Chapter I

1. Basic material for this chapter and Chapter II is contained in Research Report No. 131, Japan's Decision to Fight, 1 Dec 45, published by ATIS (Allied Translator and Interpreter Service), an operating agency of G-2 GHQ SWPA, handling the translation and dissemination of captured enemy documents and the interrogation of prisoners of war. This material has been revised in the light of additional research and Japanese source documents not previously available. All source materials cited in this chapter are located in G-2 Historical Section Files, GHQ FEC.

2. Imperial Conference decisions leading up to the final declaration of war are covered in detail in Chapter III.

3. Cf. Chapter III.

4. ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., p. 66.

5. Cf. n. 2, Chapter V. The final detailed plan of the Pearl Harbor attack was approved by Admiral Osami Nagano, Chief of Navy General Staff, Imperial General Headquarters, Navy Section, on 3 November, two days before the issue of Combined Fleet Top Secret Operations Order No. 1 laying down the general outline of fleet operations.

6. Showa Juroku Nen no Nihon Kaigun Zujo Enshu no Sogo Hokoku (Summary Report on Japanese Naval War Games, September 1941).  Compiled by Rear Adm. Sadatoshi Tomioka, Chief, First Bureau (Operations), Imperial General Headquarters, Navy Section.

7. 7 December West Longitudinal time.  Unless otherwise specified, hours and dates throughout this volume are Tokyo time. Japanese Army and Navy operational records employ Tokyo time exclusively regardless of the area under discussion. For purposes of checking against Volume I, Southwest Pacific Area Series: The Campaigns of MacArthur in the Pacific, local times are given parenthetically where desirable. In Chapter III, however, the dates of diplomatic notes, official statements, and governmental orders are the dates of the issuing government.

8. ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., pp. 77-8.

9. For details of Army orders covering the Southern operations, consult Chapter V.

10. Textual extracts from Kore Sae Yomeba Kateru (Read This and the War is Won) are given later in this chapter.

11. The mission assigned to the South Seas Detachment in the first phase of operations was to capture Guam and Rabaul. Its dispatch to New Guinea in July 1942 for the abortive Japanese drive on Port Moresby was not decided until January 1942. Nanto Homen Sakusen Kiroku Sono Ichi Nankai Shitai no Sakusen (Southeast Area Operations Record Part I: South Seas Detachment Operations) 1st Demobilization Bureau, Sep 46, pp. 4, 22.

12. Cf. discussion in Chapter II.

13. ATIS Bulletin No. 1060, p. 10.

14. Hito Sakusen Kiroku Dai Ikki (Philippines Operation Record Phase One) 1st Demobilization Bureau, Jun 46, p. 53

15. Cf. Chapter VI.

16. Cf. Chapter IV.

17. ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., p. 66.

18. Statement by Rear Adm. Tomioka, previously cited.

19. Ibid.

20. Cf. Chapter III.

21. Summary Report on Japanese Naval War Games. Compiled by Rear Adm. Tomioka, previously cited.

22. In addition to Admiral Yamamoto and other umpires, participants in the special Pearl Harbor study session were : Rear Adm. Ugaki, (Chief of Staff) and nine staff officers of the Combined Fleet:  Vice Adm. Chuichi Nagumo, (C-in-C), Rear Adm. Ryunosuke Kusaka (Chief of Staff), and two staff officers of the First Air Fleet; Rear Adm. Tamon Yamaguchi (Commander) and two staff officers of the 2d Carrier Division; Rear Adm. Tadaichi Hara (Commander) and two staff officers of the 5th Carrier Division; the commanders and one staff officer each of the 3d Squadron, 8th Squadron, and 1st Destroyer Squadron. Ibid.

23. Cf. Chapter V.

24.(1) ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., p. 66.  (2) Statement by Rear Adm. Tomioka, previously cited.

25. (1) ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., p. 67. (2) Statement by Vice Adm. Mitsumi Shimizu, C-in-C, Sixth Fleet.

26. "I did not know at the time of the October conference (liaison conference between the Government and Imperial General Headquarters following formation of the Tojo Cabinet) that the Navy already had well-laid plans for the Pearl Harbor attack.... At a later conference, I believe in November, I was informed of this plan." Interrogation of General Hideki Tojo, Premier and War Minister, Oct 41- Jul 44.

27. Cf. Chapter V. (extracts from Combined Fleet Top Secret Operations Order No. 1).

28. ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., pp. 78-9.

29. (1) Seaman 3d Class Shigeki Yokota (JA 100037), crew member aboard the aircraft carrier Kaga in the Pearl Harbor attack, later taken prisoner of war, stated that on 2 December the Commander of the Kaga, Capt. Jisaku Okada, addressed the ship's company and announced that war would be declared against America on 8 December. ATIS Interrogation Report, Ser. No. 230. (2) Another prisoner of war, Seaman Masayuki Furukawa, crew member of the carrier Shokaku, stated that the commander "informed the crew of the intended strike on 4 December." JICPOA Preliminary Interrogation Report No. 7, Ser. ADM-101022, 10 Jan 44.

30. ATIS Interrogation Report, Ser. No. 97, 14 Hpr 43, p. 16.

31. ATIS Research Report No.131, op. cit., p.12.

32. ATIS Current Translations No. 64, 13 Jul 43, pp. 16-7.

33. ATIS Current Translations No. 54, 14 Jun 43, p. 29.

34. ATIS Research Report No. 131, op. cit., pp. 13-15.

35. This is the same commander and the identical unit which later operated in the abortive Japanese drive over the Owen Stanley Mountains, in New Guinea, toward the vital Allied base at Port Moresby. The South Seas Detachment had been organized under Maj. Gen. Horii's command by 15 November.  ATIS Enemy Publications No. 41, Miscellaneous Personnel Records of Horii Butai and Sakikawa Butai. 8 Sep 43, p. 10.

36. ATIS Captured Document No. 89, 17 Oct 42, p.2.

37. JICPOA Translations, Item No. 4986, pp. 25 Apr 44, 1, 67.

38. ATIS Current Translations No. 45, 1 Jun 43, p. 27.

39. ATIS Current Translations No. 46, 2 Jun 43, pp. 2-3.

40. ATIS Enemy Publications No. 67, News Report and Official Communiques, 10 Dec 43, p.1.

41. ATIS Captured Document No. 98, 24 Oct 42, pp. 1-3.

42. ATIS Current Translations No. 78, 9 Sep 43, pp. 1, 13-5.

43. ATIS Current Translations No. 64, 13 Jul 43, p- 17.

44. Ibid., p.1.

45. ATIS Current Translations No. 52, 11 Jun 43, p. 31.

46. ATIS Bulletin No. 527, 26 Nov 43, p. 8.

47. ATIS Current Translations No. 23, Mar 43, p. 4c.

48. ATIS Bulletin No. 470, 21 Oct 43, pp. 15-16.

49. ATIS Bulletin No. 1518, 25 Oct 44, pp. 3-4.

50. ATIS Current Translations No. 49, 9 Jun 43, p. 34

51. ATIS Current Translations No. 68, 23 Jul 43, pp. 33-4.

52. ATIS Current Translations No. 10, 25 DEC 42, pp. 17-9.

53. ATIS Current Translations No. 62, 7 Jul 43, pp. 19-20.

54. ATIS Current Translations No. 57, 26 Jun 43, p. 8.

55. ATIS Current Translations No. 74, 18 Aug 43, p. 32.

56. ATIS Current Translations No. 57, 26 Jun 43, p. 31.

57. ATIS Bulletin No. 747, 24 Feb 44, p. 6.

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