BY the Act of Congress approved June 26, 1812, twenty-five regiments of infantry were provided for. Where the 23d Regiment was recruited is at present in doubt, but it is thought that it was recruited by Major J. R. Mullany near Canandaigua, N. Y. It took part during the three years of the war of 1812 in many of the battles and campaigns in New York and Canada.
By the Act of Congress approved March 3, 1815, the army was reduced and the 23d Infantry was consolidated with the 6th, 16th, 22d and 32d, to make the present Second Infantry.
Pursuant to the President's proclamation of May 4, 1861, confirmed by Act of Congress approved July 29, 1861, the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry was organized. Its second battalion was recruited at Fort Trumbull, Conn., under Lieutenant Colonel (afterwards Major General) John F. Reynolds, in the summer of 1861, but on April 30, 1862, its title was changed from the Second to the First Battalion, Company C of the Third becoming C of the Second Battalion.
The new second battalion was recruited at Fort Trumbull, Conn., under Major G. R. Giddings, in the spring of 1862, and this battalion now constitutes the 23d Infantry.
In May, 1862, the 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry, joined a provisional division under General Sturgis in the defenses of Washington, and until June 30 was camped at Tenally Town, D.C., and Clouds Mills, Virginia. July 1, 1862, the 2d Battalion was embarked on schooners and sent via the Potomac River, Fort Monroe and the James River to join the 1st Battalion. It joined at Harrison's Landing July 5, 1862, where Captain (afterwards brigadier general) D. B. McKibbin was assigned to its command.
From this time on, it, or some of its companies with the rest of the 14th Infantry, formed part of the 5th Corps which took its share in the campaigns and battles of the Army of the Potomac. The history of the 14th Infantry has already been well told by Colonel T. M. Anderson in the JOURNAL OF THE MILITARY SERVICE INSTITUTION of July, 1890.
In the last week in July, 1865, the 2d Battalion, under the command of Major Louis H. Marshall, sailed from New York City via Aspinwall en route to San Francisco, where it arrived about the 1st of September, and a fortnight later was sent to the Department of Columbia with headquarters at Vancouver.
The Act of Congress approved July 28, 1866, reorganized the army, and by the following general order, the 2d Battalion of the 14th became the 23d Regiment of Infantry:
"I. Under the act of July 28, 1866, the designation and organization of the regi-
ments by which the military peace establishment is increased and fixed will be as follows: The provisions of this order are in accordance with the condition of the army on, and are of effect from the 21st day of September, 1866.
"II. The 10 old regiments of infantry will retain their designation. The 1st battalion of the 3-battalion regiments will retain the designation of the regiment to which they belong and under the new organization will be the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th regiments of infantry. * * *
" The 2d battalions of the same regiments will under the new organization become respectively the 20th, 21st, 22d, 23d, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th regiments of infantry. * * * "
Companies "I" and "K" were organized at Davids Island, New York Harbor, by Orders No. 177, G. R. S., New York City, December 10, 1866, and these companies, under the command of 1st Lieutenant (now Captain) O. W. Pollock, left New York City, December 11, 1866, for Aspinwall, en route to San Francisco. They arrived at San Francisco, December 31, 1866, and were stationed about San Francisco harbor until March, 1867, at which time they were sent to join the regiment in the Department of the Columbia.
Since 1867 the companies of the regiment have been stationed in Oregon, Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Arizona, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Indian Territory, New York, Michigan and Texas, and during this time parts of the regiment have taken part in numerous Indian scouts and a number of Indian fights.
By the provisions of G. O. 76, A. G. O., July 21, 1890, companies I and K were skeletonized, and the regiment, now composed of eight companies, is at present stationed at Fort Sam Houston and Fort Bliss, Texas.
The following is a list of the 14 battles and engagements in which a part or the whole of the 23d Infantry was engaged during the War of 1812-15:
Queenston Heights, October 13, '12; Black Rock, November 28, '12; Fort George, U. C., May 27, '13; Stony Point and Sacketts Harbor, N. Y., May 29, '13; Stony Creek, U. C., June 6, '13; Beaver Dams, U. C., June 24, '13; Out Post affair, Fort George, U. C., August 24, '13; La Colle Mill, Canada, March 30, '14; Fort Erie, U. C., July 3, '14; Chippewa, U. C., July 5, '14; Lundy's Lane (Niagara Falls), July 25, '14; Assault on Fort Erie, U. C., August 15, '14; Siege of Fort Erie, U. C., August 15 to September 17, 14; Sortie from Fort Erie, September 17, '14.
(Disbanded May 17, 1815.)
The following is a list of the 39 battles and engagements in which the whole or a part of the 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry, and the whole or a part of the 23d Infantry were engaged:
Siege of Yorktown, Va., April 4 to May 4, '62; Gaines Mills, Va., June 27, '62; Malvern Hill, Va., July 1,'62; 2d Bull Run, Va., August 29 and 30, '62; Antietam, Md., September 17, '62; Snickers Gap, Va., November 3 and 4, '62; Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, '62; Chancellorsville, Va., May 2, 3 and 4, '63; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3. '63; Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64; Laurel Hill, Va., May 8 to 13, '64; Spottsylvania, Va., May 14, '64; North Anna River, Va., May 24, '64; Bethesda Church, Va., June 1 and 3, '64; Petersburgh, Va., June 18 and 21,'64; Weldon R. R., Va., August 19 and
21, '64; Chapel House, Va., October 1, '64; Hatchers Run, Va., October 27 '64; Jordan Creek, Oreg., February 23, '66; Owyhee Cañon, Idaho, May 27, '66; Battle Creek, Idaho, July 6, '66; Near Camp C. F. Smith, Oreg., November 1, '66; South Fork Malheur River, Oreg., July 15, '67; Infernal Caverns, California, September 25 to 27, '67; Dunder and Blixin Creek, Oreg., March 14, '68; Near Camp Three Forks, Owyhee, Idaho, April 17,'68; South Warner Mountains, Oreg., April 29, '68; Snake Cañon, Idaho, June 9 and ?4, '68; Battle Creek, Idaho, June 24, '68; Juniper Cañon, Idaho, July, '68; Little Salmon River, Idaho, July 22, '68; Near Camp Three Forks, Owyhee, Idaho, July 24 to August 2,'68; Juniper Mountains, Idaho, August 8 to September, '68; Red Rock Mountains, Arizona, December 11, '72; Mazatzal Mountains, Arizona, December 13, '72; Mazatzal Mountains, Arizona, May 9 and 26, '74; Tonto Basin, Arizona, February and March, P 73; Head of Cave Creek, Arizona, March and April, '73; Grace Creek, Nebraska, April 28, '76.