The Second Artillery was, with the First, Third, and Fourth, organized by an Act of Congress dated March 21, 1821. Each regiment was to have one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, one major, one supernumerary captain (for ordnance duty), one adjutant, one sergeant-major, and nine companies. Each company was to have a captain, two first lieutenants, two second lieutenants, and fifty-seven enlisted men. One company was to be designated and equipped as light artillery, but for many years it was such only in name. The list of organizations (given in
the Army Register) from which these regiments were formed is misleading, as some of the organizations mentioned had been out of existence for years. The four regiments were formed from the Corps of Artillery, the Regiment of Light Artillery, and the Ordnance, the Second being taken mainly from the Corps of Artillery. All ordnance duty was to be done by the artillery. There was a second regiment of artillery during the War of 1812, of which Winfield Scott was lieutenant-colonel and then colonel. After the war it was merged into the Corps of Artillery. The names of battles of that war are borne on the regimental colors to-day, a few of the officers of
the new Second had belonged to the old, and some of the companies may have belonged to both regiments, a fact I am unable to establish ; but as a whole the Second Artillery of 1812 was a different organization from the Second Artillery of 1821.
The assignment of companies, stations, and former organizations is given in the following table:
|Headquarters.||Ft. McHenry, Md.|
|"A"||Fanning.||2 B. N. D.*||West Point, N. Y.|
|"B"||Gates.||1 B. N. D.||Watervliet Arsenal.|
|"C"||Roach.||3 B. N. D.||Ft. Mifflin, Pa.|
|"D"||Heileman.||1 B. N. D.||Ft. Niagara, N. Y.|
|"E"||Nourse.||Made up of recruits.||Pittsburg Arsenal.|
|"F"||Belton.||3 B. N. D.||Ft. McHenry, Md.|
|"G"||Zantzinger.||4 B. N. D.||Plattsburg, N. Y.|
|"H"||Mountfort.||4 B. N. D.||Detroit, Mich.|
|"I"||Legate.||1 B. N. D.||Mackinac, Mich.|
The new field officers were: N. Towson, colonel; James House, lieutenant-colonel; J. Hindman, major. Colonel Towson had distinguished himself greatly, while a captain of the Second Artillery, in the War of is 12. At the time of his nomination to be colonel, however, he was paymastergeneral, then a civil officer. The senate refused to confirm. him as colonel
on the ground that selections of officers for the new regiments should be confined to the army. The disagreement between the executive and the senate in this case lasted through three administrations, and was finally settled in 1832 by the nomination and confirmation of the then senior lieutenant- colonel of artillery, William Lindsay. This officer had been major and afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the Second Artillery in the War of 1812. The regiment was thus without a colonel for ten years.
In 1824 headquarters were removed to Governor's Island, and the greater part of the regiment was brought to New York Harbor. In the same year ten companies of artillery (two each of the 1st and 3d, three each of the 2d and 4th) were to be assembled at Fort Monroe and organized as a regiment under the name of "The Artillery Corps for Instruction.' D, G and H were the companies of the 2d Artillery designated for this detail. These companies were to be relieved by others at regular intervals.
In the autumn of 1827 the regiment was ordered South, exchanging with the 1st Artillery. The new stations were at first Augusta Arsenal and Savannah, Georgia; Fort Marion, Florida; Forts Pike and St. Philip, Louisiana. In the order making the change it was stated that this was to be regarded as the beginning of a system of periodical changes. The southern tour was a long and active one. The stations of the companies were frequently changed on account of sickness, and for service in the Cherokee and Creek country, embracing portions of Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. About this time, too, the relations between the general government and the States of South Carolina and Alabama were somewhat strained. The recent tariff legislation was very unpopular in the South and "nullification" feeling, especially in the former State, ran high. So serious did things look that, in the latter part of 1832, Major Heileman, 2d Artillery, commanding in Charleston Harbor, was cautioned from Washington to be on the alert and hold the forts belonging to the United States against any force that might be brought against them. Seven additional companies, of the 1st, 3d, and 4th Artillery, were ordered to Charleston Harbor, and General Scott arrived to command in person and see that the laws of the United States were enforced. Happily, no collision occurred. A terrible fire breaking out in Charleston, General Scott ordered 400 men to the city, without arms, to assist in subduing the fire, They arrived just in time to relieve the exhausted citizens at the pumps. This action did much towards allaying the bitter feeling of the time.
In 1832 the Ordnance was separated from the Artillery. In the autumn of 1833 the action of the United States marshal in removing white settlers from lands ceded to the United States by the Creeks having aroused opposition on the part of the authorities of Alabama, a strong force of United States troops under Colonel D. E. Twiggs was sent to Fort Mitchell, on the eastern border of that State, to support him. The 2d Artillery was represented by A, B and C companies. The legislature passed laws giving State courts jurisdiction in this territory, and the State officers served writs on United States officers, the State courts adjudging them guilty of contempt in refusing to obey the writs. The Governor of Alabama went so far as to
threaten to raise an army of State troops and drive the Federal troops from the State. This, however, was not done, and the Federal and State forces did not come to blows. These events show the extent to which the doctrine of States' rights was believed in at the time.
According to the treaty made with the Seminole Indians, their removal to the West was to begin January 1, 1836. The actions of the Seminoles as that date approached led the authorities to suspect that the Indians would not act in good faith, and measures were taken to increase the military force in Florida and compel the Seminoles to fulfill their treaty obligations. Of the 2d Artillery, A, B, C and G companies were sent to Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay. H was there already. D was at St. Augustine, and F at Fort King, in the heart of the Indian country, about midway between St. Augustine and Fort Brooke. This being an important point, Major Dade, 4th Infantry, with C, 2d Artillery, and B, 3d Artillery, was ordered to march there from Fort Brooke. The command left Fort Brooke December 23. On the morning of December 28, as they were marching along a lake, they were attacked by Indians from the woods on the other side of the road. A moment before they were surprised Major Dade had said to his command, "We have now got through all danger; keep good heart and when we get to Fort King, I'll give you three days for Christmas." The fight lasted several hours, every officer and all but two of the men being killed. The officers of the 2d killed were Captain Gardiner, 2d Lieutenant Basinger, and Brevet 2d Lieutenant Henderson. The same day a detachment of the same band of Indians, under Osceola, came upon General Thompson, Indian agent, and Lieutenant Constantine Smith, 2d Artillery, who were out walking near Fort King, killed them both, and then attacked the fort, hoping to find the garrison (F, 2d Artillery) unprepared. The attack was unsuccessful.
December 29 General Clinch, who had not yet learned of the Dade massacre, had a fight with the Indians on the Withlacoochee River. His force was made up of detachments of the 1st, 2d and 3d Artillery. The Indians were defeated. D and F of the 2d took part in this action, losing one man killed and twelve wounded. On February 27 there was another fight on the Withlacoochee in which A, B, D, F, G and H were engaged.
Early in 1836 General Scott took command in Florida. His plan was to form three columns; one to operate from Volusia, on the St. John's River; one from Fort King or Fort Drane, and one from Fort Brooke. The latter was commanded by Colonel Lindsay, 2d Artillery. Of the 2d, A, B, G and H were in Colonel Lindsay's column. C, D, E and F were in eastern and central Florida, and were generally scattered at small posts. I was not sent to Florida until December, 1837. June 9, 1836, the Indians attacked Micanopy, commanded by Major Heileman, 2d Artillery. The attack was repulsed and the Indians driven two miles. D and E took part in the affair. Major Heileman, who was breveted lieutenant-colonel for his conduct in this action, died a few days later from the effects of over-exertion in the battle.
In August, 1836, the regiment was ordered, as soon as its services could be dispensed with, to the New England coast, with headquarters at Fort Wolcott, R. I. (now the navy Torpedo Station). Headquarters were estab-
lished at Fort Wolcott, remained there a few months, and then were returned to Florida, but the rest of the order was never carried out. Detachments of E and F were in the battle of Big Wahoo Swamp, November 21, 1836. February 28, 1837, the Indians attacked Camp Monroe, on Lake Monroe, but were defeated. In this action one sergeant and three privates of C were wounded and Captain Mellon was killed. C company, wiped out in the Dade massacre, had just been reorganized, and Mellon promoted to its command. September 11, 1837, a battalion of mixed troops, commanded by Lieutenant Peyton, 2d Artillery, surprised and captured two camps of Indians near Mosquito Inlet.
This meagre statement gives no idea of the hardships incident to service in this war. "The theatre of operations was a wilderness and every hammock and swamp a citadel for the enemy." The heat the greater part of the year was so intense that the troops could not make even ordinary marches. The men had often nothing but winter clothing. The water was bad, the food poor. No guides could be had and transportation was very difficult. General Jesup says, in his official report: "This is a service which no man would seek with any other view than the mere performance of duty. Distinction or increase of reputation is out of the question. The difficulties are such that the best concerted plans may result in absolute failure, and the best established reputation be lost without fault. If I have, at any time, said aught in disparagement of the operations of others in Florida, knowing the country as I now know it, I consider myself bound, as a man of honor, solemnly to retract it." In a little over two years 9 officers and 103 men of the 2d Artillery were killed in action, or died of wounds received or disease contracted in Florida. Many brevets were conferred on officers of the regiment for services in this war. The roster of lieutenants of the regiment in 1836-38 shows, among others, the names of John Sedgwick, C. F. Smith, E. D. Townsend, Henry L. Kendrick, A. A. Humphreys, James Duncan, Lewis G. Arnold, Edmund Schriver, Robert Allen, and Horace Brooks.
In the spring of 1838, after eleven years' service in the South, the regiment was put on the march for the Cherokee country in Alabama and Tennessee. A small part of the regiment went up the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers by boat, but the greater part was brought together on Black Creek, East Florida. The route was thence by water to St. Mary's, Savannah, and Augusta, and thence on foot to Ross Landing (where Chattanooga now stands), on the Tennessee River. The Cherokees were to be moved West, and, as trouble with them was anticipated, a large force of regulars, of which the 2d formed a part, was collected in their country. The whole regiment was encamped at Ross Landing, and remained there while the Indians were being collected and sent West. About this time the "Patriot War" was raging in Canada, and as the "Patriots" had the sympathy of a large number of Americans along the border, troops were needed in that region to enforce neutrality and prevent aid and reinforcements going to the revolutionists from the American side. Accordingly, as soon as its duties in the Cherokee country were completed, the regiment was, in July, ordered to the Niagara frontier. On its march through Kentucky, it
camped at Lexington on ground owned by Henry Clay, who did all in his power for the comfort of the command. On reaching the Ohio River the regiment went by boat to Portsmouth, Ohio, and thence across the state by canal to Cleveland. Here the regiment separated, a battalion under Major Payne going to Detroit, while the rest of the regiment went down Lake Erie to Buffalo, where headquarters were established.
In 1838, another company, K, was added to the regiment, C. F. Smith becoming its first captain. Colonel Lindsay died September 15, and James Bankhead became colonel. Though some changes were made from time to time, eight companies were at headquarters during most of the time the regiment was on the Niagara frontier. As there was no fighting, the attention of the officers was devoted to bringing the regiment up to as high a standard as possible. There was great rivalry between the companies, and the spirit of emulation was still further increased by the presence over the border of some crack British regiments, whose officers worked in harmony with ours in defeating the schemes of the would-be liberators of Canada. In 1839 Secretary of War Poinsett ordered the establishment of a camp of instruction at Trenton, New Jersey; one company of each artillery regiment to be sent there and equipped as a battery of light artillery. A of the 2d was selected and went there under command of Lieut. (afterwards Captain) James Duncan, who made it so famous in the war with Mexico. Three months later it returned to Buffalo as a light battery. In August, 1841, the regiment left Buffalo by canal, headquarters and B, D and G going to Fort Columbus, A to Fort Hamilton, E to Fort Lafayette, F and I to Fort Adams, and C, H and K to Fort Monroe. These stations were occupied with but little change until the Mexican War.
A (Duncan) left New York Harbor in August, 1845, and C (McKenzie), I (Lowd) and K (C. F. Smith), left in September for Corpus Christi. joining General Taylor's army, they marched with it on Matamoras. I was assigned to Fort Brown, took part in its defense, and was left in garrison there. C and K, as a part of the artillery battalion, and A were engaged at Palo Alto (May 8) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9). Duncan by his brilliant advance and attack, without orders, on the Mexican right at Palo Alto, did much towards winning the battle and was specially mentioned by General Taylor.
G (De Hart) and H (Swartwout) left New York in June and joined Taylor's army on the Rio Grande. On the march up the river, C was left at Camargo and H at Reynosa. A, C, G and K formed part of Worth's Division and with it took an important part in the taking of Monterey (September 20-23), Captain C. F. Smith commanding the storming party that led the attack on Federation Hill. When Taylor's army, previous to the battle of Buena Vista, was reduced to strengthen General Scott, all our companies in Mexico were brought to the sea-board. The rest of the regiment left New York for Mexico, and in March, 1847, the whole regiment, except E, which was sent to Fort Brown, was assembled before Vera Cruz. On the organization of the Army of Invasion the regiment was assigned to Worth's regular division. The reduction of Vera Cruz was largely the work
of the artillery, Col. Bankhead, the senior field officer, acting as chief of artillery, in command of the batteries.
The regiment took part in all the battles of the campaign, figuring most prominently and suffering the heaviest losses at Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and City of Mexico. Col. Bankhead going on detached service, the Lieut.-Colonel (Erving) being Superintendent of recruiting, and the Major (Monroe) being chief of artillery of Gen. Taylor's army, the regiment started on the advance under command of Capt. McKenzie. Major Galt, promoted to the 2d when a new major was added to each artillery regiment, arrived and took command before the battle of Churubusco. Capt. C. F. Smith, on leaving Vera Cruz, was given command of a battalion of light troops, consisting of K (his own) and I of the 2d and one company each of the 5th and 8th Infantry. This command he exercised with distinction throughout the campaign. B (Kendrick) was left at Puebla as part of the garrison, which successfully withstood a siege of 28 days by a vastly superior force. The conduct of Capt. Kendrick during this siege was spoken of by his commanding officer in the highest terms.
At Molino Del Rey Lieut. Armstrong was killed, Lieutenants Daniels and Shackelford were mortally wounded, and all the lieutenants of Duncan's battery (H. J. Hunt, Win. Hays, and H. F. Clarke) were slightly wounded. At Chapultepec Capt. Horace Brooks commanded one of the siege batteries erected to prepare the assault. Capt. McKenzie led a storming party of volunteers from Worth's division and after the enemy fled from Chapultepec, took part in the pursuit up the causeway and in the action at the Garita San Cosine. In this action Capt. Brooks commanded what was left of the regiment and, jointly with a detachment of the 4th Infantry under Lieut. U. S. Grant, attacked and carried, after an obstinate resistance, a strong breast-work, turned the enemy's right, and pursued him from house to house. During this action it became necessary to advance a piece of artillery along the causeway, which was swept by the enemy's fire, against a breast-work. Lieut. Hunt, of Duncan's battery, was ordered to execute this duty. Advancing at full speed for 150 yards, with a loss of more than half his men, he accomplished his object and engaged the enemy muzzle to muzzle. Gen. Worth says, in his official report, "It has never been my fortune to witness a more brilliant exhibition of courage and conduct." Throughout the campaign Duncan's battery (A) was splendidly handled and made a brilliant record. The foot companies, though necessarily less conspicuous, contributed their full share to the fame achieved by the American armies in Mexico. Even the band took part in the fighting. They were trained as soldiers and served in the ranks with muskets in every battle, resuming their musical instruments in camp and garrison.
In December, 1847, two new companies (L and M) were added to each artillery regiment, too late, however, to take any part in the war, M was made a light battery. The regiment was now so reduced in numbers that C, G, K and L, were broken up temporarily and the personnel distributed among the other companies. In June, 1848, the regiment began its homeward journey. It was sent first to Fort Columbus, and was then distributed as follows: Headquarters. C and G to Fort Monroe; A, Fort McHenry; B
and D, Bedlow's Island; E, Fort Johnston, N. C.; F and I, Fort Moultrie; H, Fort Macon; K, St. Augustine; L, Augusta Arsenal; M (which had been dismounted), Savannah.
They were not allowed to rest long. In November, 1848, B and D were sent to St. Louis, thence, marching from Leavenworth, to New Mexico, where they remained until the autumn of 1857. B was stationed at Santa Fé and afterwards at Fort Defiance, which post was commanded for some years by Capt. Kendrick, who showed marked ability in his management of the Indians. D was stationed successively at Santa Fé, and Forts Union, Massachusetts, and Stanton. Both companies were out frequently after Indians and on exploring expeditions. D was in Loring's Gila expedition against the Apaches in 1857. In 1849, E, F, H, K, L and M were sent to Florida, this time to the region between the Indian and the Kissimmee rivers, where they were actively engaged in scouting and building roads. About the latter work the department commander, Twiggs, was very particular. He required the roads to be made in the most careful manner, and afterwards refused to allow brick and lime to be hauled over them, although greatly needed at an interior post, for fear of cutting them up. In November, 1850, four companies were sent up to Charleston on account of secession excitement, and returned to Florida early in 1852.
"M" (Hunt) was again made a light battery in 1853, and was sent from Charleston by water to Fort Smith, Ark., thence overland to Fort Washita where it took station. In November of the same year headquarters went to Pensacola (afterwards to Fort Brooke) and all the regiment except the light batteries, the companies in New Mexico, and H (which went to Baton Rouge), was again in Florida. Major Munroe commanded in the Peninsula and Major Harvey Brown along the Caloosahatchie River. For the next three years the theatre of operations was mainly in southwestern Florida, between Charlotte Harbor, and Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. The troops were again at their old work of building roads and scouting. In 1855-56 the Indians became troublesome and there was considerable fighting. December 20, 1855, detachments of E, G, I, K and L had a fight near Billy's Town. On the same day Lieut. (afterwards Major-General) Hartsuff and a reconnoitring party were attacked by the Seminoles in the Big Cypress Swamp, and Hartsuff was badly wounded. January 18, 1856, C and L were engaged near Fort Deynaud and March 29 E had a fight at Chocaliska Key. April 7, 1856, a detachment of 3 officers and 108 men of the 1st and 2d Artillery, under Capt. Lewis G. Arnold, 2d Artillery, was attacked by a large body of Seminoles in the Big Cypress Swamp. The Indians were repeatedly charged and driven from the strong positions they successively held. August 2, 1856, E had another fight with the Indians at Punta Rasa.
The regiment suffered from yellow fever during this southern tour. In 1852 it broke out at Castle Pinckney, Charleston Harbor, and Capt. Roland and several men of M died. In 1854 yellow fever appeared at Baton Rouge and carried off Lieutenants Mebane and Burns (the only officers present) and the 1st Sergeant of H. It appeared there again the following year. Colonel Bankhead died at Baltimore, November 11, 1856. Mathew M.
Payne, formerly major of the regiment, became our next colonel, but he was Governor of the Soldiers' Home and never joined. On the resignation of Colonel Payne in 1861, John L. Gardner became colonel. He never joined, and was retired within a few months after his promotion, so the command of the regiment for nearly five years devolved upon the Lieut. Colonel, Justin Dimick, who was also, for much of that time, in command of the Artillery School at Fort Monroe.
In December, 1856, the regiment began to move North, headquarters going to Fort Hamilton, then in May, 1857, to Fort Monroe, and in November back to Fort Hamilton. C and L went to Fort Independence, E to Fort Ontario, F and I to Fort Monroe, G to Fort Lafayette, H and K to Fort Hamilton. B, D and M, on their arrival from the West went, B and M to Fort Monroe, and D to Fort Hamilton. Hardly were they settled in their new stations when several of the companies were ordered West, where most of them remained until 1861. A, E, F, H and M were occupied principally in Kansas, during the troublous ante bellum times in that State, with Leavenworth as a base. Headquarters were established at that post for a few months in 1859, going to Fort Monroe in November. It is worthy of note that one company (F) was sent to Lecompton in 1857 in search of a fugitive slave. The two light batteries started in May, 1858, to march from Leavenworth to Utah. They got some distance beyond Fort Kearney when, the Mormon troubles being over, they were recalled and returned to Leavenworth. During a part or all of the period from 1857 to the breaking out of the war, G, I and L were at one or the other of the northwestern posts, Brady, Snelling, Mackinac, Ridgely, and Ripley. E and H went out there before going to Kansas. During the John Brown excitement in 1859 B and a part of L, under Captain Carlisle, were sent from Fort Monroe to Harper's Ferry for temporary duty.
In pursuance of the seeming policy of the War Department, not to protect the national property in the South, but to guard it sufficiently to prevent its seizure by hot-headed secessionists before the plans of the leaders were ripe, D, E and F were, in 1860, sent respectively to the arsenals at Fayetteville, N. C., Augusta, Ga., and Little Rock, Ark. In due course of time the Southern States passed their ordinances of secession and each of the arsenals mentioned was given up to the State authorities, whose demands were supported by such a show of force that armed resistance was out of the question. Receipts for the public property were given and the officers and men were allowed to make their way, by certain specified routes, out of the South. Light Battery M (Hunt) was, in April, 1860, sent from Kansas to Fort Brown, Texas, and was part of the force that Twiggs tried some months later to turn over to the South. They had to leave their horses, but succeeded in getting out of the State by way of the Gulf with their guns, in spite of extraordinary efforts on the part of the Texans to get possession of them.
On the breaking out of the war Captains A. Elzey and S. S. Anderson, 1st Lieutenants A. Merchant, J. A. de Lagnel, and A. L. Long, and 2d Lieutenants J. P. Jones, W. Butler, and St. C. Dearing resigned and took part in the rebellion. Colonel Payne, who was a Virginian, also resigned in 1861.
In November W. W. Morris was promoted colonel and headquarters were moved to Fort McHenry, where they remained throughout the war. There was an unusual number of staff officers appointed from the 2d in 1861, and under the laws then in force they retained their regimental commissions. In December, 1861, for instance, there were nine officers of the Adjutant-General's, Quartermaster's and Subsistence Departments on the list of 1st lieutenants. Other officers were absent from their batteries exercising higher commands in the artillery service or in the volunteers. Add to these the number absent from ordinary causes and it will be seen that officers available for duty with their batteries in the field were very scarce. Batteries were generally commanded by lieutenants and sometimes not an officer belonging to a battery was present with it.
In the early days of the regiment it served as infantry; occasionally, in the Florida War, serving light field pieces. In the Mexican War the foot batteries served as infantry, and at Vera Cruz and Chapultepec served siege artillery. In the Civil War all the batteries in active service were mounted, and all those serving continuously with the Army of the Potomac became horse batteries. The armament at the beginning of the war was far from uniform, E Battery, for instance, at the first Bull Run having two 13 pdrs., two 12's, and two 6's. During the winter of 1861-62 the artillery of the Army of the Potomac was thoroughly organized by Gen. W. F. Barry, and when the army started for the Peninsula, the armament of each battery was uniform. In 1864 the horse batteries were reduced to 4 guns each, two 3-inch and two Napoleons.
The successive Chiefs of Artillery of the Army of the Potomac, W. F. Barry and H. J. Hunt, had been officers of the 2d until 1861. The first commander of the Horse Artillery Brigade, Wm. Hays, his successor, J. M. Robertson, and the first commander of the 2d Horse Artillery Brigade, J. C. Tidball, were all captains of the 2d. When all the horse artillery of the Army of the Potomac was, in 1864, consolidated into one brigade, the command was given to Capt. Robertson. This brigade organization was, however, apparently only for administrative purposes, batteries being detached for duty with divisions or brigades of cavalry, the whole brigade never acting together as a fighting unit under command of its chief. As there was no semblance of regimental organization, except on paper, during the war, it will be necessary to take each battery separately, and although their services were conspicuous, as shown by reports of commanding generals, the space allowed for this sketch permits little more than a mere enumeration of the battles in which they took part. These sketches follow in order.
"A" battery was the first to reach Washington, arriving in January, 1861. It formed a part of the expedition for the relief of Fort Pickens in April, but returned in time to take part in the first Bull Run. In September it was made a horse battery, the first in this country. In the spring of 1862 it went to the Peninsula, forming, with B and L (Robertson), and M. (Benson) of the 2d and C (Gibson) of the 3d, the famous Horse Artillery Brigade. At Yorktown during the siege it was in pursuit with Stoneman's cavalry after the evacuation, and was engaged at Williamsburg, New Bridge,
and Mechanicsville. It covered the withdrawal of the army from the left bank of the Chickahominy, being engaged at Gaines' Mill. It was engaged at Malvern Hill, July 1, and at Westover, July 3. While at Harrison's Landing a corporal died, and permission to fire the usual salute being refused, it occurred to Capt. Tidball to have "taps" sounded instead; whence the origin of this custom. The battery was with the rear guard on the withdrawal from the Peninsula. In the Maryland campaign it was in the advance with Pleasanton's cavalry, and was engaged at Boonsboro, Antietam, and Shepherdstown. It was with the cavalry in advance during the movement into Virginia, and was engaged at Piedmont, November 3, and Amissville, November 10. The battery was out with Averell's cavalry in April, 1863, and was engaged at Rapidan Station, May 1, and with Pleasanton at Upperville, June 20. It went to Gettysburg with Buford's cavalry, at which battle it fired the first shot, and after that battle was engaged at Williamsport, July 4, Boonsboro, July 8 and 9, and Funkstown, July 10. The battery, during September, was in action at Culpeper, Raccoon Ford, and Robinson River. In the campaign of 1864 the battery was engaged at Cold Harbor, Bottom's Bridge, Trevilian Station, and St. Mary's Church. While with the army before Petersburg it was several times detached on expeditions with the cavalry, being engaged at Deep Bottom, July 28, Lee's Mill, July 31, Deep Run, August 16, Vaughn Plank Road, September 29, Boydton Plank Road, October 27, Stoney Creek, December 1, and on the Weldon Railroad, December 7-11. The battery was engaged at Dinwiddie C. H., March 31, Farmville, April 7, and Appomatox, April 9. After Lee's surrender it started for North Carolina with Sheridan, returning when Johnston's surrender was known. The battery was commanded by Capt. Tidball until June, 1863; by Lieut. Calef at Gettysburg; by Lieut. Clarke until June, 1864; by Lieut. Dennison until February, 1865; then, until after the surrender, by Lieut. Lord.
B Battery left Fort Monroe in August, 1861, on the Hatteras expedition, and took part in the capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark. Reaching Washington in September, it was consolidated with L Battery, and early in 1862 was made a horse battery. The battery went with the army to the Peninsula. In front of Yorktown during the siege, it was with Stoneman's cavalry in pursuit after the evacuation. In this campaign the battery was engaged at Williamsburg, Slatersville, New Bridge, Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, and Malvern Hill. In the Maryland campaign the battery was with the advance on leaving Washington, and was engaged near South Mountain, at Antietam, and at Shepherdstown. The battery was in action at Halltown, October 3, and at Warrentown, November 6, and was opposite Fredericksburg, but not engaged, during the battle. The battery took part in Stoneman's raid in the spring of 1863, and was engaged at Beverly Ford June 9. It was under fire at Gettysburg, but was not engaged. It was engaged at Funkstown, July 9, Failing Waters, July 14, Chester Gap, July 22, Culpeper, August 1, Brandy Station, August 4, Morton's Ford, October 12, Brandy Station, October 13, Oak Hill, October 15, and Bealton Station October 26. In the campaign of 1864 the battery was in the battle of Todd's Tavern and took part in Sheridan's raids in May and June fighting at
Yellow Tavern, Hanovertown, and Trevilian Station. It was also engaged at Deep Bottom, July 28. The battery went to the Valley in August, 1864, and was engaged at Newtown, Front Royal, Shepherdstown, Winchester, Milford, Waynesboro, Bridgewater, Cabin Hill, and Cedar Creek. It wintered at Pleasant Valley and remained there until it left for Washington after Lee's surrender. The combined battery was commanded by Capt. Robertson until October, 1862; by Lieut. Vincent until June, 1863; by Lieut. Heaton until August, 1864; thereafter by Lieut. Peirce.
C Battery went to Dry Tortugas in January, 1861, and to Fort Pickens in September. It was in action on Santa Rosa Island, October 9, and in the bombardment of Fort Pickens, November 21 and 22, and January 1, 1862. It went to Pensacola in May and to New Orleans in September. In December it was made a light battery and was sent to Baton Rouge. The battery took part in the Southern Louisiana expedition in April, 1863, and was engaged at Irish Bend, April 14. It took part in the siege of Port Hudson. After serving at various posts in the Department of the Gulf, but not actively engaged, it reached Washington in August, 1864, and remained in that vicinity until the close of the war. The battery was commanded by Capt. L. G. Arnold until March, 1862, thereafter by Lieut. J. I. Rodgers.
D Battery, after being obliged to leave Fayetteville Arsenal, reached Washington, was made a light battery, and participated in the first Bull Run. In the Peninsular campaign it took part in the capture of West Point, and was in the battles of Gaines' Mill, Glendale, and Malvern Hill. In the Maryland campaign it was engaged at Burkettsville and Antietam. It was in the battles of Fredericksburg in December, and Salem Church in May, 1863. At Gettysburg it was under fire but not engaged. After this battle it was detached from the 6th Corps, of which it had until now formed a part, made a horse battery, and assigned to Robertson's Horse Artillery Brigade. During the fall of 1863 it was actively employed with the cavalry, being in action at Raccoon Ford and Robinson River in September, Morton's Ford and Liberty in October, and Muddy Run in November. In the campaign of 1864 the battery was engaged at Todd's Tavern, and participated in Sheridan's raids in May and June, being engaged at Yellow Tavern, Matadequin Creek, and Trevilian Station. In August, 1864, the battery went to the Valley with Sheridan. It was in action in September at Milford and Luray. Returning to Pleasant Valley, it remained there until the end of the war. The battery was commanded at the first Bull Run by Capt. Arnold, 5th Artillery; in the Peninsula by Lieut. Upton, 5th Artillery; thereafter by Lieut. Williston.
E Battery reached Washington from Augusta Arsenal in February, 1861, was made a light battery, and took part in the first Bull Run. It went with the army to the Peninsula, and having heavy guns (six 20-pdrs.) garrisoned a battery at the siege of Yorktown. During the campaign it was in action at New Bridge, Golding's Farm, Turkey Bend, and Malvern Hill. It was then attached to the 9th Corps, and was engaged at the second Bull Run and Chantilly. In the Maryland campaign it was in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. On the march through Virginia it was engaged at Warrenton Springs, November 18, and at Fredericksburg occupied the right
of the artillery line on the north bank. The battery was sent West in April, 1863, and took part in the sieges of Vicksburg and Jackson, Mississippi. It was sent back to Kentucky in September, and to Knoxville in October. The battery was engaged in the operations around Knoxville in November and took a conspicuous part in the successful defense, against a greatly superior force, of Fort Sanders, which terminated the siege. The battery came East with Burnside in April, 1864, and was in the battle of the Wilderness, after which the battery was sent to Washington, and was not again in active service during the war. The battery was commanded until August, 1862, by Capt. Carlisle, and during the rest of its active service by Lieut. Benjamin.
F Battery, after being obliged to give up Little Rock, went to St. Louis, was made a light battery, and took part in the capture of Camp Jackson and in the operations in Missouri under Lyon and Pope. It was engaged at Booneville, June 3, and Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861, and in the capture of New Madrid, March, 1862. The battery crossed the Mississippi in April and was engaged at Farmington and in the operations around Corinth in May. It took part in the advance on Iuka in September but was not engaged, and in the battle of Corinth, October 4. The battery was engaged at Town Creek, Alabama, in April, 1863, and was then sent to Memphis, where it remained until October. The battery took part in the Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, and Ruff's Mills. During the battle on the Chattahoochee, July 22, the battery was ordered to another part of the line. In obeying the order, and while moving unsupported through a wood, the entire battery, the officers, and part of the men were captured. The remnant of the battery served a 4 1-2 inch siege gun in the siege of Atlanta. The battery was reorganized and sent back to Nashville, being in position during the battle. The battery was stationed thereafter at Nashville, Bridgeport, and Chattanooga until August, 1865. It was commanded by Capt. Totten in the first part of 1861, by Capt. Molinard for a few months in 1863, by Lieut. Murray from July, 1863, until July, 1864, and the rest of the time by officers not belonging to the regiment.
G Battery reached Washington from Mackinac in May, 1861, was made a light battery, and took part in the first Bull Run. In the Peninsular campaign it was attached to the 3d Corps and was in the battles of Glendale and Malvern Hill. It went into Maryland with Couch's Division but was not actively engaged. After Antietam the battery was attached to the 6th Corps and was in the battle of Fredericksburg in December, and in the battles of Fredericksburg and Salem Church, May 3 and 4, 1863. It was in action on the Rappahannock, June 15. The battery reached Gettysburg with the 6th Corps, July 2, but was not actively engaged. After this battle it was made a horse battery and assigned to Tidball's Horse Artillery Brigade. Crossing the Potomac, it was actively employed with the cavalry in Virginia in the fall of 1863, being engaged near Culpeper, September 13, and near the same place November 8. In the latter action, Lieut. J. H. Butler, commanding the battery, received a wound, necessitating amputation of the leg. The battery was in action at Burnett's Ford, February 7, 1864, and at Cold Harbor, May 31 and June 1. In June the battery was dismounted and
sent to Washington, having no more active service during the war. The battery was commanded at the first Bull Run by Lieut. O. D. Greene; until March, 1862, by Capt. Thompson; until November, 1863, by Lieut. Butler; and thereafter, until dismounted, by Lieut. Dennison.
H Battery reached Washington from Leavenworth in February, 1861, and arrived at Fort Pickens in April. It was in action on Santa Rosa Island, October 9, and in bombarding enemy's works November 22, 1861, and January 1. 1862. The battery remained at Pickens and Barrancas until May, 1864, when it went North, and was thereafter stationed, with the exception of two months in New York Harbor, at Fort McHenry until the regiment left for California. The battery was commanded during most of the war by Capt. Larned.
I Battery arrived at Fort McHenry from Fort Ridgeley in April, 1861, and remained there until May, 1864, when it went to Washington. It was engaged in the defenses of Washington July 11, 12, and 13, 1864. In April, 1865, the battery went to Alabama, as infantry, and to Chattanooga in June, returning East in August. The battery was commanded by various officers, generally by the regimental adjutant
K Battery arrived in Washington from Plattsburgh in February, 1861, and went from there to Fort Pickens in April. The battery was engaged in the bombardment of November 22, 23, and 24, 1861, and January 1, 1862. The battery remained there until May, 1864, when it went to Fort Hamilton. It went to Fort McHenry in August, and remained there and at Fort Federal Hill, Baltimore, until the regiment went to California. The battery was commanded by Capt. Allen until 1863, then by Capt. Smalley.
H, I and K batteries had no service as light, batteries during the Rebellion.
L Battery went from Fort Monroe to Washington in September, 1861, and was consolidated with B Battery, already mentioned.
M Battery, after getting out of Texas, went to New York and thence to Fort Pickens, whence it returned and took part, as a light battery, in the first Bull Run. It was made a horse battery in November and took part in the Peninsular campaign. After the evacuation of Yorktown, the battery went in pursuit with the cavalry, being engaged at Williamsburg and Hanover Court House, It was engaged at Malvern Hill, July 1 and August 5, Captain Benson being mortally wounded in the latter battle. In the Maryland campaign the battery was in advance with the cavalry and was engaged near South Mountain and at Antietam. It was in pursuit after the battle, fighting at Martinsburg, October 1, and at Nolan's Ford, October 12, after making a march of 80 miles in a little over 24 hours. Crossing the Potomac, it was engaged with the cavalry during November at Purcellville, Philomont, Upperville, Barbee's Cross Roads and Amissville. At Fredericksburg the battery was in reserve. The battery took part in Stoneman's raid in the spring of 1863, and was engaged at Beverly Ford, June 9. In the Gettysburg campaign the battery was engaged at Hunterstown and Hanover, and on the right at Gettysburg, July 3. After the battle the battery was in pursuit, fighting at XIonterey, Smithsburg, Williamsport, Boonsboro, Hagerstown, and Falling Waters, and at Battle Mountain, Va., July
24. It was engaged at James City, Brandy Station, and Buckland Mills in October, and at Raccoon and Morton's Fords in November. In the campaign of 1864 the battery was engaged at Craig's Meeting House, May 5, and at Todd's Tavern, and took part in Sheridan's raids in May and June, being engaged at Meadow Bridge, Strawberry Hill and Trevilian Station. The battery went to the Valley in August, and was engaged at Summit Point and Kearneysville in August, at the Opequan in September, and at Lacy's Springs in December. The battery wintered at Pleasant Valley. One section remained there until the close of the war. The rifle section (Lieut. Woodruff) left in February with Sheridan to join the Army of the Potomac, and was engaged at Waynesboro, Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, Namozine Church, Sailor's Creek, and Appomatox. The battery was commanded at the first Bull Run, by Maj. Hunt, in the Peninsula by Capt. Benson until mortally wounded in August, until September by Lieut. Hains until September, 1864, by Lieut. Pennington, and thereafter by Lieut. Woodruff.
The following officers of the regiment were killed during the war: 1st Lieut. John T. Greble at Big Bethel, June 10, 1861. 2d Lieut. Presley O. Craig at the first Bull Run. 1st Lieut, Guilford D. Bailey, Chief of Artillery of Casey's division, at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. Capt. Henry Benson died August 11 of wound received August 5, 1862, at Malvern Hill. 2d Lieut. Samuel D. Southworth at Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. 2d Lieut. Thomas Burns at Hatcher's Run, October 28, 1864. 1st Lieut. Albert M. Murray, captured near Atlanta, July 22, 1864, died in a rebel prison three weeks later.
The regiment was assembled at Fort McHenry in August, 1865, and sailed from there for California via the Isthmus, under command of General W. H. French, the lieutenant-colonel. Arriving at San Francisco in September the batteries were at first distributed among the posts in the harbor, with headquarters at the Presidio. In October two batteries (C and L) were sent to the mouth of the Columbia and one (I) to San Juan Island, which, pending the settlement of the boundary question, was occupied jointly by the United States and Great Britain.
General Morris died at Fort McHenry, December 11, 1865, and W. F. Barry became colonel. General Barry remained on detached service in the East and when the Artillery School was started again he was assigned to its command, which he retained until 1877, General French meanwhile commanding the regiment.
On the purchase of Alaska from Russia, United States troops were sent there, and during part of the Pacific Coast tour of the regiment portions of it garrisoned Sitka, Kodiak, Tongass, Wrangell, and Kenai, beside furnishing detachments to enforce the seal fishery regulations on St. Paul's and St. George's Islands in Behring Sea. Batteries C, E, F, G, H and I had Alaska service. In July, 1868, Battery F, Lieut. McGilvray, while seeking a suitable site for a post on Cook's Inlet was shipwrecked. All the property and records, but no lives, were lost. Battery K was sent to Fort Monroe in November, 1867. In the spring of 1869 an order was issued dismounting Battery M and sending Battery A to Fort Riley, where a light artillery
school was ordered established. Indian troubles prevented the plans for the school from being carried out, the batteries were called upon to go into the field as cavalry, and in May, 1871, the battery was sent back to the Presidio. Late in 1872 the regiment (except C and H, which followed in January, 1873) came East. Headquarters and A, C and H went to Fort McHenry; B to Fort Foote; and the other batteries to posts in North Carolina. Detachments were sent out from time to time, principally from F, at Morganton, after moonshiners.
In July, 1876, after the Custer massacre, C, G and H were sent to Indian Territory and I, to Fort Dodge, Kansas. In September D, L and M were sent to into South Carolina for duty in connection with the approaching election. The unsettled state of affairs arising from this election resulted in bringing to Washington the batteries that had gone West, and later the batteries from the Carolinas, except M, which was left at Fort Johnston. Batteries A, C, D, G, I and L took part in the inauguration of President Hayes.
The whole regiment was out during the labor riots of 1877. Batteries C, D, E, F, G, H, I and L, and a detachment of A, all under command of General French, arrived at Martinsburg on the morning of July 19, and were occupied for the next month along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, opening the road for traffic and protecting property. A was on duty at Camden Station, Baltimore, for a few days in July. B, K and M were sent out on the Pennsylvania Railroad and were for some time at Pittsburgh. In August, the troubles on the railroads being over, most of the regiment was brought together at Fort McHenry, whence a battalion, consisting of E, F, G and L, was sent, the last of August, to reestablish the post of Carlisle Barracks. After remaining there three weeks, disturbances having occurred in the coal regions, they were sent to Wilkesbarre, where they were joined by Battery C from McHenry. There were also in camp there most of the 22d Infantry, five batteries of the 5th Artillery, and Sinclair's light battery of the 3d. In October all the batteries of the regiment were again at their regular stations.
In December, trouble with Mexico being thought probable, the four Carlisle batteries were sent to San Antonio, Texas. In January, 1878, L was made a light battery, F was afterwards made a machine-gun battery, and horses and Gatlings, but not a full equipment, were temporarily issued to E and G. In May Battery F, part with guns and horses and part as infantry, and a platoon of Battery L went to Fort Clark, and in June accompanied General Mackenzie on his expedition into Mexico. Battery I having been sent from Fort Foote to Fort Ontario, the regiment was now scattered literally from the Canadian to the Mexican border.
General Barry died at Fort McHenry, July 18, 1879, and Lieut.-Colonel Romeyn B. Ayres, 3d Artillery, became colonel.
In October, 1880, Battery L was dismounted and after several changes arrived at Fort McHenry. Battery F was designated a regular light battery in November, and after some changes of station finally settled at Leavenworth. E and G went to Fort Brown in December, 1879, and a year later to Arkansas. In January, 1881, headquarters went to Washington
Barracks, where one or more batteries had been stationed since 1877. This became a five-battery post, and three batteries were left at McHenry, Forts Foote, Ontario, and Johnston, no longer being garrisoned by the regiment,
After the shooting of President Garfield in July, 1881, the regiment furnished guards at the White House until after the removal of the President to Elberon in September, and at the jail until after the execution of Guiteau. In September a detachment under Lieut. Weaver accompanied the President's remains to Ohio.
In June, 1885, the regiment was ordered South, exchanging with the 3d. Headquarters, G and L went to St. Augustine, and B and H to Fort Barrancas, Florida; C and D to Mt. Vernon Barracks, Alabama; I and M to Jackson Barracks, Louisiana; A joined E at Little Rock Barracks, Arkansas. In the summer of 1888 yellow fever was prevalent in the South and the garrisons of St. Augustine and Barrancas went into camp near Huntsville, Alabama. K and M from Jackson Barracks (Battery I having replaced K at Fort Monroe) were sent in September to Fort Wadsworth, New York Harbor, by sea, and were replaced in December by Battery E from Little Rock.
General Ayres died December 4, 1888, in the village of Fort Hamilton and Lieut.-Colonel John Mendenhall, 4th Artillery, became colonel.
In May, 1889, the regiment came to the New England coast, exchanging with the 4th. Headquarters, C, G and H went to Fort Adams; E to Fort Preble; B and D to Fort Warren; L to Fort Trumbull. A went from Little Rock to Fort Riley, marching through Arkansas and Indian Territory. In May, 1890, K and M were transferred from Wadsworth to Fort Schuyler, and in November, 1891, Light Battery F changed from Leavenworth to Fort Riley. In April, 1892, the Schuyler garrison was changed, K and L, and H and M, interchanging stations.
Colonel Mendenhall died at Fort Adams July 1, 1892, and Lieut.-Colonel Richard Lodor, 1st Artillery, became colonel.
The whole regiment, since its organization in 1821, has been together but twice,—in 1838 and in 1865, and then only for a short time, and it is to be regretted that there is no prospect of its soon being together again. At present, besides furnishing garrisons for five posts, it has batteries at two other posts, and the same has been true for the past eight years.