Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1983
The Army National Guard (ARNG) and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), which are organized into units with wartime missions that are capable of mobilizing within a specified period of time, are essential elements of the Total Army and major deterrents to war. A joint statement by Secretary of the Army Marsh, and Army Chief of Staff General Wickham in May 1982, before Congress, sums up the Army's reserve components chief contributions to the Total Army.
With the adoption of our Total Army policy in the early 1970s and increased global responsibilities, the contributions of the Army Reserve have become critical-possibly even decisive-because when mobilized (they) augment, reinforce, support and sustain the active force, as well as expand the training and logistics bases. They are a cost-effective means of fulfilling these essential functions, and they are also an important indicator of national resolve.
In FY 83, our reserve forces were full participants with the active force in the Total Army's modernization drive and its commitment to excellence.
To meet Total Army requirements for flexible and well trained reserve forces, the ARNG modernized some elements of its force structure this year. The ARNG organized, under series TOEs, the 48th Infantry Brigade to enhance its performance as a roundout brigade, and the 2d Battalion of the 120th Infantry and 1st Battalion of the 263d Armor to align them properly with their active parent organizations. Consistent with modernization, the ARNG converted a military police group headquarters to a military police brigade headquarters in Michigan, a combat support hospital to a mobile Army surgical hospital in the District of Columbia, and another combat support hospital to an evacuation facility in Puerto Rico.
As a result of conferences with Kansas, Nebraska, Kentucky, Colorado, and Missouri, which will form the new 35th Infantry Division (Mechanized), the ARNG solidified the division's structure. Three existing separate brigades in Kansas, Nebraska, and Kentucky will form the nucleus of the new division, while the conversion of some existing nondivisional units and new activations in
the five cited states will provide additional structure. In late FY 84, the ARNG will activate the division at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where the division will also house its flag.
Other significant additions to the ARNG involved the organization of a Roland Battalion headquarters battery-the first in the Total Army-providing a base for an all-weather air defense and a headquarters, infantry battalion (mountaineer) and a TDA mountaineering school. The ARNG increased the existing MTOE (Modification Table of Organization and Equipment) infantry company (mountaineering) from level 3 enlisted to level 2; and will convert the TDA infantry battalion headquarters to a MTOE organization when the TOE for the mountain battalion comes out in April 1984. They also increased the Guam structure with the addition of a medical company (clearing), a signal company (wire and cable), and a combat support battalion headquarters (supply and service).
The management of ARNG force structure proved particularly challenging this fiscal year as a result of constraints imposed by the Army. Although the NGB was able to remain within the Army's force structure allowance while retaining all existing units that had not been programmed for conversion, constraints caused shortfalls in authorized spaces and hence in equipment for redistribution. In review of these shortfalls, the NGB requested from the Army flexibility in authorized spaces to cope with the problems of equipment distribution that recur each fiscal year.
Mobilization is one of the most significant concerns of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. Because of reductions in the support elements in the Active Component in recent years, the Total Army relies on the guard and reserve to support the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force and other contingencies with numerous early deploying forces. To support mobilization more effectively, the ARNG took a number of steps this year. It organized each of the fifty-four state and territorial headquarters organizations into State Area Commands (STARC), began the process of developing and documenting the mobilization STARC TDA, and began detailed planning for the reorganization of nine state-owned or -operated training sites, which are also mobilization stations, to provide organizational continuity in the transition from peacetime to mobilization. The Installation Support Units (ISU), as the sites are called, will perform a training mission in peacetime and upon mobilization to operate the mobilization station. ISU is programmed to receive funds over several fiscal years beginning in FY 85. The ARNG expects Army approval of the specific plans for each site before 31 March 1984. The nine sites are: Camp Atterbury, Indiana; Camp Robinson, Arkansas;
Gowen Field, Idaho; Camp Roberts, California; Camp Edwards, Massachusetts; Camp Blanding, Florida; Camp Shelby, Mississippi; Camp Grayling, Michigan; Camp Ripley, Minnesota.
Major units in the ARNG, as of 30 September 1983, are noted in Table 11.
TABLE 11 - ARMY NATIONAL GUARD MAJOR UNITS
30 September 1983
|Number of Units
|Type of Unit
|Infantry division (mechanized)
|Infantry brigades (separate)
|Infantry brigades (mechanized, separate)
|Armored brigades (separate)
|Armored cavalry regiments
|Special forces groups
|Infantry group (arctic reconnaissance)
|Separate combat and combat support battalion
|Separate companies and detachments
The Army National Guard provides 33 percent of the combat divisions of the Total Army, 73 percent of separate brigades, 29 percent of Special Forces groups, 57 percent of infantry battalions*, 100 percent of infantry battalions (TLAT [Tow Light Antitank Battalion]), 41 percent of infantry battalions (MX)*, 100 percent of infantry groups (Scout), 43 percent of armored battalions*, 57 percent of armored cavalry regiments, 51 percent of field artillery battalions*, and 30 percent of aviation units. (*Includes organic and separate).
The USAR units, on the other hand, constitute 32 percent of the Army's tactical support, 26 percent of general support forces, and 15 percent of the Army's nondivisional combat and special theater forces. Reserve units would deploy 20 percent of their units within thirty days of mobilization, some moving directly from their reserve center to ports of embarkation in order to meet deployment schedules, 64 percent of units between thirty and sixty days after mobilization, and practically all units within ninety days.
During the past year the Army Reserve had 84 unit activations, 15 unit in activations, and 30 conversions. These actions were part of the TAA process, which identified units within the structure that had limited or no current mobilization missions. The Army Reserve had five additional unit activations in Europe-one Military Intelligence (MI) detachment, one replacement regulatory detachment, and three forward elements of CONUS-based USAR units. Although designated as
augmentation units, these three units, under the command of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe (CINCUSAREUR), perform peacetime mobilization planning and assist with post mobilization deployment of the CONUS-based units for which they are designated.
Strength and Personnel Management
During FY 83, the assigned strength of the ARNG remained above 410,000 for the first time since the build up years of FY 66 through FY 68. Fiscal year 1983 ended with an assigned strength of 417,178,99.7 percent of the authorized strength and a net gain of 8,553 over the previous year. The ARNG achieved 100 percent of the paid end strength objective of 417.019 and 99.7 percent of the assigned end strength of 418,966.
Minority strength, however, fluctuated throughout the fiscal year, with gains in officer strength and a decline in enlisted strength. By 30 September 1983, the overall minority strength of 107,099 consisted of 3,877 ARNG officers and 103,222 enlisted personnel, comprising 25.6 percent of assigned strength. Black officers accounted of 1,867, a continued increase over the past years, and black enlisted personnel numbered 66,903 for a total of 68,770 or 16.5 percent of assigned strength. This percentage reflects a steady decline throughout the fiscal year.
The number of female personnel in the ARNG also fluctuated throughout the fiscal year with gains in officer strength and a decline in enlisted strength. By the end of fiscal year, officers numbered 2,051 and enlisted personnel equaled 20,012 for a total of 22,063 or 5.3 percent of total assigned strength.
The officer programs have continued to contribute quantity and quality to the ARNG strength gains. Accessions have been increasing steadily and have now reached the programmed level, just under that authorized by the force structure. At the end of FY 83, ARNG officer strength reached 41,678 or 99.7 percent of the budgeted program of 41,800 and 97.5 percent of the 42,759 authorized by force structure. Although the recruiting and retention of medical specialties, particularly physicians, remains a concern, the fielding of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) full-time recruiting force resulted in a significant increase in accessions during the fiscal year. Minority strength within the Officer Corps has risen to 9.3 percent and includes 181 field grade officers. Female officer strength has risen to 4.9 percent of the Officer Corps and includes 257 field grade officers.
The flow of officers from the ROTC has increased from approximately 10 percent in FY 79 to 34 percent in FY 83, and the ARNG has programmed ROTC accessions to increase to 40
percent of total accessions. The state Officer Candidate Schools, however, remain the primary source of career officers and best meet the particular needs of geographically dispersed units.
Enlistments for FY 83 totaled 89,103 or 100.1 percent of the programmed objective. The PS enlistments continued to exceed the programmed objective during the year, reaching 43,523 or 197.8 percent of the year's goal. The NPS enlistments, however, were below the objective for FY 83, for a total of 45,580 or 68.0 percent of the year's goal. Total gains in these two categories amounted to 51.2 percent NPS and- 48.8 percent PS.
Due to the outstanding efforts of the ARNG recruiters bonuses, incentives, and accession of top quality enlistees has remained high. By mid-year, NPS accessions in low test score category (TSC) IV comprised only 4.2 percent of new enlistees, well below the ARNG allowance of 12.0 percent. As of 30 September 1983, only 6.0 percent of NPS accessions tested in TSC IV, a decline from the 11.8 percent for the previous year. Also by midyear, ARNG enlistees with high school diplomas or high school senior enlistees reached 61.5 percent of accessions. This percentage, however, does not include the enlistment of individuals with General Education diplomas nor the junior and sophomore still in high school. By 30 September 1983, high school diploma graduates comprised 63.4 percent of total NPS enlistments.
Enlisted losses amounted to more than the programmed objective for the year, a reversal from the past five years. Total losses reached 81,933 or 101.5 percent of the objective. Also of continuing concern is the high rate of losses of people who had not completed their term of service (Non-Expiration of Term of Service or Non-ETS), which amounted to 63,098 or 108.8 percent of programmed objectives. This was partially offset, however, by the lower than expected loss rate of people who had completed their term of service (ETS). These losses equaled 18,835 or 83 percent of the objective. This meant a loss ratio of 77 percent Non-ETS to 23 percent ETS.
To support the FY 83 projected end strength of 417,019 with emphasis on quality enlistees, the ARNG implemented the following control measures effective 11 August through the end of the fiscal year. (1) NPS category IV male accessions must be high school diploma graduates or seniors; (2) NPS high school juniors, sophomores, and non-high school graduates must score in category III or above; (3) NPS female accessions must be high school diploma graduates or seniors, and score in category III or above; (4) PS (E6 or above) applicants may enlist only if a vacancy exists in MOS and grade.
As of 30 September 1983, the ARNG authorized overstrength in 723 units, with 344 units having overstrengths totaling 9,927.
Although 181 administrative units are not authorized overstrength, 104 of these units have an overstrength of 3,675. Since October 1981, consistent with congressional wishes, the ARNG has been making excellent progress in reducing the overstrength in these administrative units.
Several initiatives helped the ARNG recruitment program this year. The In-Service Recruiting (ISR) program continued its successful quality of PS referrals for ARNG. As a result, the ARNG experienced an 18 percent referral increase over the previous fiscal year. The ARNGs continued publishing of recruiting media material in the Army Times, Stars and Stripes, and Men's Military Pacific and European Network newspapers assisted the ISR referral mission. The addition of thirty-one Military Entrance Processing Station guidance counselors and fifty-one advertising sales promotion personnel during the year enhanced the fulltime recruiting and retention force. Recruiter support also received help from portable display units, local television public service, and localization of nationally produced ads and media material. The ARNG film, "America at Its Best," selected for use in film events held abroad and nationally, proved an instant recruiting asset this year. Active recruiting efforts by the AMEDD recruiting personnel and advertising of the AMEDD programs had a beneficial effect in reducing the critical shortage of physicians and physician assistants that currently exist. Inclusion of minorities in ARNG Advertising Media at the national level, particularly for minority officer accessions, increased during the year. Promotion of opportunities for minority enlisted as well as officer accessions remains a high priority for the ARNG.
With regard to the ARNG retention program this year, it achieved 102.2 percent of its extension goals, with 73,272 ARNG soldier extensions. The first term extension rate equaled 59.6 percent, and the career rate reached 73.3 percent, for a total retention rate of 70.7 percent this year.
The Inactive National Guard (ING) has the authority to retain soldiers who leave units of the ARNG before fulfilling their contracted term of service and to attach these individuals to their parent unit for administrative accounting purposes, keeping them available for deployment with their unit in the event of mobilization. The strength of the ING as of 30 September 1983 reached 9,448-610 officers and 8,838 enlisted personnel.
As for the USAR it numbered more than 476,000 this year. Over 256,260 members of the Army Reserve were in the Selected Reserve. Approximately 248,300 persons served in the units or in active support of the Army Reserve and another 8,000 were IMAs. In addition, more than 219,800 men and women held
positions in the IRR, which amounted to less than half of the desired target strength this year.
The FY 83 end strength for the IRR, Standby Reserve, and Retirees are noted in Table 12.
TABLE 12 - FISCAL YEAR 1983 ARMY RESERVE END STRENGTH
*Includes Active duty for training (AT), and Individual Mobilization
Augmentee (IMA) categories.
**Includes Retired Reserve and Regular Army Retirees
Equipment and Maintenance
This fiscal year the reserve forces probably enjoyed their most successful year in terms of equipment distribution in quite some time. The Army placed tremendous emphasis on providing new as well as displaced equipment to the guard and reserve as part of equipping the Total Army for combat readiness. For the first time, the USAR received new equipment such as the Black Hawk helicopter; the ARNG received M 1 Abrams tanks and M2 Bradleys. All told the Army distributed over $460 million in equipment to the reserve forces in FY 83.
Congress continued its interest in preparing the reserve forces and directed the procurement of equipment totaling $15 million for the USAR and $50 million for the ARNG. The reserve forces used these funds to procure essential items for early deploying troops. Communication and electronic goods, avionics and support equipment are examples of some of the items bought for the Army Reserve. ARNG units received armored personnel carriers, 5-ton cargo trucks, division level telephone switching systems, and division and corps-level multichannel radios and telephone transmitters.
The reserve forces received some of the major items of new equipment concurrent with their Active Component counterparts. The 1st Battalion, 252d Armor, North Carolina ARNG, a roundout unit of the 2d Armored Division, received sixty-three M 1 tanks and seven M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles during FY 83. The USAR, on the other hand, received two Black Hawk helicopters, as an exception to the policy of equipping those who fight first, so that the reserve units could train for their wartime mission.
In July 1983, General Maxwell R. Thurman, the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, directed the reserve forces to identify items of equipment that were not on-hand and considered essential for training. This program should benefit the training of the later deploying reserve forces in the use and maintenance of battlefield equipment.
Facilities and Construction
The Military Construction, Army Reserve (MCAR) program provides for the design and construction of a variety of facilities in support of the Army Reserve's training requirements and mobilization missions. Typical facilities include: USAR centers, organizational maintenance shops, equipment concentration sites, and weekend and annual training facilities. During FY 83, sixteen construction contracts were awarded for projects programmed at $28.5 million. Construction projects actually completed during the fiscal year and involving funds appropriated during prior years amounted to $45.8 million.
In addition to the MCAR program, the Congress appropriated Operation and Maintenance, Army Reserve funds to support the Real Property Maintenance Activities (RPMA) connected with the operation of reserve facilities. In this fiscal year $100.4 million was provided, an increase of $5.4 million over fiscal year 1982. The backlog of maintenance and repair requirements, however, grew from $71.2 million to $72.5 million during the year.
The ARNG Military Construction program received $55 million for new construction this fiscal year. Authorized construction included twenty-eight projects, totaling $27.1 million, and eleven other supply, training site, and administrative facility ventures totaling $9.3 million. This represented a decrease of $12.7 million from the FY 82 authorized program. During the year, the ARNG awarded twenty-eight of this year's authorized projects and nineteen of last year's carry over projects. The awards helped to stabilize the construction backlog at approximately $825 million, which reflects an inflationary increase over last year's level.
The ARNG operates 2,822 armories, 90 aviation facilities, 122 U.S. property and fiscal offices and warehouses, 1,075 logistical facilities, and 262 training sites. The federal government provides funds to operate and maintain these facilities with the exception of armories which state funds support. During FY 83, the U.S. government provided the states with $89.3 million to operate and maintain these non-armory facilities, which represents a 19.2 percent increase from FY 82.
Training and Readiness
The provision of meaningful mobilization readiness training to all IRR personnel who required it became an Army goal this year. The FY 83 training capability plan identified 19,712 officers and 6,905 enlisted personnel who needed readiness training in the form of military schooling or Active Army counterpart training. Budget constraints, however, limited the IRR Training Plan to 6,482 officer IMA tours; 1,401 officer and 586 enlisted Special Active Duty for Training tours; and 11,731 officer and 5,271 enlisted counterpart/school training tours.
To improve the combat readiness of the IRR, the Army organized a Force Modernization and Training Requirements Division in January 1983 with the mission of developing future training requirements and training plans to keep pace with the modernizing Army. The division published its IRR Training Plan for FY 84 in June 1983. The plan will provide meaningful mobilization training for up to 9,500 officers and warrant officers and 7,300 enlisted personnel. Also, from 9 to 23 September 1983, the 70th Division (Tng) from Livonia, Michigan, conducted a pilot program to provide combat skill refresher training of junior enlisted (Private and Specialist-4) members of the IRR. One hundred and five infantry men at Camp Atterbury, Indiana, participated. The USAR training divisions will expand this program, which proved highly successful as a means to sustain individual proficiency, for approximately 500 infantry and armor soldiers in FY 84.
The ARNG also improved combat readiness and mobilization ability through enhanced planning and training efforts this year. During the year, ARNG units executed a total of 439 External Army Training and Evaluation Training programs. Two ARNG roundout units (that roundout active divisions) underwent force modernization, receiving new equipment, going through new equipment training and converting to the J-Series MTOE under the Division 86 design. For the first time, an ARNG unit participated with an Active Army division in the NTC rotation program, and this year 218 units (up from nine units in FY 76) performed with Active Army units in overseas training exercises, such as REFORGER and DISPLAY DETERMINATION 83, both in Europe.
Support to Civil Authorities
The Army National Guard continued to respond to emergencies throughout the United States and its territories and to assist
in the preservation and protection of life and property and the maintenance of order. In FY 83, guard personnel responded to 511 emergencies in 48 states and territories and played an active role in support of law enforcement drug control operations. The involvement of the National Guard in different types of missions reflects not only better training but also public acceptance of the guard as a professional emergency force to protect the well-being of our fellow citizens.
A total of 1,112 members of the Army National Guard were called into action in FY 83 to handle ten civil disturbances in ten states. These operations included prison disorders, truckers and mine workers' strikes, antinuclear demonstrations, state employee strikes and shooting incidents. The National Guard made plans and preparations this year to counter possible large scale antinuclear demonstrations against a U.S. Army installation.
Natural disasters and other unpredictable emergencies continued to dominate guard operations. Natural disasters accounted for 129 call ups: 63 floods; 22 snow and ice storms; 12 forest and range fires; and 22 tornados. The remaining 10 natural disasters resulted from volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and an earthquake. The other 372 emergencies involved 127 medical evacuations, 71 search and rescue, 26 water hauls, 9 power outages, and 135 support missions. The total 511 emergencies in 48 states and territories involved 10,630 guard personnel and the use of 60,300 man-days.
Our reserve components made great progress this year by enhancing combat readiness and by becoming full partners in the total force. They did this through improved training, force structure and equipment modernization, more effective equipment distribution, closer ties with the Active Army, and assigned strength increases. The strength of the reserve components grew as a result of effective retention and successful recruiting, with the Army National Guard reaching within 1 percent of authorized levels. Due to the outstanding efforts of the retention force and to bonuses and incentives, accessions of top quality recruits remained high. Decreases in minority enlisted strength and the recruiting and retention of some specialties, however, remained a concern.
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Last updated 9 March 2004