Endnotes for Chapter IX

1 This program had resulted from the November 1938 White House meeting that initiated grand-scale rearming (see Chapter V). The 4,500-pilot schedule was approved 21 December 1938, granted appropriation by Congress on 3 April 1939, and inaugurated on 1 July 1939. Under it a pilot graduation rate of 1,750 per year had been attained in May 1940, when the program was superseded. At that time the 4,500 figure had been lost sight of and General Arnold's 15 May memorandum (see next note) spoke of the existing program as "set up for the training of 2,400 pilots." For a summary of successive pilot quotas see Procurement of Aircrew Trainees (AAF Hist Study No.15), pp. 7-9, Archives of the Air Historical Office.

2 On 15 May General Arnold supplied the Chief of Staff with an outline of the plan which the President had approved the day before, whereby 7,000 pilots per year could be trained. It involved (1) doubling the number of civilian elementary schools and adding seven new civilian primary schools, (2), establishing five additional training centers for basic and advanced training, (3) enlisting 12,000 cadets (which involved examining 60,000 to 70,000 candidates), (4) enlisting and training 7,000 enlisted men, and (5) purchasing 2,200 training planes. The cost was computed at $106,000,000. See informal Memo, CofAC for CofS, 15 May 40, sub: Outline of Plan for Training 7,000 Pilots per Year, CofS files, Emergency File, bndr 2.

3 As of 30 June 1939 the combat arms numbered: Cavalry, 10,425; Coast Artillery, 19,649; Field Artillery, 23,621; Infantry, 59,543; and Air Corps, 22,387. The Army, including all branches, totaled 180,711. (Figures exclude Philippine Scouts, Warrant Officers, and Army Nurse Corps.) See Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1939, p. 52.

4 The discussion of Army air organization prior to 1937 is based upon Organization of Military Aeronautics, 1907-1935 (AAF Hist Study No. 25) and Organization of Military Aeronautics, 1935-1945 (AAF Hist Study No. 46), both in Archives of the Air Historical Office.

5 See Greenfield et al., The Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 102ff.

6 Memo, ACofS G-3 for CofS, 5 May 37, sub: Control of the GHQ Air Force, AG 320.2 (9-13-34) (1) Sec 2.

7 Documents relating to this change are in AG 320.2 (9-13-34) (1) Sec 2. See especially: (1) an undated and unused TAG letter with covering Memo, initialed by CofS for SW, sub: Organization of GHQ Air Force; (2) Draft of TAG Ltr initialed by CofS, with accompanying Memo, ACofS G-3 for CofS, 15 Feb 39, sub: Control of GHQ Air Force by the Chief of the Air Corps.

8 TAG Ltr, 1 Mar 39, sub: Organization of the Air Corps, AG 320.2 (2-15-39) (Misc) (G-M).

9 See n. 7.

10 Testimony of 21 Feb 39 before Senate Committee on Military Affairs, 76th Cong, ist sess, National Defense: Hearings . . . on HR 3791, P. 58.

11 Memo, Chief of Plans Div, AC, for CofAC, 9 Jan 40, sub: Organization of the Air Corps. The quotation is in the original signed by Col. Carl Spaatz, but at General Arnold's request the entire section was removed from subsequent copies. AAG 321.9 Org & Reorg of the AC . . . 1939-40.

12 Ltr, CofAC to Gen Walter P. Story, Los Angeles, 14 Jun 40, AAG 032 M Legislation.

13 For illustrations of the close and generally harmonious relations between General Marshall and General Arnold see especially: (1) Memo, CofS for CofAC. 1 Oct 40, AAG ;21.9D Org AC & GHQ; (2) CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3, passim.

14 Notes on Air Defense Co-ordination, 16 and 18 Sep 40, ASW 320.2 ( 1940-1941 ).

15 (1) Memo, ASW for SW, 18 Sep 40, AG 210.61 (7-20-40) Gen Staff. (2) Memo, Ex ASW for ASW, 18 Sep 40, sub: War Department Organization, AG 210.61 (7-20-40) GS. (3) Note for record, 23 Sep 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3.

16 Notes of conference in office of CofS, 1 Oct 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 6.

17 Memo, Chief of Plans Div AC for Col Wilson, 9 Sep 40, AAG 321.9 Org & Reorg AC . . . 1939-40.

18 Memo, WS for CofAC, 1 Oct 40, AAG 321.9D Org AC & GHQ.

19 Memo, CofAC for CofS, 5 Oct 40, sub: War Department Air organization, AG 22o.61 (7-20-40) GS. See also, in the same file: (1) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 2 Oct 40; (2) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 4 Oct 40; (3) List of organizations, committees, and boards connected with Army aviation.

20 Ibid.

21 Memo, DCofS (Gens R. C. Moore and William Bryden) for CofS, 9 Oct 40, AG 210.61 (7-20-40) GS. See also, in the same file, Memo, ACofS C:-r for CofS, undated, sub: Organization of the WDGS. General Moore's duties as Deputy included a good deal of air co-ordination, and he remained particularly close to General Arnold in the work of building up the administrative offices of the air establishment.

22 Ibid.

23 (1) Memo, CofS for DCofS, 15 Oct 40, sub: Deputy Chief of Staff for Air, AG 210.61 (7-20-40) GS. (2) Approved draft of Memo announcing the appointment of an additional Deputy Chief of Staff, AG 210.61 (7-20-40) GS. The new status of the GHQ Air Force was prescribed by WD Ltr to CG's, CofS, GHQ, etc., 19 Nov 40, sub: Orgn, Trig, and Adm of the GHQ Air Force, AC: 320.2 (11-14-40) MCM. Copy in AAG 321.9D GHQ Air Force. Sec also Office Memo, OCS, 1 Nov 40, no sub, signed by SGS at CofS's direction, allocating responsibilities among DC'sofS, OCS 15758-53.

24 Memo, CofAC for CofS, 22 Nov 40, sub: Letter from Mr. John Gilbert Winant to the President, OSC 14110-40. For evidence of continued activity in Congress, see papers in WPD 635-55.

25 Memo, Actg CofAC for CofS, through DCofS (Air), 26 Dec 40, sub: Organization, AAG 321.9D-Org AC & GHQ.

26 (1) Memo, USW for DCofS (Air), 27 Dec 40, sub: Designation of Mr. Robert A. Lovett as Special Assistant to the Secretary of War, G-4/27277-92. (2) CofS files, tally card 17327-11.

27 Memo, ASW (Air) for SW, to Mar 10, ASWA 320.2 (3-20-41). See also accompanying attachments and revisions.

28 Memo, Col Robert Olds, presumably for ASW (Air), 19 Mar 41, sub: Reorganization, ASWA 320.2 (3-19-41).

29 Notes of conferences in office of the CofS, 26 and 27 Mar 41, COPS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.

30 Memo, SGS for CofAC, ACofS, G-1, etc., 28 Mar 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.

31 Ibid.

32 The scope and significance of the change a, it affected actual plans arc shown in papers relating to the transfer of responsibility for the implementation of the Army's Second Aviation Objective from G-3 to the Air Corps. Memo, Chief of Plans Div, AC, for CofS (with incls), 23 May 41, sub: Army's Second Aviation Objective Strength of Units, AAG 321.9-E Org AC & GHQ.

33 Notes on conference in office of CON, 3 Apr 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13.

34 Ibid.

35 Throughout its existence the air establishment had been guided largely by the Army's General Staff (chiefly ground officers) and dependent upon the Army's supply and service branches for most of its requirements, and had not been called upon to develop its own personnel or techniques in these respects. The learning process was necessarily prolonged. The Air Corps' unfortunate experience in its brief responsibility for taking over the air mails without any logistical preparation was due largely to that lack. See Gen Marshall's remarks to ASW Lovett on 3 Apr 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13.

36 Memo, CofAC for CofS, 13 May 41, sub: Proposed Organization of the Air Component of the War Department, AAG 321.9E Org AC & GHQ. The discussions of May and June are documented in an informal collection of documents known as History of Organization of AAF, AAG 321.9 Organization (Dec 31, 1941).

37 AR 95-5, 20 Jun 41, AG 321.95 (6-18-41).

38 Personal Ltr, SW to Sen Reynolds, 19 Sep 41, prepared in OSC and appd by CofS. Copy in OCS 16600-73, together with copy of identical letter of same date to Rep James A. O'Leary, chairman of Committee on Expenditures in Executive Depts.

39 Memo, Lt Col E. N. Harmon, G-4, for Gen Malony, GHQ, 22 Jul 41, WPD 4558. For an account of the GHQ dilemma, see Organization of Ground Combat Troops, specifically pp. 134-41.

40 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CON, 30 Aug 41, sub: Functions, Responsibilities and Authority of GHQ, WPD 4558. This is stamped "not used;" but that evidently means only that it did not reach CofS for it is the basis of comments of other offices. (2) Memo, CofS GHQ for ACofS WPD, 2 Sep 41, sub: Functions, Responsibility, and Authority of GHQ, WPD 4558. (3) Memo, ACofS G-1 for ACofS WPD, 15 Sep 41, sub: Functions, Responsibilities, and Authority of GHQ, WPD 4558- (4) See n. 41.

41 Memo, CofAS for ACofS WPD, 24 Oct 41, sub: Functions, Responsibility, and Authority of GHQ, WPD 4558.

42 Memo, WAS for ACofS WPD, 14 Nov 4 1, sub: Proposed Revision of Directive to GHQ, WPD 3209-10.

43 (1) Conference notes for 23 Oct, 30 Oct, and 6 Nov 41, AAG 337-C. (2) Draft of AR 95-5 with attached note dated 21 Oct 41, ASW (Air) 320.2 (1940-1941).

44 Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 12 Nov 41, sub: Revision of AR 95-5, WPD 3774-20.

45 Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 7 Nov 4 1, sub: Improvement Organization of the Armed Forces of the United States, WPD 4532-1. See also log cards, OCS 21278.

46 (1) Memo, SGS for ACofS WPD, 25 Nov 41, WPD 4614. (2) Memo, Executive WPD for SGS, 28 Nov 41, sub: Reorganization of the War Department, WPD 4614. (3) Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 18 Nov 41, sub: Organization of the Armed Forces for War, WPD 4614. This includes, as inclosures, copies of the Air Forces' Plan and the memo of General Embick.

47 Undated Memo of unidentified origin (but apparently within the Air Forces) for CofS, containing recommendations "submitted pursuant to directive of Jan 9 42 from the Chief of Staff to the Chief of the Army Air Forces," WPD 4646.

48 The March 1942 reorganization will be discussed in much greater detail in the succeeding volume, the second on the Office of the Chief of Staff.

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