Chapter 1


1. Other members of the patrol: Cpl. Ralph F. Diven, T/5 Coy T. Locke, Pfc. George F. McNeal, and a French interpreter, a Lieutenant DeLille. V Corps C-3 Jnl, 11 Sep 44; Combat Interv with Lt. L. L. Vipond, Ex 0, Troop B, 85th Rcn Sq.

2. 28th Div G-3 Jnl, 11 Sep 44; 4th Div AAR, Sep 44. A patrol from the 28th Division's 110th Infantry crossed a short while later near the village of Harspelt.

3. For details, see Forrest C. Pogue, The Supreme Command, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1954), pp. 49-55.

*Maps numbered in Roman are placed in inverse order inside the back cover.

4. For the story of the creation of the 6th Army Group, see Robert Ross Smith, The Riviera to the Rhine, a volume in preparation for the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II.

5. Accounts of British and Canadian operations may be found in: Field Marshal the Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Normandy to the Baltic (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1948); Charles P. Stacey, The Canadian Army, 1939-1945 (Ottawa: E. Cloutier, King's Printer, 1948); and Maj. Gen. Sir Francis de Guingand, Operation Victory (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947).

6 For Third Army operations in Lorraine, see H. M. Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1950).

7. Maps in Post NEPTUNE Planning Forecast I. 27 May 44, SHAEF SGS 381 Post OVERLORD Planning, I. The planners expected the surrender about D Plus 360.

8. SHAEF G-3 War Room Summary 102.

9. SHAEF G-3 War Room Summary 99.

10. Ibid.

11. The German term Oberbefehlshaber West means either the Commander in Chief West or his headquarters. In this volume, the term Commander in Chief West will be used to refer to the person holding the title Oberbefehlshaber West, while the abbreviated form OB WEST will refer to his headquarters.

12. OB WEST, A Study in Command, pp. 176, i8o. This manuscript, by Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann (G-3, OB WEST) and others, was written under the auspices of the Department of the Army Historical Division in 1946 and is filed in OCMH. Matériel estimates are from Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, p.3.

13. AAF Staff Control Aircraft Inventory, Combined Allied vs. Axis Air Strength Rpts, 1 Sep 44. All U.S. air records used in this volume are located at the Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, Ala.

14. German figures furnished from Luftwaffe records by the British Historical Section, as cited by Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, p. 4.

15. OB WEST, A Study in Command, pp. 175-78.

16. Opns Maps (1:1,000,000) dtd 11 Sep 44, Operationskarte West. See also OB WEST, A Study in Command, p. 177.

17. SHAEF Planning Staff draft of Post NEPTUNE Courses of Action After Capture of the Lodgment Area, Main Objectives and Axis of Advance, I, 3 May 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I. An exhaustive study of Allied strategy may be found in Pogue, The Supreme Command.

18. Two others the Belfort and Saverne gaps, were too far south to afford any appreciable threat to the Ruhr or Berlin.

19. SHAEF Planning Staff draft, 3 May 44; see also SHAEF Planning Staff draft, 30 May 44. Both in SHAEF SGS 381, I.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Eisenhower to Gen George C. Marshall, CPA 90235, 22 Aug 44, SHAEF cable log; Ltr, Eisenhower to Montgomery, 24 Aug 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I; Eisenhower to Marshall, 5 Sep 44, Pogue files.

23. Montgomery to army comdrs, M-520, 26 Aug 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I; 12th A Gp Ltr of Instrs 6, 25 Aug 44, 12th A Gp Rpt of Opns, V, 85-87; Ltr, Bradley to Montgomery, 26 Aug 44, 12th A Gp 371.3 Military Objectives, I; Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, p. 200.

24 Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1951), pp. 400-403; George S. Patton, Jr., War As I Knew It (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1947), pp. 114, 117, 132.

25. Bradley, A Soldier's Story, p. 399.

26. Patton, War As I Knew It, pp. 114, 17, 132. As late as 19 October, General Patton felt that, given proper maintenance and supplies, he could reach the Siegfried Line in two days and "stand a high probability of penetrating it and thus be in position to make a rapid advance to the Rhine." Patton to Bradley, 19 Oct 44, 12th A Gp 371. 3 Military Objectives, II.

27. Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, pp. 193, 196; see also Ltr, Montgomery to Eisenhower, M-160, 4 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I.

28. An exhaustive discussion of the subject is found in Roland G. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies, Vol. II, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1959).

29. Notes on mtg at Brussels, 10 Sep 44, by Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur W. Tedder, OCMH; Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1948), pp. 306-07.

30. Unless otherwise noted, this study of supply is based upon Roland G. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies, Vol. I, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1953), and Vol. II.

31. By using its own transportation, the army raised this to 3,000 tons.

32. FUSA AAR, Sep 44.

33. 12th A Gp Admin Instrs 13, 27 Aug 44, FUSA AAR, Sep 44.

34. FUSA Rpt of Opns, 1 Aug 44-22 Feb 45, p. 62.

35. FUSA AAR, Sep 44.

36. See, for example, FUSA AAR, Sep 44.

37. SHAEF Weekly Intel Summary 23, week ending 2 Sep 44.

38. FUSA G-2 Estimate 24, 3 Sep 44, FUSA Rpt of Opns; TUSA G-2 Estimate 9, 28 Aug 44, TUSA AAR, Vol. II.

39. FUSA G-2 Estimate 26, 11 Sep 44.

40. Memo, Maj Gen Leonard T. Gerow for O's and EM of V Corps, 17 Sep 44, V Corps Operations in the ETO, 6 Jan 42-9 May 45, p. 256.

41. FUSA G-2 Estimate 28, 15 Sep 44.

42. Personal Diary of Maj William C. Sylvan, former aide to the First Army Commander, Lt Gen Courtney H. Hodges. Entry of 24 Sep 44. Major Sylvan kept his diary, dealing primarily with General Hodges' activities, with the approval of General Hodges. A copy is on file in OCMH through courtesy of Major Sylvan.

43. A detailed annotated account of German strength, losses, and organization may be found in Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, pp. 29-43.

44. The 1944-type division and other divisional organizations are discussed in Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1951), pp. 236-41.

45. FUSA AAR, Oct. 44.

46. Heeresgruppe B (hereafter cited as A Gp B), Lagebeurteilungen Ia.

47. Ibid.

48. MS # T-122, Geschichte des "Oberbefehlshaber West," edited by Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann (G-3, OB WEST), hereafter cited as MS # T-122 (Zimmermann et al.), Part II, Kampf in Belgien und Holland von Mitte September-Mitte December 1944. MSS # T-121, 122, and 123—History of OB WEST—make up a million-word manuscript prepared in part by Zimmermann, in part by generals and general staff officers associated with OB WEST, OKW, OKH, OKL, OKM, and various subordinate commands. No page numbers are cited because the manuscripts exist in several differently paginated versions.

49. A Gp B, Lagebeurteilungen, Ia.

50. FUSA AAR, Sep 44.

51. TUSA G-2 Estimate 9, 28 Aug 44, TUSA AAR, Vol. II.

52. See Charles V. P. von Luttichau, The Ardennes Offensive, Germany's Situation in the Fall of 1944, Part III, The Strategic Situation, MS in OCMH.

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