Endnotes for Chapter XVI
1 See Ch. III.
2 The assumption that the President would support this position, as opposed to the assumed position of the British Government, often considered to be seeking postwar political advantages, underlay American strategic planning for World War II. See informal paper, 25 Jul 43, title: Effects of Changes in Strategy for Winning War in Europe, OPD 381 Sec, 218.
3 Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for DCofS, 28 Apr 43, sub: Rpt of Mission Headed by Gen Devers, OPD 381 Sec, 118.
4 Min 79th meeting JCS, 10 May 43.
5 Memo, Gen Marshall for James F. Byrnes, 10 Jul 43, no sub, WDCSA 040. See pp. 105-06.
6 Paper, Col H. D. Kehm, n.d., title: Comparison Between British and American Jt Planning, part of SS 161 in ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43).
7 The best single source of information about the way the President and White House advisers conducted executive business is Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins.
8 Pers ltr, Brig Gen Wedemeyer to Harry Hopkins, 28 May 43, OPD 381 Sec, 141.
9 Memo, Col C. W. McCarthy for SGS, 5 Mar 43, sub: Lack of Adequate Representation at White House, Paper 2, Book 8, Exec 8.
10 For War Department Daily Operational Summary, and White House Summary, see Ch. V.
11 The White House Map Room was operated jointly throughout the war by Army and Navy officers serving under the Military and Naval Aides to the President.
12 (1) Penned note, Brig Gen Deane for Gen Marshall, 16 Dec 42, on copy of msg, CsofS for Jt Stf Mission, 16 Dec 42, Item 11, Exec 1. (2) Informal memo, Maj Gen Handy for CofS, 16 Dec 42, Item 11, Exec 1.
13 Memo, Secy to Lt Col T. W. Hammond, Jr. for Col Gailey or Col Ordway, 17 Dec 42, sub: Atchd Copy of Draft of Msg Sent by President to Stalin, 12-16-42, Item 11, Exec 1.
14 Msgs and papers of war period, in Items 62, 63A, 63B, and 63C, Exec 10; Item 70, Exec 10; and Items 53, 54, and 55, Exec 10.
15 JPS 191, 26 May 43, title: Jt War Planning Agencies.
16 OPD brief, Notes. . . JPS 77th meeting, 9 June 43, with JPS 191 in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 2.
17 Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Gen Marshall, 8 Jun 43, no sub, Paper 68. Book 10. Exec 8.
18 (1) JPS 191/1, 14 Jun 43. (2) For the JWPC's increased emphasis on close relations between the JCS and the President, for the sake of keeping up with what was going on, see JWPC 85, 2 Sep 43, title: Lessons from QUADRANT.
19 (1) Memo, Maj Gen Hull for Lt Gen Handy, 1 Jan 45, no sub, Paper 1518, Book 24, Exec 9. (2) App. B to SANAC Memo for Info 113, 21 Jan 48.
20 Pers ltr, Nelson Rockefeller to Gen Marshall, 5 Jan 45, no sub, atchd to memo, OPD for DCofS, 19 Mar 45, sub: Gen Agency in WDGS for Latin American Affairs, OPD 320 WD, 21.
21 (1) OPD adm memo, 31 Mar 42, sub: Establishment of Pan-American Gp, OPD, OPD 321.19 OPD, 86. (2) Cf. pers ltr, Nelson Rockefeller to Gen Marshall, 5 Jan 45, and other papers atchd to memo, OPD for DCofS, 19 Mar 45, sub: Gen Agency in WDGS . . ., OPD 320 WD, 21.
22 Memo, Brig Gen St. Clair Streett for Maj Gen Handy, 7 Nov 42, sub: Lt Col H. H. McBride, AUS, OPD file on H. H. McBride, 9.
23 Tel conf, 23 Apr 43, Paper 6, Book 9, Exec 8.
24 (1) OPD adm memo, 26 Dec 44, sub: Info Received from State Dept, Paper 1522, Book 24, Exec 9. (2) Memo, Lt Col C. P. Light, Jr. for Brig Gen Hull, 18 Aug 43, no sub, Paper 82, Book 11, Exec 9. (3) Memo for rcd, no signature, 5 Apr 44, Paper 510, Book 17, Exec 9.
25 WDGS Cir 5-5, 4 Oct 44. With slight changes in phrasing, the same provisions went into WDGS Cir 5-5, 12 June 1945, with the addition of a provision giving the Liaison Section, in effect, Theater Group responsibilities for commands within the continental United States, for the Western Hemisphere base commands, and for forces in Canada (formerly belonging to the North American Section).
26 For example, see memo, Col G. A. Lincoln, no addressee, 23 Nov 43, sub: Conf with Secy State, Paper 12, Folder 3, Item 15, Exec 5. For Secretary Hull's narrative of the developments in American foreign policy during his long period of service, including his own dealings with military leaders and military problems, see Cordell Hull, Memoirs (New York, 1948).
27 Min 72d meeting JCS, Item 5, 6 Apr 43.
28 (1) Min 75th meeting JCS, 20 Apr 43. (2) Ltr, Gen Handy to author, 2 Jan 48, OPD Hist U nit Comments file.
29 (1) Memo, TAG for Col J. H. F. Haskell, 1 Mar 43, sub: Civil Affairs Division, Paper 100, Book 7, Exec 8. (2) Testimony of General Hull, in Rpt of Proceedings of Board of Offs, 19 Oct 44, OPD file on J. H. F. Haskell.
30 Memo, TAG for Col J. H. F. Haskell, I Mar 43, sub: Civil Affairs Division, Paper 100, Book 7, Exec 8.
31 This officer was Col John H. F. Haskell, who initially was acting director of the Civil Affairs Division and became deputy chief in April 1943, as soon as a permanent Director of Civil Affairs, Maj. Gen. J. H. Hilldring, had been appointed. See CAD office memo, 27 Apr 43, sub: Tentative Dy Asgmts CAD, Paper 20, Book 9, Exec 8.
32 Ltr, Lt Gen Handy to author, 2 Jan 48, OPD Hist Unit Comments file.
33 (1) Min 72d meeting JCS, Item 5, 6 Apr 43. (2) JCS 250/3, 17 Apr 43, title: Planning for Handling of Civil Affairs in Enemy Occupied Areas Which May Become Ts of Opns.
34 (1) Memo, Lt Col Woolnough for Col Nelson, 4 Jun 43, sub: Planning for Handling of Civil Affairs . . ., following CCS 227 in ABC 014 (11-2742) 1. (2) Memo for rcd, Lt Col L. J. Lincoln, 12 Jul 43, sub: CCS 190/6/D, with CCS 190/6/D in ABC 014 (11-27-42), 1.
35 The compound adjective "politico-military" came into official use late in the war to characterize problems, policies, and actions requiring consultation and preferably agreement between the State Department and the armed services.
36 JCS Memo for Info 146, 13 Nov 43, title: Tripartite Conf, Moscow, 19th to 30th Oct 43.
37 Annex to Secret Protocol of Conf, circulated as Annex 2 to incl A of JCS Memo for Info 146, 13 Nov 43. OPD was represented at the conference only by its liaison specialists, Col. H. A. McBride and, Col. C. W. McCarthy. See Min of Tripartite Conf, Moscow, 20 Oct 43, Tab 20, Item 12, Exec 5.
38 Army and Navy representation on the Working Security Committee was arranged on an informal basis. See JCS 624/1, 29 Dec 43, title: Mil and Naval Advisors for European Advisory Commission.
39 JCS 786/2/D, 7 Jun 44, title: JPWC.
For the study and discussion that led to the proposal to set up the JPWC, see: (1) SS 273 series in ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43); (2) JPS 786/1, 27 May 44, title: Disarmament, Demobilization, and Demilitarization of Axis Countries.
40 (1) JCS Memo for Info 248, title: JPWC. (2) OPD brief, Notes, n.d., title: Disarmament Demobilization . . ., with JCS 786/1 in ABC 334.8 Jt Post-War Committee (7 Jun 44). In the spring of 1945 the JPWC was reorganized with two Army "members" (General Strong and Maj. Gen. J. B. Brooks, an Air officer), and all other officers were assigned "for duty with" the committee. See JCS 202/34/D, 5 Apr 45.
41 See entire file, OPD file on S. J. Donovan.
42 Memo, Brig Gen F. N. Roberts for Lt Gen Handy, 29 Sep 44, sub: Meeting in ASW's Office at 1100, Saturday 30 Sep 44, etc., with JCS 624/4 in ABC 334.8 European Advisory Comm (13 Nov 43), 1.
43 For this simplified statement of the way in which the Washington staff functioned, or at least was supposed to function, see notes, unsigned, 24 Oct 44, no sub, on a talk given by General Strong to the Policy Section of S&P, with CCS Memo for Info 251 in ABC 381 UN (25 Jan 42), 3-A.
44 Informal memo, Brig Gen G. A. Lincoln for Maj Gen Hull, 28 Apr 45, sub: Asgmt of an Add Off for Dy With JPWC, with JCS 786/7 in ABC 334.8 Jt Post-War Committee (7 Jun 44). He remarked on the volume of JPWC work: "We have in the Planners and the Logistics Committee demonstration that joint planning can be made to work providing it is tied to the Department. . . . S&P probably writes one Planners' paper a day on the average. On the other hand the JPWC, with the same number of members as the JWPC, produces only ten papers during a month."
45 For criticisms from Ambassador Winant, see summary of msg (COMEA 108), Ambassador Winant to State Dept, 7 Oct 44, with CCS Memo for Info 244 in ABC 381 UN (23 Jan 42), 3-A.
46 D/F, OPD for TAG, 12 Feb 45, sub: Procedure JCS and SWNCC, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 5.
47 SANACC (State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee) Memo for Info 113, 21 Jan 48, sub: Brief History, etc.
48 (1) JCS 1224, 7 Jan 45, title: Procedure—JCS and SWNCC. (2) Cf. SWNCC 12/4, 26 Oct 45, title: Signed Statement by Secys State, War, and Navy, 16 Oct 45.
49 (1) SANACC Memo for Info 113,21 Jan 48, sub: Brief History, etc. (2) Memo, DCofS [Lt Gen Handy] for John J. McCloy, 26 Jan 45, no sub, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 3. (3) Memo, Maj Gen Hilldring for Maj Gen Strong, 30 Jan 45, sub: Pacific-Asiatic Ad Hoc Com of SWNCC, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 3.
50 (1) Ltr, ASW to Asst Secy State [W. L. Clayton], 27 Mar 45, with JCS 1192/2 in ABC 334.8 Jt Post-War Committee (7 Jun 44). (2) Informal note, Brig Gen G. A. Lincoln for "Tick" [Col. C. H. Bonesteel, III], n.d., with JCS 1192/2 in ABC 334.8 Jt Post-War Committee (7 Jun 44).
51 For Informal Policy Committee on Germany, see SANACC Memo for Info 113, 21 Jan 48, sub: BrIef History, etc.
52 Memo, Lt Col J. K. Woolnough for Brig Gen F. N. Roberts, 14 Mar 44, sub; Security of Allied Communications, with JCS 725/1 in ABC 311.5 (25 Jan 44).
53 (1) Memo, Maj Gen. Hilldring for Maj Gen Hull, 28 Jun 44, sub: Reference of Political Questions to JCS, with JWPC Memo for Info 28 in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 3-A. (2) Memo, Maj Gen Hull [action in Policy Sec] for Maj Gen Hilldring, 2 Jul 44, same sub, with JWPC Memo for Info 28 in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 3-A. (3) Memo for rcd, Maj J. C. Streett, 2 Jul 44, same sub, with JWPC Memo for Info 28 in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 3-A.
54 For OPD action on SWNCC (and IPCOG) papers, see: (1) memo, ASW McCloy for
DCofS, 25 Mar 45, sub: WD Procedure in Handling SWNCC Papers, OPD 334.8 SWNCC,
5/4 (OPD already was briefing Mr. McCloy on papers before the SWNCC for formal
action; Mr. McCloy wanted the procedure to be routine and to include informal action); (2) SIS, OPD for DCofS,
29 Mar 45, same sub, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 5/4; (3) SIS, OPD for DCofS, 1 May 45,
same sub, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 5/5; (4) memo, Exec OPD for Chief S&P, 1 May 45,
sub: Procedure for Advising ASW on SWNCC Matters and on Implementing Decisions
of that Com, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 5/5; (5) memo, Col T. D. Roberts for Gen Handy,
12 Jul 45, sub: Implementation of SWNCC and IPCOG Papers, OPD 334.8 SWNCC, 5/6.
The task of "implementation," long a Policy Section responsibility, was transferred to the S&P executive office a few months before the end of hostilities. The mechanical work of disseminating the papers was done, of course, in accordance with well-established S&P policies and procedures. See memo, OPD for Secy JCS and Secy SWNCC, 8 May 45, sub: Implementation of Decisions of Jt and Combined CsofS and of SWNCC, OPD 319.12, 59.
55 WDGS Cir 5-5,12 Jun 45.
56 S&P orgn chart, 4 Sep 45, Paper 6, Item 2B, OPD Hist Unit file.
57 Memo, ASW [J. J. McCloy] for OPD, 14 Nov 45, sub: Commendation, OPD file on S. J. Donovan. In this memorandum Mr. McCloy expressed his appreciation to General Hull for the "superb services" of the officers in S&P, referring particularly to the "important politico-military work to which they have made such a vital contribution during this critical period." He characterized the S&P officers as follows: "They exhibit balanced judgment and keen powers of analysis. They are the sort who would disabuse anybody of the impression that Army officers lack flexibility of mind and capacity to deal with new problems imaginatively." For these reasons, Mr. McCloy said, "I always have a comfortable sense that the background of a problem has been pretty wen exhausted when I act in the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee upon a briefing by your division."
58 Memo, Brig Gen G. A. Lincoln for Lt Gen Hull, 3 Oct 45, sub: Pers Situation, OPD 321.19, 127.
59 Rpt of Proceedings of Bd of Offs, 6 Nov 45, copy in OPD file on S. J. Donovan.
60 For the military side of the later international conferences, primarily concerning the war against Japan, see Ch. XVII.
61 List, 29 Aug 44, title: Pers to Attend Octant [sic], Item 16, Exec 5.
62 (1) JCS 729/2, 22 Aug 44, title: Preparation for Next Allied Stf Conf. (2) Official OCTAGON Conference Book.
63 (1) Memo, CofS for Admiral Leahy, 29 Dec 44, no sub, Item 17, Exec 5. (2) Memo, Admiral Leahy for Gen Marshall and Admiral King, 28 Dec 44, no sub, Item 7, Exec 5. ARGONAUT, like SEXTANT, was held in two places. The principal part, MAGNETO (4-9 February 1945), was a tripartite meeting in the Crimea at Yalta, while preliminary British-American discussions, CRICKET (30 January-2 February 1945), took place at Malta. The dates given for ARGONAUT are not assigned entirely in conformity with the practice in Ch. XII, where first and last CCS meetings are used as terminal dates for the conference at Yalta. Tripartite meetings were held before the first CCS meeting (6 February 1945) and the earlier date is used here. See Official ARGONAUT Conference Book.
64 Memo, Gen Marshall for Lt Gen Handy, 23 Jan 45, no sub, Item 17, Exec 5.
65 OPD Book, title: Compilation . . . Relating to Subs of Possible Discussion at ARGONAUT, ABC 337 (11 Jan 45), 1-B
66 Draft memo, Maj Gen Craig for Lt Gen Handy, 3 Feb 45, sub: WD Participation in Political Affairs, Paper 1562, Book 25, Exec 9.
67 OPD Book, title: Compilation of Subs for Possible Discussion at TERMINAL, Item 21, Exec 5. For dates of TERMINAL, see Official TERMINAL Conference Book. There was a special meeting between American and Soviet military leaders, concerning operational collaboration in the war against Japan, after the CCS and plenary meetings, 26 July 1945. OPD officers present at TERMINAL were General Hull, Assistant Chief of Staff; Brig. Gen. G. A. Lincoln, S&P chief and Army planner; Brig. Gen. V. J. Esposito, Logistics Group chief; and Col J. B. Cary, S&P deputy chief (Air).
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Last updated 19 October 2004