Endnotes for Chapter XI
1 See CofS notation of 14 Feb 41 on Gen Moore's 3 Feb 41 Memo, AG 381 (2-17-41) M-F-M.
2 (1) Procedure under the Lend-Lease Act, AG 020.1 (3-29-41) MM (Tab A). (2) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 12 May 41, sub: Co-ordination of Planning and Supply, WPD 4321-12.
3 Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for DCofS (Gen Moore), 7 Apr 41, sub: War Department Lend-Lease Policies, G-4/32697.
4 (1) Note of approval by DCofS, 11 Apr 41, AG 008 (4-15-41) Lend-Lease. (2) Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for TAG, 15 Apr 41, sub: War Department Lend-Lease Policies, same file. (3) TAG Ltr, 18 Apr 41, sub: War Department Lend-Lease Policies, same file. This file contains also the original of the G-4 Memo of 7 Apr and Col Aurand's summary of it.
5 See Chapter VI.
6 Memo, USW for SW, 18 Apr 41, sub: Ultimate Munitions Production Essential to the Safety of America, WPD 4494 and 4321-12.
7 See Chapter VII.
8 Joint Board Min, 24 May 41.
9 The invasion began 22 June 1941. See The New York Times of that date.
10 Memo, Gen Burns for CofS, 29 Apr 41, JB 325, ser 692.
11 Memo, Gen Malony for CofS, 12 May 41, sub: Coordination of Planning and Supply, WPD 4321 and JB 325, ser 692.
12 See documents in JB 325, ser 692.
13 Entry of 17 May in CofS files, Notes on Conf, Decisions, etc., bndr 15.
14 Memo, Col Bundy for Actg ACofS WPD, 20 May 41, sub: Coordination of Planning and Supply, WPD 4321-12.
16 Memo, Gen Gerow for Dir WPD of OpNav, 27 May 41, WPD 4321-12.
17 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 7 Jun 41, sub: Ultimate Munitions Production Essential to the Safety of America, WPD 4494. See also JB 325, ser 692.
18 Entry of 21 May 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf, May 1941, bndr 15. See also unused Memo, CofS for USW, 19 May 41, sub: Stepping Up orders, and Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for OAS, 21 May 41, same sub, both prepared by Col Aurand, both in G-4/32488.
19 Informal Memo, Col Aurand for Gen Moore, 23 May 41, G-4/32488.
20 Entry of 27 May in CofS files, Notes on Conf, May 1941, bndr 15.
21 Entry of 31 May in CofS files, Notes on Conf, May 1941, bndr 15.
23 See Chapter II.
24 See Chapter V.
25 Memo, SW for Dir OPM, 30 Jun 41, G-4/32488. For earlier abortive or inadequate efforts to draw up consolidated statements see Civilian Production Administration, Industrial Mobilization for War, pp. 132-40. Too little attention is generally paid to the important aid that jean Monnet gave in the co-ordination of British and American industrial planning. Until the French surrender M. Monnet was chairman of the Anglo-French Co-ordinating Committee in London; thereafter he served with the British Supply Council in North America and in numerous cases was the key figure in discussions participated in by Messrs. Hopkins and McCloy, Generals Burns anti Strong, and Colonel Aurand.
26 Ltr, Arthur B. Purvis to SW, 14 Jul 41, OCS 1183-436. See also Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for WPD, 18 Jul 41, sub: Consolidated Balance Sheet, WPD 4494-1.
27 Ltr, Mai Gen J. E. Chancy and Rear Adm R. L Ghormley to CofS and CNO, 1 Sep 41, WPD 4494-5. The observers were acting in accordance with instructions of Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for TAG, 21 Aug 41, for transmission to Special Army Observers, sub: Ultimate Production Requirements, AG 400 (7-9-41). A notation on the document indicates approval of it by Colonel Aurand.
28 The mission included W. A. Harriman, J. D. Biggers, and W. L. Batt of OPM, Generals Embick, Burns and Chancy, Col V. V. Taylor (whose energy and skill were largely responsible for the collection of British industrial figures at this time), Admiral W. H. Standley, Vice Adm. R. L. Ghormley, and others. See data on the mission in WPD 4557.
29 Copy in WPD 4494-1.
30 It appears that General Burns actually drafted not only the 18 April memorandum for Under Secretary Patterson but also a memorandum on which the president's 9 July letter was based. It was originally intended for Mr. Hopkins' signature, but Mr. Hopkins felt it should go from the President instead, and he himself dictated a redraft using much of General Burns' original language. See personal Ltr, Gen Burns to Gen Malony, 13 Apr 49, previously cited, dealing with MS of this volume, Hist Div files.
31 Memo, Prank Knox for Admiral Stark, 10 Jul 41, JB 355, ser 707.
32 Ibid., Admiral Stark's indorsement, 11 Jul 41.
33 Based on Gen Wedemeyer's 1948 discussion of this point with the author.
34 (1) Memo, ACofS WPD for ACofS G-2, 24 May 41, sub: Strategic Estimate of the Situation. (2) Memo, WPD for G-4, same date and sub. (3) Memo, WPD for G-2, 26 May 41, same sub. All in WPD 4510.
35 Memo, Executive WPD (Gailey) for ACofS WPD, 28 May 41, sub: Attendance at Conference 27 May, WPD 4510.
36 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD (Malony) for ACofS G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, 3 Jun 41, WPD 4510.
37 Typed note bearing pen notation "Given to Gen Marshall by Gen Malony 6/2/41," WPD 4510.
38 Memo, ACofS W PD for CofS, 16 Jul 41, sub: Strategic Estimate, WPD 4510.
40 Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 29 Aug 41, sub: Strategic Estimate, WPD 4510. General Marshall's penned endorsement is on this copy.
41 The available written record of these events is incomplete and is supplemented for purposes of this narrative by recollections of General Wedemeyer as given to the author during 1948.
42 (1) Memo, ACofS WPD for ACofS G-2, 14 Jul 41. (2) ACofS G-2 to WPD, 18 Jul 41. Both in WPD 4494-1.
43 Draft of letter to the President for SW's signature, WPD 4494-1. It bears no (late, but it is referred to in a Memo, ASW for ACofS WPD, 31 Jul 41, WPD 4494-3. The draft apparently was never sent.
44 Memo, Gen Gerow for Mr. McCloy, 5 Aug 41, WPD 4454-3.
45 Memo, ASW for Aug ACofS WPD, 31 Jul 41, WPD 4494-3.
46 The May 1945 figure is from Strength of the Army (STM-30), 1 Jun 48, P. 39.
47 The figure 215 divisions is given on p. 12 of the WPD Supporting Study of the Victory Program. The actual achievement in the activation of divisions is analyzed in Robert R. Palmer et al., The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 489-93.
48 K. R. Greenfield et al., The Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 336-39. Several divisions, led by the 4th, were so equipped and trained, but were reconverted to standard infantry divisions before going overseas.
49 Palmer et al., The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 120-23. The May 1945 figure is of T/O&E Ground Type Units, Strength of the Army (STM-30), II, 1, dated 1 Jun 45.
50 For information relating to the organization of armored forces see Greenfield et al., The Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 68-72 and passim. For a suggestion of WPD's emphasis on motorized, armored, airborne, and mountain troops in August 1941, when the Victory Program was being formulated, see Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for ACofS G-3, 26 Aug 41, sub: Number and Types of Divisions in Augmented Protective Mobilization Plan, 1942, WPD 4537-3. Whether the U. S. Army would have suffered fewer losses by using more armor was a subject of prolonged professional debate years after the war.
51 Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for ACofS WPD, 5 Aug 41, sub: Overall Production Acquirements to Defeat Our Potential Enemies, WPD 4494-4 and G-4 32488. See comments of G-1, G-2, G-3, and AAF, in WPD 4494-11.
52 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for ACofS G-4, 23 Aug 42, sub: Ultimate Requirements for the Army, WPD 4494-4 and G-4/33473. In the latter file is a copy of the 14-Page estimate. (2) Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for ACofS WPD, 5 Sep 41, sub: Ultimate Requirements for the Army, G-4/33473.
53 The New York Times, 17 Aug 4 1, P.1.
54 Memo, Gen Gerow to CofS, 29 Aug 41, WPD 4494-1.
55 Text of broadcast in The New York Times, 1 Sep 41, P. 1.
56 Ltr, President to SW, 30 Aug 41, WPD 4494-1. A more specific directive was issued on 31 Aug 41. See Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, to Sep 41, sub: Ultimate Requirements, WPD 4494-9- The 30 August memorandum, it appears, was actually prepared for the President's signature by General Burns, as instructed by Mr. Hopkins. See personal Ltr, Burns to Gen Malony, 13 Apr 49, previously cited, Hist Div files.
57 JB 355, ser 707.
58 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for Admiral Turner, dated 3 Sep 41 (sic), sub: Ultimate Production Requirements, WPD 4494-6.
59 Memo, CofS for CNO, 10 Sep 41, sub: United States Overall Production Requirements, WPD 4494-10. This file contains the original draft of the reply, with General Marshall's numerous critical notations.
60 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 10 Sep 41, sub: United States Overall Production Requirements, WPD 4494-10. (2) Memo, A. C. W. (Wedemeyer) for Gen Gerow, 9 Sep 41, WPD 4494-10
61 Memo, CofS to CNO, 10 Sep 41, WPD 4494-10.
62 Memo, ACofS WPD to CofS, 10 Sep 41, sub: Ultimate Requirements, WPD 4494-9.
63 Ibid. These several items are assembled as a unit in the record. WPD 4494-9.
64 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 24 Sep 41, sub: Ultimate Requirements of Army, Ground, and Air Forces, WPD 4494-13. This was prepared by Major Wedemeyer; the original is in AG 400 (7-9-41) Ultimate Production. (2) Ltr, SW and SN for President, 25 Sep 41, same file. (3) Minutes of Joint Board meeting of 22 Oct 41, JB 355, ser 707.
65 Memo from SW, unaddressed, 26 Sep 42, AG 400 (7-9-41).
66 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 19 Sep 41, sub: Resume of Conferences, WPD 4494-12. (2) Memo, Ex WPD for ACofS G-2, 17 Sep 41, sub: Strategic Estimate of the Situation, WPD 4494 (3) Memo, Actg ACofS G-2 for ACofS WPD, 18 Sep 41, sub: Strategic Estimate of the Situation, WPD 4494 (4) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for COB, 24 Sep 41, sub: Ultimate Requirements, AG 400 (7-9-41).
67 Ltr, SW to President, 23 Sep 41, AG 400 (99-17-41), Military Requirements of the War Dept and Defense Aid. In addition to the joint letter to the President from Secretaries of War and Navy, Mr. Stimson prepared a note dated 23 September 1941, which he handed to Mr. Roosevelt two days later. It recited the differences in his advisers estimates on speed and quantity of production, on the size and timing of the land forces, and on other matters, and expressed a desire for the President's views on these estimates before consolidating the munitions data. SW Papers, 1848-A.
68 (1) Memo, ACofS G-3 for ACofS WPD, 31 Jul 41, sub: Strategic Concept of United States Future Operations. (2) Memo, Lt Col Zim E. Lawhon, G-1, for ACofS G-1, 1 Aug 41, sub: Strategic Concept of Operations. (3) Memo, G-2 for ACofS G-2, 2 Aug 41. (4) Memo, (unsigned) for ACofS WPD (undated), sub: Comments on Strategic Concept of Operations. (5) Memo, ACofS G-3 for ACofS WPD, sub: Revision of Chart "Brief of Strategic Concept." All in WPD 4494-11. Copies of the original chart are not in this file, but copies dated September arc there and, judging from comments made in July and August (sec above citations), no great changes were made.
69 Accompanying the letter of SW and SN to President, 25 Sep 41, WPD 4494-23.
70 Summarized for Victory Program's accompanying Estimate (Army only), WPD 4494.
71 Summarized from the JB report attached to Victory Program Estimate, WPD 4494-13.
73 The response of G-4, signed by Gen Wheeler, fixes the date of Gen Gerow's circular of inquiry as 6 Oct 41. The G-4 response is dated 11 Oct and is found in G-4 33052 as Memo from Wheeler for WPD.
74 Strategic Estimate of October 41, WPD 4494-21, sec 1.
76 Memo, Gen Gerow for SW et al., 13 Nov 41, WPD 4510.
77 Chicago Tribune, 4 Dec 41, and affiliated newspapers.
78 Draft (unissued) of proposed press statement, 4 Dec 41. WPD copies of this, including the earlier Marshall statement, and of SW statement next referred to arc filed with WD Strategic Estimate of October 41 in WPD 4494-20, sec 1.
79 Text of statement by SW at his press conference 5 Dec 41, WPD 4494-20, sec 1. See The New York Times, 6 Dec 41, p. 3, col. 1, for account of conference. Long afterward when the German High Command documents became available for historical purposes, light was thrown upon the reasons behind the Department's conviction that the publication would be of value to the enemy. "Notes for a Report" by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Wehrmachtfuehrungsstab, Abteilung L (IK-0P) dated 14 December 1941, mentioned that publication in a Washington paper had supplemented the German Staff's knowledge of the "Anglo-Saxon war plans" in the realm of their general aims, such as plans for securing sea lanes, for more closely containing German power, for making crippling air attacks, and for conducting an offensive from the summer of 1943 onward to a final decision. The notes continued: "The credibility of this study is underlined by the fact that all measures of the Americans which we have tound out fit into these plans." They remarked at one point that the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor had "nullified" the value of the newspaper publication; nevertheless, the notes continue for page after page reciting the disclosures in detail.
80 Memo, DCofS (Moore) for ACofS WPD, 7 Jan 42, OCS 21145-51. The memorandum apparently was prepared by Colonel Aurand.
81 Protests by WPD against shipments of guns are dealt with in (1) Memo, CofS, 21 May 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, 20 May-25 Sep 40; (2) Memo, SGS for ACsofS, 14 Aug 40, CofS files, Mix Conf, 20 May 25 Sep 40; (3) Entry of 19 Feb in CofS files, Notes on Conf, Feb 14, Emergency, bndr 10. See also Memo of 3 Feb 41 cited in n. 1.
82 See DCofS statement of 13 Feb 41 with CofS conditional approval of 14 Feb 41, AG 381 (2-17-41) M-F-M.
83 12 August 1941; see Chapter VII.
84 Entry of 30 Aug in Notes on Conf, Aug 41.
85 Entry of 20 Sep 41, inaccurately filed in Daily Summary of Papers Cleared, bndr 23, rather than in Notes on Conf, Sep 41.
86 Ibid. The author of the New York Herald-Tribune article, Walter Lippmann, when interviewed by the author in 1947, recalled no suggestions direct or indirect from the White House that could have led to his writing the article. Rather, he remembered that this view was expressed at the time by the Navy, the Lend-lease authorities, the British, and even the anti-Vichy French agents then in Washington. The Navy, disturbed by the shipping shortage, was in fact discouraging the development of a large Army for overseas duty which would call for still more shipping. Britain continued to press for larger shipments for munitions.
87 Entry of 20 Sep 41 in Notes on Conf, bndr 23.
88 In a packet labeled "Information Used by CofS at Conference with the President, Sep 22 41," CofS files, 1941 Conferences. Sec also Memos, Actg ACofS, WPD (Crawford), for CofS, 19 and 22 Sep 41, sub: Overseas Possessions . . ., Tab B, in WPD 4564-1.
89 Entry of 3 Oct 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf, Oct 1941, bndr 25.
90 Sec also Memo, CofS for Gen Twaddle (G-3), 1 Jul 41, no sub, OCS 16810-296. In this General Marshall had passed on for consideration and later oral discussion a suggestion for sending hook a part of the National Guard after one year's service in order (1) to eliminate the least fit, (2) to organize the triangular divisions, (3) to provide state troops which would guard essential plants and relieve the Army of that worry.
91 Entry of 7 Oct 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 25.
92 Entry of 15 Oct 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf.
93 Entries of 16 Oct 41 and 21 Oct 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf.
94 Entry of 31 Oct 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf.
page created 12 December 2002
Return to the Table of Contents