

About 86,000 enlisted men and women originally scheduled for release during the last half of the year had to be released in the first half. A levy designed to keep Army forces in Europe at 95 percent strength, combined with the early release, resulted in critical shortages in certain units. Rapid reductions also had an adverse effect on volunteer Army programs and created morale problems that may be with the Army for some time. The imposition of an additional strength reduction through early release was tantamount to an unanticipated and unprogramed loss of soldiers. Prior to the implementation of actions to meet this requirement, alternatives were studied and only those of lesser impact were approved. Because it was difficult at that point to predict the impact these actions would have upon readiness, occupational skill, grade structure, promotion capability, requisitioning, training input, accession, and over-all mission accomplishment, controls were instituted, one of which, for example, was to stop reclassification actions.

Procurement and Management

Within the over-all military personnel picture, the Army made good progress in reducing reliance on the draft to meet manpower requirements, and in moving toward an all-volunteer force. The success was


produced by aggressive, imaginative, and productive programs, including expanded use of advertising for recruitment, attractive enlistment options, and expansion of the recruiting force.

A broad advertising and publicity program was launched to support field recruiting efforts, based upon careful research into the reasons that motivate qualified personnel to enlist in the Army. Campaigns were developed to emphasize career opportunities, unit of choice plans, and other appealing options. Because of congressional opposition to large-scale radio and television advertising, appeals were directed through other channels; billboards, transit ads, and yellow pages and classified advertising were fully exploited. Where $18.6 million had been obligated for advertising in fiscal year 1971, $22.9 was allocated in fiscal year 1972. Every medium except radio and television was increased significantly, and several new programs were added. While it is extremely difficult to attribute specific numbers of enlistments to advertising efforts, it is undoubtedly true that aggressive and innovative advertising is essential to success in recruiting.

Enlistment options were expanded to include all major units worldwide. New options that guarantee an individual a stabilized tour of from twelve to thirty-six months in a unit or area of choice became increasingly popular; only 946 were enlisted in July 1971 in the early stages of the program, whereas more than 10,000 enlisted under the improved and expanded program in June 1972. The most noteworthy accomplishment was the significant increase in combat arms enlistments, which averaged only a few hundred a month in 1971, and rose to 5,411 in June 1972.

During the fiscal year the U.S. Army Recruiting Command was expanded by 3,047 spaces; 537 new recruiting stations were opened and 548 of the existing ones were enlarged. The command was authorized an increase in sedans from 2,523 to 4,718, and by the end of the year all but 233 vehicles were on hand.

The fiscal year saw changes in the use of draftees in Vietnam that neutralized charges that they were shouldering an inequitable share of the fighting burden. When the Vietnam conflict intensified in 1965-66, it had been necessary to increase draft calls to meet expanding manpower requirements. From the buildup of the U.S. force in Vietnam through fiscal year 1972, draftee representation in Vietnam regularly exceeded the draftee proportion of total Army enlisted strength. The use of draftees became a central issue as opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased on the domestic front.

The draftee portion of Army enlisted strength in Vietnam reached its highest level, 49 percent, in fiscal year 1967, two years before total enlisted strength there reached its peak. By June 1969 the propor-


tion of draftees had already begun to decline even as the percentage of total Army strength was declining:


1967  49 percent  42 percent
1968  41 percent  39 percent
1969  40 percent  36 percent
1970  39 percent  22 percent
1971  28 percent  28 percent
1972  16 percent  14 percent

In the Vietnam conflict a large share of the combat burden fell upon the draftee. This was the result of several factors: first of all, reserve forces were not called to active duty; secondly, substantial numbers of volunteers enlisted for training and duty in other than combat skills. Thus the draftee was channeled to undersubscribed skills, most of which were combat or combat related in character.

Until late in fiscal year 1972, all personnel were assigned to Vietnam and other areas with no distinction being made between draftees and enlistees. This assignment policy was halted on June 28, 1972, with President Nixon's announcement that, effective immediately, no draftees would be assigned to Vietnam unless they volunteered. Due to the rapidly decreasing and changing structure in Vietnam, the decision did not affect the Army's capability to provide enlisted replacements for Vietnam in the required numbers and with proper skills.

New mental standards under which the Army accepted men from among those disqualified for service prior to October 1, 1966, were continued under the over-all enlisted procurement program through December 31, 1971. The mandatory quota for fiscal year 1972 was terminated and standards were raised on January 1, 1972, to provide better quality for the smaller Army. To this end, accessions from the more marginal categories were limited to not more than 20 percent of total accessions; such a ceiling is required due to a lack of jobs for men of low mental ability, and to keep disciplinary and failure rates as low as possible.

Proficiency pay and the variable re-enlistment bonus continued to play important roles as measures to attract and retain soldiers with critical skills. In fiscal year 1972, $121.9 million was allocated to these programs, $68.3 million of it for proficiency pay. The number of soldiers selected for proficiency pay for superior performance in combat support specialties was raised from 5 to 10 percent, and a new form of proficiency pay, for special duty assignment, gave drill sergeants an increase for proficiency purposes from $50 up to $75 per month. Recruiters and career counselors received proficiency pay of $50 and $30 per month respectively.


As a result of the rapid and sizable withdrawal from Vietnam, career fields which had been marked by critical shortages suddenly became overstrength and could be removed from incentive programs. Aviation was the primary field in this category. To stimulate re-enlistments in combat arms skills, the variable re-enlistment bonus for infantry; armor, and field artillery skills was doubled. Yet expenditures for the variable re-enlistment bonus program in fiscal year 1972, totaling $53.6 million, were well below the $75 million expended in 1971, primarily as a result of the early release program.

A test program under which a $1,500 enlistment bonus was granted for designated combat arms enlisted skills was initiated during the year, the first utilization of an enlistment bonus in many years. To qualify, an enlistee must agree to complete training and serve four years.

With the downturn in the war and the reduction in the over-all size of the armed forces, the problem of absorbing veterans into a peacetime economy received broad attention at the highest levels of government. On June 11, 1971, the President issued a six-point memorandum designating the Secretary of Labor to supervise an intensive effort to place Vietnam-period veterans in jobs or training. The Labor Secretary was asked to work with the Secretary of Defense to expand the Project Transition program (see previous reports) to increase opportunities for job counseling, training, and placement for service members returning to civilian life. United States employment offices, Department of Defense project training sites, the Labor Department, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Veterans Administration were enlisted in the campaign.

Under Defense Department auspices, the Army expanded Project Transition along four lines: project services, to include training for 20,000 personnel, were extended to oversea commands; job counseling and civilian vocational training were made available for up to 3,000 personnel participating in the Army Drug Rehabilitation Program; ongoing project training in all fifty states was expanded by 50 percent (from 50,000 to 75,000) per annum; and three skill centers were scheduled to be established in the continental United States to conduct two months of training after separation for personnel without a civilian skill (it was estimated that this plan could attract up to 50,000 participants per year). This latter plan was modified on September 13, 1971 in a Presidential memorandum to the Secretary of Defense, and the Army was directed to provide skill training for 6,000 oversea returnees during fiscal year 1972 at selected installations within the United States, rather than the earlier program for 50,000.

To carry out the expansion the Department of the Army formed a Project Transition task force headed by a major general and super-


vised by the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. Liaison teams of the task force were dispatched to Army headquarters in Europe and the Pacific, while other elements assisted in the formulation and implementation of the over-all plans in the United States.

Skill training in the oversea commands was initially provided through individual referral to military service support units and selected foreign industrial organizations for on-the-job training. In the Pacific region, this type of training was supplemented by training sponsored by American industry and funded through the Manpower Development and Training Act administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. This training was initiated in February 1972 through a contract with the University of Hawaii, and negotiations for a similar contract with Central Texas College to provide training in Europe were begun in March 1972 and had not been concluded by year's end.

To carry out its part of the over-all program, the Continental Army Command increased its counseling staff' and stressed the use of available training opportunities to meet prescribed goals. The command established skill training centers at ten installations to serve personnel returning from overseas. The initial plan had been to program Vietnam returnees into the skill centers beginning in late October 1971. The rapid withdrawal from the war zone made it possible to identify and schedule personnel into established courses.

Involuntary early release policies were begun in September 1971 for draftees assigned in the continental United States, expanded to first term regular Army in the same area in November, and established Army-wide excepting Vietnam in December. Other early release actions were also begun in December. These had a detrimental impact on Project Transition in that many individuals were separated on short notice and had no opportunity to participate in training. Also, it was not possible to begin skill center training on schedule. Finally, it became apparent that the earlier prescribed training goals were unrealistic in light of the remaining numbers of eligible personnel. Thus the Army's goals were revised downward from 102,000 to 39,500 personnel to be trained during the year, and skill center courses were opened to returnees from all oversea commands. By June 30, 1972, the Army had exceeded the revised goals, helping to prepare 46,325 personnel for their return to careers in civilian life.

There were a number of other developments in the personnel management field during fiscal year 1972. A program was established to provide Army personnel worldwide with accurate, timely, official information on current and projected Army programs; six briefing teams visited eighty installations and high troop density areas to carry out


this mission, speaking to audiences-predominantly E-5 through E-9 and captain through lieutenant colonel-totaling over 52,000, and obtaining audience reaction to the presentations. The first Department of the Army Worldwide Personnel Conference was held at the Pentagon on January 26-28, 1972, to improve the flow of information to and from the field and improve personnel management within the Army; senior personnel officers of all major Army commands and representatives of the Army Staff attended and the Secretary of the Army and other top officials addressed the conferees. Also in, January a Personnel Assistance Center was established in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel to co-ordinate and expedite information concerning Army personnel policies.

In August 1970 the Chief of Staff directed that a new system of officer personnel management be developed that would increase professional competence through greater regard for specialization and concentrated assignment patterns, ensure equitable opportunity for advancement by providing multiple pathways to success, and improve career satisfaction by allowing an officer more voice in career development to do the jobs he does best. The concept and plan was approved by the Chief of Staff on January 5, 1972, and by the Secretary of the Army on April 13, 1972. The new system is designed to achieve personnel management procedures that will best use an officer's technical skills, aptitudes, interests, and desires. It is applicable to all officers except those of the Army Medical Department, Chaplains Corps, and Judge Advocate General Corps, who will continue to be managed by their respective branches. Under the new system, officers will be qualified in a primary and an alternate specialty; selection of battalion and brigade level troop commanders will be centralized at Department of the Army; and the promotion system will be revised to recognize the Army's requirement for specialists. Although major portions of this new management system will be implemented during 1972 and 1973, it is recognized that the system will have to evolve over the course of a longer period as officers progress within the over-all management framework.

A revised officer evaluation reporting system featuring a thoroughly redesigned report form as well as improved appraisal policies and procedures was developed and field-tested during the year. The revised system will be introduced Army-wide on January 1, 1973. Among its innovations is a requirement that each rated officer be provided with a copy of his evaluation report when it is completed. An improved academic report, recording each officer's accomplishments as a student, will be introduced on July 1, 1973.

There were developments in the field of enlisted personnel manage-


ment during the year. The Army Integrated Management System was established to measure changing items of force requirements and career management. These measurements provide a basis for developing policies to align continually the grade structure with the operational needs of the Army and the career management needs of the individual. The system ties together functional elements of enlisted force management. It is a long-range system that makes it possible to examine force structure requirements against the assets that are available to carry out the Army's assigned tasks. Changes in requirements and assets may be projected and examined as they relate to: the acquisition of personnel through both enlistment and re-enlistment; promotions for deserving personnel; reclassifications for career management and operational purposes; and quantitative and qualitative losses.

The objective of the Army Integrated Management System is to place trained individuals in the proper job at the time required- to accomplish the Army mission and to provide an attractive career for enlisted members. Within the over-all system are programs that embrace career management fields, re-enlistment control and qualitative management, reclassification control, promotion, and evaluation.

As the Army's strength has decreased, attention has centered upon efforts to improve the quality of the force. Through the Qualitative Management Program, there is a conscious effort to prevent promotion stagnation as the size of the Army is reduced; each loss (denial of re-enlistment) under the qualitative management program creates a promotion allocation for those remaining-loss of an E-7 would create an E-7, E-6, E-5, and E-4 promotion allocation. To improve the quality of the enlisted force, termination points were established for each enlisted grade and management tools were provided to screen out lesser qualified personnel before re-enlistment eligibility. And professionalism -a major precondition for a volunteer army-is stressed.

The Qualitative Management Program contains three features: separation of personnel whose performance and potential fall below standard; denial of re-enlistment to those not promoted or recommended for promotion after designated points in time; and screening and evaluation to measure professional knowledge, competence, and potential for advancement.

Several changes were also made in the Enlisted Promotion System. Promotion of all senior enlisted personnel was centralized, and that of E-6's and E-5's semicentralized so that eligible personnel competed by qualitative standing determined by point scores. An Enlisted Evaluation System that combines the efficiency report with occupational specialty evaluation test scores to measure over-all performance was expanded in fiscal year 1972 to cover all phases of enlisted personnel


management-promotion, re-enlistment, retention, school selection, and proficiency pay. The enlistee efficiency report was changed to require annual submissions, to extend the minimum rating period to sixty days for E-6 and below and ninety days for E-7 and above, to require comments on professional development and First Sergeant potential, and to measure the effectiveness of equal opportunity programs.

Where the First Sergeant is concerned, a program was initiated in fiscal year 1972 to improve the position as a means of attracting qualified enlisted personnel for this important duty. Among actions taken to upgrade the status and prestige of First Sergeants were: tour stabilization, priority consideration for family housing, early attendance of potential candidates at advance-level noncommissioned officer schools, priority consideration by E-9 and Command Sergeant Major boards for First Sergeant experience, and changes in the Enlisted Evaluation System to require specific comments on First Sergeant potential for all personnel in the E-6 through E-8 grade bracket.

Race Relations and Equal Opportunity

Many long-range plans and projects in the Department of the Army's race relations and equal opportunity programs came to fruition during fiscal year 1972. It was a year of milestones and of preparation of future programs further to insure equality of opportunity and treatment for all military personnel and their dependents without regard to race, color, religion; national origin, or sex.

In June 1972, the Chief of Staff approved a Department of the Army Affirmative Actions Plan embodying 128 major provisions dealing with practices and conditions detrimental to racial harmony and equality in both the active Army and the Reserve Components. Included in the master plan is a requirement that each Army installation, agency, and unit of brigade size or larger develop its own affirmative action plan tailored to local conditions. As with the larger plan, the subordinate ones must include objectives, numerical goals, and timetables to insure steady progress. Reporting and monitoring procedures are under development and the plans are being identified as viable documents to be updated regularly and adapted to new initiatives and procedures.

In January 1972, an Office of Equal Opportunity Program was established at division level within the directorate of Military Personnel Policies of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. The division chief serves as Executive Secretary of the Army's Race Relations and Equal Opportunity Program.

Basic principles were approved for that program. It is designed to create a positive atmosphere of racial harmony. Commanders at all levels are made responsible for supporting and attaining program ob-


jectives. The complementary nature of race relations and equal opportunity actions is recognized. The program stresses that the quality of discipline cannot be compromised. It affirms that quality standards for career development must be maintained at all levels commensurate with the mission requirements of the Army and stipulates that the Army will promote and support each soldier's drive for individual and cultural pride.

As of June 30, 1972, the total black percentage in the Army was 15.1 percent, exceeding the national population average estimate by about 4 percent. Black officer and warrant officer content (3.9 and 4.5 percent respectively) is below the population average, while the enlisted proportion-17 percent-is greater. While there has been a significant reduction in the over-all size of the Army since 1968, there has been an increase in the black soldier percentage, notably in the enlisted grades. Other minorities (not including caucasian ethnic categories), it may be noted, represent about 1 percent of enlisted and 0.4 percent of officer strength. Black women officers account for 5.7 percent of total officer strength of the Women's Army Corps, while black enlisted women represent 19.4 percent of the WAC enlisted strength, both above the Army average.

Distribution of black enlisted personnel by grade and percentage of total strength is favorable in all grades except E-9 (7.7 percent) and continues to increase in content.

Black officer distribution reflects increases in senior grades and shortages in junior grades. Of particular note is the increase in black general officers since 1968. The beginning of the fiscal year saw 4 general officers on duty with the active Army; 5 more were on the selected list at the end of the year. The number of full colonels at the end of the fiscal year was 93 compared to 42 on December 31, 1968. The critical nature of the black junior officer shortage is highlighted by the fact that there are more black generals, colonels, and lieutenant colonels than there are black lieutenants.

Race relations training has been expanded and is given to all soldiers in basic training, service schools, and the Army War College. Professional education courses for officers and noncommissioned officers are being developed so that the leadership facets of race relations and equal opportunity may be brought into the very fiber of daily Army life.

The importance attached to race relations education is indicated by the policy that every unit in the Army will have a race relations training program that uses educational materials developed by the Defense Race Relations Institute. Instructors trained in the Institute are used in the Army's unit training program; it is an Army goal to have an Institute-trained instructor team of an officer and an NCO


with majority and minority representation in every brigade or equivalent size unit in the Army. The current requirement is for 376 such teams.

In a special effort to insure that the Army's leadership is fully cognizant of all aspects of the Army's race relations and equal opportunity program, certain actions are being directed to officers and senior noncommissioned officers. One of these is the establishment of a 48-hour Senior Officer's Orientation Course at Fort Knox, Kentucky, which will be attended by selected battalion and brigade commanders prior to joining their units. The course addresses contemporary problems including race relations and equal opportunity. Another is a special race relations orientation packet for field grade and company grade officers and senior noncommissioned officers. These are being prepared by the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, and will be available for distribution in January 1973.

Among a number of other actions, several research and development studies are ongoing, designed to provide information and techniques to help solve Army racial problem; a Leader's Handbook is in preparation, to provide Army leaders at all levels with guidelines on how to reduce racial tension; emphasis has been continued on actions to insure that post exchanges, libraries, commissaries, service clubs, and other facilities are responsive to the needs of all personnel equally; and commanders were made responsible for insuring that off-post housing and facilities are available to all personnel without discrimination. In the latter connection, effective November 12, 1971, restrictive sanctions imposed by local commanders because of discriminatory housing practices remain in effect for six months from the date of imposition.

As a result of increased emphasis on minority officer procurement, the number of minority group cadets at the United States Military Academy and in Reserve Officer Training Corps and Officer Candidate School programs has expanded. Enrollment of blacks in the Plebe Class at West Point rose from 9 in 1968 to 53 in 1971 and 50 for the 1972-73 school year; the output of black lieutenants from Army Officer Candidate School increased from 2 percent in 1971 to 5 percent in 1972, while 8.5 percent of candidates enrolled as the year ended were black. The Army's goals for minority group personnel in Officer Candidate School is 11 percent in calendar year 1973, 13 percent in 1974, and 15 percent in 1975. Where participation in ROTC is concerned there were also minority group increases, from 7.7 percent in the 1970-71 school year, to 10.8 in 1971-72, with a total of 5,443 black cadets. The program has been enhanced by the increase of ROTC detachments in predominantly black colleges and universities, with an annual increase of two from 12 in 1969 to 18 in 1972. Opening en-


rollment for the 1972-73 school year revealed that 13.7 percent black and 3.7 percent other minority group cadets were participating in the Army ROTC program.

In the last two years, 16 officers out of 547 selected to attend senior service colleges were black.

A program initiated in May 1971 to correct imbalances between hard skill and soft skill military occupational specialties has produced improvements in 137 of 169 selected entry specialties. With respect to minority group officer distribution by occupational specialty, there have been some imbalances, and actions were taken to adjust these, with particular attention to the doctor, lawyer, and similar fields of specialization. Finally, opportunities for women were expanded. The percentage of occupations where women may, be utilized was expanded from. 40 to 90; and educational opportunities were increased.

It may be seen from the foregoing that considerable attention has been centered upon race relations and equal opportunity throughout the Army. Upper level commitment and support, combined with emphasis on the role of the leader at all levels and a broad program of action, will help resolve existing problems, encourage racial harmony, and contribute to a more effective Army.

Health and Medical Care

The rate of admission to hospital and quarters for active duty Army personnel worldwide during fiscal year 1972 was 356 per 1,000 average strength per year, 18 per thousand more than the 338 reported for fiscal year 1971. The noneffective rate representing the average daily number of active duty personnel in an excused-from-duty status due to medical causes-was 15.2 per 1,000 average strength as compared with 16.9 in the preceding year. Noneffectiveness due to wounds incurred in action (WIA) declined from the 3.0 level in 1971 to 1.2 in 1972.

The table on page 86 displays admission rates in Vietnam and other areas for diseases and injuries as well as for all causes, along with incidence rates for malaria and certain other conditions which tend to cause a high proportion of noneffectiveness in one or more of the geographical areas.

A serious problem that cuts across the whole society and extends into the military forces is alcohol and drug abuse. On June 17, 1971, the President of the United States brought national attention to bear upon one facet of this problem when he announced a national counteroffensive against drug abuse and directed that the military services participate in the campaign.

Only two weeks before, the Army had established a Directorate of Discipline and Drug Policies Within the Army Staff to co-ordinate


Admissions to Hospital and Quarters and Incidence of Selected Conditions U.S. Army Personnel on Active Duty Fiscal Year 1972 Rates per 1,000 Average Strength per Year

World-wide CONUS Army Areas Overseas Areas Total Europe  All Areas Vietnam
All Causes 356  400  299  204  429  522
Disease  316  360  260  173  377  459
Nonbattle Injury  38  40  35  31  42  47
Wounded in Action  2  -  4  -  10  16
Malaria  2.71  1.88  3.76  0.21  8.52  13.07
Diarrheal Diseases  20.26  18.07  23.03  10.98  35.04  46.16
Acute Upper Respiratory Infection and Influenza  95.85  135.70  45.28  39.99  42.12  26.85
Skin Diseases, Including Dermatophytosis  9.70  6.18  14.18  2.06  30.08  44.51
Neuropsychiatric Conditions  19.05  20.12  17.70  9.97  27.20  30.95
Hepatitis Viral  5.02  5.33  4.63  2.00  8.20  8.42

actions in this important area, and on the day following the President's announcement the Army began procedures to identify and detoxify heroin users returning from Vietnam. By November 1, 1971, the Army had instituted procedures to screen, treat, and rehabilitate addicted personnel worldwide.

A Department of the Army Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Plan was published on September 3, 1971. It provided subordinate commands with guidance to conduct an intensive program embracing prevention, identification, detoxification, initial treatment, rehabilitation, evaluation, and research. The program derived great impetus from a worldwide alcohol and drug conference conducted in Washington in the same month.

Alcohol and drug abuse prevention requires broad actions along many contributing lines: education, training, regulation, enforcement, recreation, community action, and constant and conscious efforts to provide users or potential users with effective alternatives. A number of formal education and training courses have been conducted, including the Army Medical Department's Alcohol and Drug Education Course, scheduled in four thirteen-day cycles in late 1971 and early 1972; 198 military and civilian personnel were trained as instructional cadres to serve major commands in alcohol and drug education and prevention programs and to conduct similar courses for subordinate commands and installations.

Both military and civilian personnel attended alcohol and drug education courses conducted by the Drug Dependence Institute, New Haven, Connecticut; the Oklahoma University Medical Center, Okla-


homa City; Hayward State College, Hayward, California; and the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Drug use is identified through voluntary action on the part of the user, a urinalysis testing program, and other command and police methods. By the close of the fiscal year, of 1,484,573 personnel tested, 36,554 laboratory positives had appeared, a rate of 2.5 percent. A slight downward trend from a worldwide Army high of 2.9 percent in November 1971 to 2.5 percent in June 1972 provided a basis for cautious optimism.

Detoxification includes various procedures for withdrawing addicts from physical dependence or treating acute intoxification. As of June 30, 1972, 28,789 individuals had entered medical facilities for detoxification; of these, 10,428 were evacuated from oversea facilities and admitted to hospitals in the continental United States. Under the exemption program that treats drug abuse with medical rehabilitation rather than with limited response as a legal problem, 23,137 soldiers voluntarily entered treatment; not all required medical detoxification.

Rehabilitation measures are aimed at restoring drug users to full duty status. Within the continental United States, thirty-three hospitals have been designated to receive and provide initial care for drug users evacuated from overseas. Medical facilities, halfway houses, and rap centers are used for transitional and outpatient assistance for those undergoing rehabilitation. Personnel who enter the rehabilitation program are monitored for at least a year or until separation from the Army. Those incapable of or unwilling to respond to genuine in-service rehabilitation efforts within a reasonable period are transferred while still on duty to a Veterans Administration hospital near home prior to separation from the service.

Department of the Army assistance teams and field evaluation teams operating under The Surgeon General's aegis, along with standard required reports, are used to evaluate and improve the control program.

Research in alcohol and drug abuse prevention and control is designed to produce better understanding of the problems involved and to help improve the methods for dealing with them. Research efforts are focused upon both the medical and the behavioral aspects of the problem, and both internal and outside contract capabilities have been employed.

The interest and activity generated by the drug abuse problem inspired parallel attention to the use and abuse of alcohol within the Army. There are indications that problems raised by alcohol abuse have a greater adverse impact upon duty performance than all other drug abuse combined. A survey is to be conducted in fiscal year 1973 to


explore the extent and patterns of the use and abuse of alcohol in the Army.

Vaccines in oral tablet form were given to all basic trainees during the 1971-1972 respiratory disease season to protect them against adenovirus types 4 and 7. There were stability problems with the type 7 vaccine, which appeared gradually to lose much of its potency during refrigerated storage. As a result, the admission rate for acute respiratory disease at basic training installations rose from 292 per 1,000 per year in calendar year 1971 to 354 per 1,000 per year in the first six months of 1972. Much of this was due to the weakened vaccine's inability to control the adenovirus disease. The search continues for a more stable vaccine, and a new formulation is expected to be ready by the winter of 1972.

A new meningococcal vaccine to combat type C, responsible for most of the meningitis in the Army over the past several years, was given for the first time routinely to all incoming recruits. The effect of the vaccine, developed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, may be appreciated by comparing the statistics of the last two years. In fiscal year 1971 there were 249 cases and 13 deaths due to meningitis. In fiscal year 1972 this was reduced to 37 cases and 3 deaths. Research in this field continues, to develop and test vaccines for other types of meningococcal disease.

The Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis epizootic epidemic that occurred for the first time in the United States in the summer of 1971 was confined to Texas as a result of the federally sponsored emergency disease control program. The Department of Defense provided professional and technical services, aircraft, and vaccine to support the program. An attenuated live virus vaccine, developed by the Army Medical Department, was used to vaccinate three million horses, an estimated 95 percent of the horses in the southern tier of nineteen states. The widespread immunity produced in the equine population is regarded as the most effective of the measures used to control the disease. The Department of Defense continues to co-operate with the Department of Agriculture and other federal and state agencies and universities in an extensive surveillance program to detect any possible spread of the disease.

The entire expertise and capability to control exotic diseases cannot be expected to reside within any one federal agency. The combined efforts of several agencies are required to control disease emergencies. This was made apparent once again on March 14, 1972, when another national animal disease emergency was declared, this time-an outbreak of Newcastle's disease in poultry in California. In response to a request for assistance from the Department of Agriculture, the Department of


Defense assigned over 200 military personnel to a task force in California, including 40 military veterinarians and approximately 160 noncommissioned officers. Professional and technical assistance was gradually reduced, and assistance is scheduled to be terminated in September 1972. By that time the Department of Agriculture will have had time to develop other resources to continue a program to eradicate the disease. The military veterinarians assisted with inspection, investigation of suspected cases, review of confirmed cases, and quarantine enforcement, while noncommissioned officers were used to supervise vaccination teams throughout the area.

While control of exotic animal diseases is not a mission of the military services, the Department of Defense by agreement stands ready to assist the Department of Agriculture in animal disease emergencies.

During fiscal year 1972 the U.S. Army Dental Corps provided almost six million dental treatments in Army facilities worldwide. This included 235,100 treatments in Southeast Asia. The breakdown of treatment by category of patients was as follows:

Category  Number of Treatments
Army  3,549,903
Navy/Marine  32,476
Air Force  54,042
Dependents  1,835,328
All Others *  498,945

* The "all others" category consists mostly of retired personnel, but included Department of the Army civilians serving overseas or in isolated areas.

An Army Nurse Corps' Clinician Program was established in fiscal year 1972 to add a new dimension to patient care in the Army Medical Department, to help avert an impending shortage of medical officers in the volunteer Army, and to enhance career satisfaction in the Army Nurse Corps.

Nurse clinicians will assume progressively increased responsibility for patient assessment, treatment, teaching, and follow-up care in those less complicated cases which now demand an excessive expenditure of the physician's time. In their established roles, the clinicians will offer to the soldier and his family improved personalized nursing care and services which will contribute to health maintenance, prevention of illness, and continuity of care. They will be utilized in outpatient as well as inpatient areas of Army medical treatment facilities.

The specialized clinical education required to prepare nurses for these new and expanded roles is being provided through three sources: revised existing Army Medical Department courses; development and implementation of new Army Medical Department training courses; and civilian educational programs. This will provide nurses with new skills in each of the nursing specialties (pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology.


medical-surgical, psychiatry, health, anesthesia, and operating room) and promote increased intra- and inter-disciplinary planning and consultation in meeting the comprehensive health needs of the military community. The graduation of the first class from the three new nurse clinician courses established in fiscal year 1972-ambulatory care, obstetrics-gynecology, and pediatrics-heralded a new dimension in Army nursing. By year's end the graduates were in their new assignments, pioneering the new practice roles. Priority in assignment was given to Class I medical facility outpatient services.

The pediatric nurse clinician is assuming major responsibility in the care of the normal child in the outpatient setting. When indicated, and within guidance established by the pediatrician, the nurse clinician is referring children to physicians, Army health nurses, other health disciplines, and community agencies. The ambulatory care nurse clinicians are functioning within locally established guidelines in the clinical management of selected adult patients with acute minor illnesses or chronic but stabilized health problems. A major goal of their practice is to assist patients and families to accept and assume knowledgeable responsibility for participating in identifying their own health needs and in planning and providing for those needs. In hospitals where family practice physicians are assigned, nurse clinicians and Army health nurses are working with those physicians to provide a family-centered health program.

Psychiatric-mental health nurse clinicians are providing primary care for selected individuals, groups, and families in collaboration with other mental health therapists. In addition to the traditional inpatient care role, nurse clinicians are providing crisis care or consultative mental health services throughout the hospital and are participating in psychiatric day care programs. The obstetric-gynecologic nurse clinician, working within locally established guidelines defined through nurse-physician collaboration, is providing selected diagnostic, therapeutic, health maintenance, education, and counseling services to women requiring obstetrical and gynecological services. They are also involved in making appropriate referrals and co-ordinating the details of care with other health team members and agencies, as well as planning and conducting individual and group conferences to provide education and guidance for health maintenance, family planning, and preparation for childbirth.

Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, was chosen as the site for the Army's Physicians' Assistant Program (see the fiscal year 1971 report). This new health assistant is a skilled person qualified by academic and practical training to provide patient services under the supervision and direction of a physician who is responsible for the performance of the assistant.


The first class of sixty students began the eighteen-month training in February 1972. Upon successful completion of the course the candidate will be awarded an Associate of Science degree from Baylor University and will be appointed as a warrant officer. Two classes a year, started six months apart, will graduate approximately 120 physician assistants per year.

Physician assistants will be utilized mainly in three areas: the maneuver battalion, troop clinics, and ambulatory care facilities. In these areas they will provide a primary source of medical care, conduct routine sick call, be available for emergency treatment, and perform other specialized procedures under the direction of the supervisory physician. The first graduates were in their new assignments at year's end, pioneering the new practice roles. Priority for assignment was given to Class I medical facility outpatient services.

The U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) expanded its research program during the year and joined with other government agencies to improve the national environment. The command's primary areas of responsibility include: scientific investigation to determine environmental standards for unique Army pollutants; research on the establishment of standards to enable the direct re-use of treated waste water for drinking and other uses; investigations concerning the health effects of solid waste disposal; pesticides and pesticide container disposal; development of criteria for waste treatment process and pollution control devices to provide protection for health and welfare; and the development of analytical procedures and monitoring techniques to provide for accurate and timely measurement of pollutants emanating from Army activities.

The command's research program was further expanded to establish a drug abuse research effort to provide immediate assistance to deal with drug abuse and alcoholism. The program has three objectives: to identify and diagnose drug abuse; to survey the prevalence and incidence of drug abuse in the Army; and to evaluate medical drug abuse programs embracing identification, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

A noteworthy accomplishment of Army medical research grew out of the command's participation in the massive vaccination program to control the spread of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis, previously noted. The vaccine was developed by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, an element of the USAMRDC. Earlier, the institute had provided about two million doses of the live attenuated virus vaccine, through State Department channels, to Mexico and other Central and South American countries.

On February 19, 1972, the Secretary of Defense authorized an


accelerated health facilities modernization program to replace outmoded and inadequate facilities, some dating back to 1941 or earlier. The Army requirement for total modernization was estimated at $514 million in construction and alteration costs; under the program this would be spread over the five-year period from fiscal year 1974 through 1978.

In the meantime, health facilities construction programing continued at a normal rate of about $40 million per year with the exception of fiscal year 1972, where the allocation was in excess of $112 million due to the inclusion of the Walter Reed General Hospital replacement. The fiscal year 1971 military construction program provided for the relocation and expansion of utilities, construction of interim hospital facilities, and demolition of existing buildings preparatory to construction of the new Walter Reed facility in Washington, D.C. This work was carried out during fiscal year 1972 and a clear construction site was available as the year closed. The contract was awarded and approval to proceed with the construction of the main hospital building followed. This is a 1,280 bed facility with an estimated cost of $113,551,000. Also included in the year's programs were the alteration of hospital buildings at Brooke General Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, a hospital addition at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and a new dental clinic at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

A number of other medical construction projects were started, well under way, or completed during the year. Three hospitals were completed: Cutler Army Hospital with 116 beds at Fort Devens, Massachusetts; Silas B. Hays Army Hospital with 440 beds at Fort Ord, California, and Moncreif Army Hospital with 440 beds at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. All three included outpatient and specialized clinic and treatment facilities and a small dental facility.

Started during the period were clinic additions to Patterson Army Hospital, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, and Womack Army Hospital, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Well in progress as the year closed were: William Beaumont General Hospital, Fort Bliss, Texas; U.S. Army Hospital, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana; U.S. Army General Hospital, Fort Gordon, Georgia; clinic additions to Dewitt Army Hospital, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Kimbrough Army Hospital, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, and Dunham Army Hospital, Carlisle, Pennsylvania; and modernization of the 97th General Hospital; Frankfurt, Germany.

Among other medical projects under way during the year were a dental clinic at Fort Polk, Louisiana, a Medical Field Service School at Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, a mental hygiene clinic at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the Western Medical Institute of Research, Presidio of San Francisco, California. And finally,


a number of other medical construction projects that were completed were a dental clinic at Fort Lee, Virginia, various community facilities (commissary, post exchange, cafeteria, bank, clothing store, and bowling lanes) at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, at Forest Glen, Maryland, an Optical Laboratory and School, Fitzsimons General Hospital, Denver, Colorado, and a part of the Medical Biological Research Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Maryland.


Medical projects comprised only one part of the Army's military construction program. Family and troop housing were a major element in an area where shortages represented a long-standing problem. This program was given impetus and dollars when studies conducted for the Modern Volunteer Army disclosed that dissatisfaction over living conditions was one of the main objections to Army life.

The Secretary of Defense, recognizing that bachelor housing criteria had not kept pace with evolving social patterns, issued new criteria that provided for more living space and more privacy. As these improvements increased construction costs, the Congress raised the statutory limitations on barracks and bachelor officer quarters. In consonance with the new criteria for barracks, the Army developed new building designs with emphasis on privacy for the individual. Out of architectural studies evolved designs for a three-man room with bath for enlisted grades E-2 to E-4, a two-man room with bath for grades E-5 to E-6, and a private room with bath for enlisted grades E-7 to E-9.

Adoption of the new criteria had two effects: new barracks could be built to replace the wooden structures of World War II vintage, and existing permanent barracks could be modernized to bring them up to the new standards.

The long-range total requirement for barracks worldwide is estimated to be approximately 536,000 spaces. Of the 315,000 existing permanent barracks spaces, only about 113,000 may be considered adequate. To meet the goals, barracks must be built or completely modernized for about 423,000 men before the end of the decade, a program estimated to cost approximately $1.35 billion.

The deficit in barracks and bachelor housing projected for fiscal year 1973 is shown in the chart on page 94.

To overcome this deficit that existed as of the close of fiscal year 1972, the Army programed $240 million for fiscal year 1974 for new bachelor housing construction, and $148 million for modernization. If the Congress authorizes and funds the program, about a third of the bachelor housing deficiency can be overcome. Continued financial


New Construction Spaces Fiscal Year 1973
Budget Dollars
Cost, (Millions)
Barracks  86,000  $ 587.0
BOQ's  4,542  59.1
     U.S.  129,000  322.5
     Overseas  43,200  64.9
BOQ's  9,430  18.8
  272,172  $ 1,052.3

support in following years would make it possible to eradicate the deficit late in the 1970s.

In the area of family housing, the Army's long-range objective is to extend eligibility to all married soldiers except trainees when sufficient housing is available. Surveys covering all E-4's were conducted in 1972 to determine family housing requirements as an aid in future housing programing. The family housing program is designed not only to provide adequate quarters either on post or in the civilian community but also to modernize existing housing to meet new standards, maintain existing housing adequately, provide sufficient replacement furniture overseas, and provide government-owned clothes washers and dryers in oversea housing.

In fiscal year 1972 the Army prepared a family housing program for the 1970s that would head toward these goals. A tabulation of key items and the portions allocated to fiscal years 1973 and 1974 and pending approval follows:

  Fiscal Year
Program for the Seventies    1973  1974
New Units  33,600 units  4.409 units  6,135 units
Mobile Home Spaces  5,400 spaces  421 spaces  825 spaces
Improvements  $148 million (25 million per year)  $23 million  $28 million
Leases  10,000 level/year  4,122 leases  6,929 leases
Deferred Maintenance   $147 million
Backlog Reduction  $25 million per year  $12 million  $19 million
Furniture Replacement  $217 (15 million per year)  $16 million  $15 million
Clothes Washers and Dryers  $14 million  (Over 3-year period)  $7 million  $5 million

Military Justice, Conduct and Discipline, Legal Affairs

During fiscal year 1972 the Army's absent-without-leave (AWOL) and desertion rates declined from the peaks experienced in both areas in fiscal year 1971. There was a decline of 6 percent in the AWOL rate and 15 percent in the desertion rate from the previous year.

There were several reasons for this improvement. The downturn in the Vietnam War was a significant factor. Better management was exercised in personnel control facilities. Fewer soldiers were sent overseas. And the over-all effects of personnel quality improvement and stabilization were being increasingly felt.


After a year of planning, the Army's Deserter Information Point became operational on January 1, 1972, within the U.S. Army Enlisted Personnel Support Center at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana. Adjutant General and Provost Marshal General responsibilities were combined into a single activity. The Deserter Information Point's mission is to verify the status of individuals reported dropped from the rolls of their organizations as deserters; to enter the names of those individuals into the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Crime Information Center; to distribute warrants to civilian and military law enforcement officials; to remove the names of deserters from the National Crime Information Center after they have been returned to military control; and to make status determinations in specific deserter cases.

As the year closed, the Adjutant General and Provost Marshal General files on deserters had been merged, a current deserter inventory of about 25,000 verified cases had been compiled, contact had been established with military law enforcement authorities throughout the United States and with their civilian counterparts in major population centers, erroneous apprehensions had been reduced, and a number of administrative procedures had been refined, such as, for example, the waiting period at oversea replacement stations before an individual was listed as AWOL. A number of major problems were also identified and discussed at a conference held in June 1972 at the Enlisted Personnel Support Center and attended by Army representatives from around the world.

The number of courts-martial dropped sharply in fiscal year 1972, a trend reflecting the reduction in overseas deployment and the reduction in the over-all size of the Army, as well as the previously mentioned programs of personnel quality control and stabilization. A comparison of the numbers of general, special, and summary courts-martial for 1971 and 1972 reveals the magnitude of the change:


  Convicted  Acquitted  Total
General  2,507  140  2,647
Special  25,920  2,074  27,994
Summary  13,907  1,084  14,991
     Total  42,334  3,298  45,632

* These data revised and refined from those in FY 1971 report.



  Convicted  Acquitted  Total
General  1,867  180  2,047
Special  15,239*  1,303  16,542*
Summary  12,134  793  12,927
     Total  29,240  2,276  31,516

* 931 of these were special courts-martial where a bad conduct discharge was included in the approved sentence.


In keeping with the Administration's effort to make 1972 a year in which the upward trend in crime would be reversed, the Army re-emphasized crime prevention at all levels of command and stressed the right of Army personnel and their dependents to feel safe and secure within the Army environment. The results of these efforts were reflected in favorable trends in the last two quarters of 1972; rates of crimes of violence, crimes against property, and drug offenses were down about 10 percent when compared with the highest quarterly experience of the last two fiscal years. Efforts were directed at preventing crime, improving security, enhancing the capabilities of Army law enforcement elements, refining reporting procedures, keeping Army leaders fully informed of trends, and emphasizing that crime is everybody's business.

Despite all of these efforts, there were 31,229 cases during the year ending November 30, 1971 in which members of the U.S. Army overseas were charged with offenses that were subject to the jurisdiction of foreign courts. In 15,624 of these cases, the offenses charged were solely violations of foreign law, and thus subject to exclusive foreign jurisdiction. The remaining 15,605 cases involved alleged violations of both United States military law and foreign law, over which the foreign country had the primary right to exercise jurisdiction. Foreign authorities waived that right in 14,818 (95 percent) of these cases. Of the 15,605 members of the U.S. Army who were finally tried by foreign courts, only 90 received sentences to unsuspended confinement.

Over the past year, internal improvement rather than external legislative change was stressed in the evolutionary development of the Army's military justice system. Amendments to the military justice regulation, published as Change 8 to AR 27-10, placed a number of improvements in effect on December 15, 1971. The new provisions provided for a formal mechanism of legal consultation for an individual prior to making his election as to whether he will accept an Article 15 punishment or reject it and demand trial by court-martial; required that the actual imposition of punishment under Article 15 be by the commander in person so as to obtain the maximum amount of counseling potential from the procedure; and required that the results of Article 15 punishment be posted upon the unit bulletin board so as to insure that punishments are imposed in an impartial manner.

The amendment also provided for the issuance of search warrants by military judges. This new power on the part of military judges in no way derogates the traditional power of commanders to authorize searches and seizures within their commands; rather it is a new power concurrent with that of the commander and is intended to reduce the number of searches held inadmissible in court because of an inadequate


showing of probable cause to conduct a search. A further change, under consideration as the year closed, would provide for the permanent inclusion in military personnel records of Article 15 punishment, which would make these records available in connection with all personnel actions concerning an individual.

In late fiscal year 1971 the Committee for the Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Administration of Military Justice (Matheson Committee) submitted its report. It found that the system of military justice was sound, but found that among young officers there was a certain amount of discontent concerning it. The basis of that discontent was found to be a lack of knowledge and understanding of how to function as commanders within the military justice system.

In response to the findings, the Office of The Judge Advocate General developed several projects to inform laymen concerning the military justice system and to educate non-lawyers with legal responsibilities in meeting these legal requirements. The program was also designed to reduce delays in courts-martial and Article 15 processing times by helping commanders and other leaders to function more effectively within the system. Four new Army pamphlets were published covering convening authorities, charge sheets, correctional custody, and other legal matters for use at various levels. A Senior Officers' Legal Orientation course was established at The Judge Advocate General's School, Charlottesville, Virginia, and military justice instruction was made mandatory in officer basic and advanced courses and in Officer Candidate School.

A legal center pilot program was also established in U.S. Army, Europe and, on a test basis, at Fort Carson, Colorado, and Fort Belvoir, Virginia, staffed by judge advocates, to supervise the processing of legal actions.

Following a lengthy test of the Military Magistrate program, the Commander in Chief, U.S. Army, Europe, in July 1971 delegated to military magistrates the authority to arrange the release of pretrial confinees under certain circumstances. A military magistrate -a field grade judge advocate- was appointed for each of the two USAREUR stockades. A pretrial confinement checklist accompanies each accused to pretrial confinement; the magistrate examines the seriousness of the offense, the accused's record, and whether the accused has dependents in the command. After thorough investigation, the magistrate makes his decision concerning release.

In October 1971 The Judge Advocate General launched an extensive minority recruiting drive. Annual recruiting visits were made to law schools approved by the American Bar Association and to law schools with substantial minority enrollment. As a result of this cam-


paign, 17 applications were received requesting appointment in the judge Advocate General's Corps; 14 students, 11 of them black, were selected for duty in fiscal year 1973 following admission to practice.

As another part of the minority recruiting program, a summer intern program was established authorizing the hiring of 100 law students for employment in the Army legal offices in the United States and Europe; 96 participated in the first summer, 19.9 percent of them female, 23.7 percent minority group members. Eight of the students were employed in Europe as assistant counsel for courts-martial; two were black, including one female, and a white female was in the group.

In June 1972, a contract was executed with the National Bar Foundation, the executive arm of the predominantly black National Bar Association, to recruit minority lawyers for the Corps. The Foundation will undertake a threefold recruiting program, designing and disseminating information, visiting law school and bar associations to recruit candidates, and serving as a central clearing house to process requests and refer potential applicants to the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

A major effort was made to increase the number of black judge advocates in Europe. Over half of the Army's black judge advocates are assigned there, and the total was raised from three in March to eight in May 1972, with one black judge advocate assigned as a fulltime special court-martial judge.

In April 1972 the Army's first course of instruction to train legal clerks opened at the U.S. Army Adjutant General's School. The course is of 7 weeks and 3 days' duration, and graduates will be utilized to eliminate the approximate 50 percent shortage of legal clerks in the Army.

Fiscal year 1972 was a period of evaluation and expansion of the Army's Pilot Legal Assistance Program, whose establishment and initial test in New Jersey were covered in last year's report. Between February 1, 1971, and January 31, 1972, the New Jersey experience was appraised and four additional jurisdictions-Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, and Alaska-were added to the test program. Senior staff' judge advocates stationed at large military installations within these states were relied upon to provide immediate direction under the over-all guidance of The Judge Advocate General.

Initial steps were to obtain approval and support from local courts and bar associations, whose acceptance was a key condition to court appearances by out-of-state Army lawyers. Whether judge advocate officers not admitted to practice in the test jurisdictions could appear as counsel in their courts was one problem; whether the civilian bar was prepared to share potential clients-impecunious as these soldiers


and their dependents might be-with Army legal assistance lawyers was another. By the close of the year, the results of testing in the five states were mixed. The greatest resistance tended to come from members of the private bar who saw the plan as a threat to their livelihood. Candid appraisal indicates that the program is unacceptable at the present time to the bars of Alaska and Kansas; when the tests ran into antipathy and distrust in these jurisdictions the Army suspended them. Problems remained in Arizona and Colorado.

The disappointing results in those four states were offset to some extent by the noteworthy success achieved by the program in New Jersey. Centered at Forts Dix and Monmouth, the Pilot Legal Assistance Program has accepted over 800 cases, over 200 of them involving in-court appearances by military lawyers on behalf of soldier clients. The key factor was the enthusiastic attitude of the New Jersey bar towards the program. The cases may be classified into four general categories: small claims, landlord/tenant, domestic relations, and criminal offenses. In keeping with the criterion of limiting assistance to those who could be honestly classed as indigent, no cases were accepted where the client could afford the services of a civilian attorney (of about 1,000 clients interviewed each month, only 4 percent qualified for legal services under the financial eligibility test). Approximately 25 percent of the clients served were black, and these soldiers and their dependents are reported to be pleased with the comprehensive services provided by their military lawyers.

To conduct the test program at Forts Monmouth and Dix, five additional judge Advocate General's Corps captains were assigned to each installation as overstrength, appropriate clerical staff was hired, and the respective law libraries expanded to include more local materials. The general acceptance and success of the program in New Jersey provides a model for eventual application in other jurisdictions.

The Army's final report on the Army Pilot Legal Assistance Program was forwarded to the Secretary of Defense on May 10, 1972.

The misconduct connected with the operation of service clubs, open messes, and exchanges over the past several years, which led to litigation in a number of cases, prompted a number of internal and external investigations, reorganizations, and revision of procedures. Several congressional committees held hearings, and committee representatives visited a number of Army installations to appraise contract performance relating to interior design, construction, remodeling, furnishing, and decorating of officer and NCO clubs. Various nonappropriated fund activities were examined and Army witnesses were called before the Special Subcommittee on Nonappropriated Funds


Within the Department of Defense to testify on a broad range of programs, projects, and funds.

At the same time, the Army retained a national consulting firm to study the structure of the Army club system and propose a concept that would be more effective in eliminating malpractices and improving the quality of goods and services for the troops. Traditionally, the' supervision of nonappropriated funds below the departmental level had been the responsibility of field commanders. At the headquarters level, only a few people had been assigned the task of keeping track of a worldwide system of some 500 messes with about 800 additional branches, and with total revenues in calendar year 1971, for example, of $276.6 million. Thus in December 1971 the Secretary of the Army approved the establishment of a Directorate of Nonappropriated Funds under the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, with one of his four divisions handling clubs and open messes. The directorate compared and tested existing and new concepts of supervision of club administration, identified the need for increased training for all personnel connected with club management, and, as the year closed, was studying a proposal for a Club Management Agency that would provide professional club management and technical assistance.

In addition to these developments, a proposal that credit cards be introduced in officer club operation was tested with successful results, and a decision by the Secretary of the Army to remove and ban slot machines throughout the Army led to a consideration of other possible sources of revenue to support clubs and open messes.

Voting Assistance and Community Service

On December 14, 1971, the Department of the Army Voting Assistance Officer function was transferred from the Chief of Information to The Adjutant General. The program embraces responsibility for developing policy and procedures to implement the Army's part of the Federal Voting Assistance Program by providing technical advice and assistance within the Army. The Army is concerned primarily with insuring that voting information is disseminated at all levels of command to all eligible personnel; that the Federal Post Card Application for Absentee Ballot is delivered to all personnel; and that special assistance is provided to military voters as required.

The enfranchisement of the 18- to 20-year-old citizen through the 26th Constitutional Amendment required an expanded effort in this field within the military services. It was estimated that over 675,000 new voters in the armed forces would be eligible to vote insofar as age requirements were concerned. Qualified voting assistance officers and counselors were appointed throughout the Army to inform, assist,


advise, and, encourage eligible military personnel, civilian employees overseas, and their dependents to register and vote by the absentee process.

During the year, more than 25 assistance visits and inspections were made to selected Army installations by voting representatives from Department of the Army Headquarters. Several guides were published and a publicity campaign of nonpartisan nature was launched, including active use of the service news media, films, magazines, bulletins, and posters. Reports from major Army commands and the Army Staff confirmed the effectiveness of the program.

During fiscal year 1972 the Army Community Service (ACS) held a workshop for representatives from all major commands operating a community service program. A film depicting the services available was released, a volunteer handbook was published, and an orientation course for newly assigned officers was prepared for launching in fiscal year 1973. There were 168 ACS centers in operation in the year, with 318 fulltime paid staff and over 4,000 volunteers answering over a million requests for services.

Revitalization of the Inspector General System

As the armed forces are a reflection of the society they serve, it was only natural that the social unrest of recent years should be reflected in the military and would call the Inspector General System increasingly into play. Although the system was operational and adequate, nothing stands still, and an examination of the system's role indicated that certain refinements in direction and in the capabilities of inspectors general to meet expanding requirements would make the system even more effective.

Thus during fiscal year 1972 a number of actions were taken that placed increased emphasis on people and the things that affect them most directly: increased emphasis was placed on selecting the highest caliber of personnel for assignment as inspectors general; the orientation given to officers detailed as inspectors general was improved; acting inspectors general were given closer supervision and more careful guidance; it was emphasized that inspectors general must be fully responsive to the interests of the individual and the Army; commanders were reminded of the need to recognize the value of close co-ordination with their inspectors general; and the value to the individual of duty as an inspector general was stressed.

The effectiveness of the Inspector General system was found to be enhanced when realistic goals and standards were established by commanders in co-ordination with their inspectors general, and when those standards and goals were understood by members of the command. One


of the major steps taken has been to increase the visibility and accessibility of inspectors general to Army personnel.

Civilian Personnel

Civilian strength in the Department of the Army for total military and civil functions remained relatively stable during the year, declining by only 1.4 percent from 486,359 at the beginning of the year to 479,529 on June 30, 1972. Despite the small decrease in total strength there was considerable change within the work force. Nearly every command was working to stay within reduced budgets, eliminating jobs, and experiencing small reductions in force. The Department minimized the impact of reductions through hiring freezes and the maximum use of attrition. Over 13,000 employees retired, including 3,562 who received discontinued -service annuities.

While these cuts were going on, however, new mission requirements in support of the National Guard, the Modern Volunteer Army concept, and the control of drug abuse required additional staffing which resulted in a small net increase in employment within the United States.

Declining commitments in Southeast Asia led to a reduction of 11,469 employees or 40 percent of the local national work force in Vietnam. Modest reductions of local national employees also occurred in Japan and Korea. Slightly more than 12,000 local national employees on Okinawa were converted from direct hire to indirect hire status upon the reversion of the Ryukyu Islands to Japanese control.

The Department continued to emphasize equal employment opportunity (EEO) during the year. A special study was conducted to determine progress in implementing Army-wide and local EEO plans of action and to identify changes needed to assure continued program progress. Recommendations of the study for improved supervisor training, better installation level planning, and enlargement of EEO staff were being put into effect as the year closed.

The proportion of minority employees of the department remained unchanged during the year at 16.2 percent despite the numerous reductions in force and shifting missions. It is apparent that strength reduction and work force changes are not disproportionately affecting minority group employees.

In September 1971 an EEO plan of action for women was developed to increase opportunities for women in higher level jobs. The plan established numerical goals and timetables and provided for special counseling efforts to prepare women for advancement to mid-level positions. Late in the year the department awarded a contract for a study to be made of the utilization of women within the Army.

At the beginning of the year the Department of the Army became


the executive agent for the Department of Defense for the recruitment of professional educators for the DOD Dependents School System overseas. A major effort was made to increase the number of minority teachers employed in Europe. Intensive recruitment efforts extended to all major metropolitan areas of the United States. Despite the competitive demand for minority educators, 21 percent of the 603 teachers recruited for assignments in Europe were minority. This represented a significant gain in the minority proportion of the oversea teaching staff.

The Department successfully used a variety of special employment programs during fiscal year 1972, surpassing even its outstanding record of previous years in this area. Summer employment of youth again exceeded goals, totaling over 17,000 and including 9,627 young people in the disadvantaged youth category.

A major effort was made to provide employment for Vietnam era veterans. Almost 10,900 veterans were hired representing 14 percent of all gains to Army installations during the year. This figure is double that of the previous year. About 1,700 of these appointments were made under the Veterans Readjustment Authority. In fulfilling its special obligation to veterans, the Department used a variety of methods including temporary limited appointments, special training programs, and job engineering to adjust jobs where practicable to the limited qualifications of many of the young veterans.

The Office of the Judge Advocate General launched a new summer program designed to expose first- and second-year law students to the Army's military justice system. Emphasis was placed on hiring minorities to the maximum extent possible. Appointments were made under the Federal Summer Intern Program and 96 law students were hired.

The number of handicapped employees hired during fiscal year 1972 increased significantly over fiscal year 1971 from 469 to 733, representing a 56 percent improvement. This increase is attributable in great part to the additional efforts made at many installations and commands to employ the handicapped.

The number of Army-wide civilian career programs providing for the orderly intake, training, placement, and progression of civilian careerists increased from 15 to 17. The addition of two new career programs for employees in the fields of communications and manpower management will significantly expand the 84,407 positions now covered by career programs. Intake of interns into the career management system was curtailed during the year in response to reduced need. Even so, the Department maintained 2,900 interns in the program.

In 1968 an Army Program Review was made of civilian career management which resulted in 18 recommendations for improvement. Action has now been completed on 16 of those recommendations. Pro-


gram improvements have been in the areas of career intern intake, intern training, and the central inventory and referral operation. Careerists in all career programs will have continuing benefit from the over-all improvements in the administration and management of the career system.

The Civilian Career Program for Transportation Management was implemented during fiscal year 1972 with the Army-wide registration of approximately 600 professional employees. By June 30, 1972, 20 referral lists had been furnished to individual Army activities for vacant positions at grades GS-13 and above. Plans for establishing a formal intern training facility were in process at year end.

During fiscal year 1972, a new career program document, Civilian Personnel Regulation (CPR) 950-17, was prepared for the establishment of the Army Civilian Career Program for Materiel Maintenance Management. The program, as planned, expanded the Equipment Specialist Career Program to include all equipment specialists, plus other professional personnel involved in maintenance management. The approved document will be distributed early in fiscal year 1973. Implementation involves the registration of employees, establishment of screening panels, and preparation of referral lists. Equipment Specialist training centers will continue to support the materiel maintenance management program.

In connection with the Supply Management Center Program, career screening panels reviewed the records of over 5,000 management employees, GS-12 and above, in preparation for the development of Army wide referral lists. During fiscal year 1972, 166 referral lists (containing approximately 2,000 names) were prepared for DA vacancies. Career program improvements included a published revision of CPR 950-13 which updated career training and development requirements.

On July 7, 1971, the Logistics Doctrine, Systems and Readiness Agency (LDSRA) was tasked with developing the program elements and an implementing document of a Capstone Program for Civilian Logistics. This will fulfill an objective established in 1968 by the DOD Long Range Logistics Manpower Policy Board that each service develop a "Capstone" Logistic Career Program for senior logistic positions tailored to the specific needs of the agency. In addition to program elements, LDSRA will determine types or categories of senior-level civilian logisticians needed, and the specific coverage of a Capstone Program. During fiscal year 1972, some analysis was made of the types and categories of positions to be covered, and an initial draft of the Capstone Program document was prepared.

In response to the President's desire to improve the quality of top federal executives, the department has established a system to assure


identification and development of Army employees with executive potential. The Army system will concentrate on identifying key positions which need to be filled by highly competent managers; identifying a select group of highly qualified, well-motivated employees who have potential for assuming executive-level positions; and providing training and career development opportunities for those individuals. The Army's executive development program will use many of the features of the Army's civilian career system. As part of the program, individual training and development plans will be prepared for all super-grade employees and for middle-level executives who show potential for advancement to top grades.

The employee suggestion program is a device used to improve the efficiency of the department by putting into effect the ideas of its employees. The quality of suggestions submitted by civilian employees and military personnel improved significantly. The Army's tangible benefits from this program increased by $14 million this year to savings estimated at $87 million. .

Union membership among Army employees continued to grow, but at a much slower rate than during the previous year. At the end of the year there were 215,200 employees in organizations for which unions had been recognized as the exclusive representative, an increase of 11,400 over the prior year.

The growing importance of labor negotiations was recognized and given emphasis. The department developed a new training course aimed at increasing the capabilities of experienced management negotiators. Comprehensive labor relations training continued to be given, with 330 commanders, managers, supervisors, and personnel specialists attending courses sponsored by the department. In addition, extensive training efforts were carried on at the local level using centrally prepared materials.

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) asked all federal agencies to reduce their average GS grade level beginning with fiscal year 1972. The military departments were required to maintain their June 30, 1971, average grade at the end of fiscal year 1972 and to reduce average grade by .15 of a GS grade in each of the succeeding two fiscal years.

The Army's plan to reduce the average grade was approved by OMB and placed in effect in the first quarter of fiscal year 1972. This plan required the development of reorganization plans as the first step in local implementation and established a formula for estimating the cost of average grade changes. Action to reduce average grade was accomplished by the use of attrition, reorganization, selective hiring freezes, and restructuring of civilian positions to lower grades. The Department


successfully met the first year's goal. The June 30, 1971, average grade of 7.7372 was reduced to 7.6048 by June 30, 1972.

As a result of the VOLAR test program concluded during the year, it became apparent that civilian support of the Modern Volunteer Army program and military and civilian co-operation in implementing this program are essential to its success. Special emphasis was placed on providing prompt and courteous service to soldiers in areas such as Special Services, Finance and Accounting, and Post Exchange. In support of this effort, seminars were developed which provided information to employees on how to improve the quality of services provided to military personnel and their families.

Civilianization of tasks not related to military effectiveness continued during fiscal year 1972. Authority was granted by the Civil Service Commission to give employment preference to the dependents of soldiers stationed in overseas areas. This authority proved effective in providing employment to military dependents. It applies to many full-time, summer, and student employment areas and is particularly useful in enabling overseas commands to employ soldiers' wives.


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Last updated 27 August 2004