Endnotes for Chapter II

1 (1) See James F. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1947), pp.118-21. ( 2 ) The American military missions to the Iranian Army and Gendarmerie remained as required by their contracts with the Iranian Government. See Ch. XXI below.

2 CCS 109/1, Rpt, CSP for CCS, approved 22 Sep 42, sub: Development of Persian Trans Facilities. 323.361 General Connolly's Letter of Instructions, SL 9008.

3 (1) Gen. Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, in April 1942, feared such a junction, as well as Axis capture of the Iranian oil fields on which "the whole of our effort in both theaters [Middle East and India] depended." See Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, in UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1951), p. 17. (2) German sources reveal that although Japanese Ambassador Hiroshi Oshima at Berlin in the summer of 1942 suggested such a possibility, no German staff studies to that end were made. Generalleutnant Adolf Heusinger, Chief, Operations Division, German Army General Staff, called the idea "too fantastic and outside the field of military science." Historical Interrogation Commission, WDGS, MID, Interv with Brig Gen R. C. Brock and Lt Col O. J. Hale, 10-11 Sep 45. OCMH. (3) For the Oshima proposal, see Interrog Rpt 5782, 24 Sep 45, p. 3. OCMH.

4 Unless otherwise noted the account of certain British activities is based upon PAI Force (published version) p. 88 and passim.

5 Margil, spelled in British documents Maqil or Ma'qil, is said to be an Iraqi corruption of the name of a Scots trader, McGill, who long ago left his mark upon the map.

6 U.S. MA Rpt 122 from Tehran, 9 Jul 43. MID 611 Iran, 7-9-43 (11-28-41).

7 Upon completion in early 1943 of a rail spur from Kut al Imara to Ba'quba, the Khanaqin Lift consisted of barge from Basra to Kut al Imara, rail from there to Khanaqin, and road to Tabriz.

8 Intern with Col Albert C. Lieber, Jr., Pentagon, 7 Feb 49. (This form of citation is used for interviews conducted by the author.)

9 Ltr, President Roosevelt to Secy War, 28 Dec 41. AG 400.3295 (8-14-41) Sec 1.

10 Stettinius, Lend-Lease, p. 205. (Quoted by permission of The Macmillan Company.)

11 By Msgs, 25 Sep, 3 Oct 41, cited Summary and Index, p. 2, American Aid in the ME, 1941 and 1942 (a collection of documents from British sources supplied the author through the courtesy of the Historical Section, Cabinet Office, London). biEF (Middle East Files, OCMH).

12 (I) AG 400.3295 (8-9-41) Sec I, under dates of 5, 6, 10, 23 Sep 41. (2) Notes on Conf at Office for Emergency Management, 9 Sep 41, atchd to AG Ltr to CofEngrs, 31 Oct 41, sub: North African Mission. 381 (Middle East) (I1-111) 3, OCofEngrs.

13 (1) Msg, 7 Oct 41, App. 2, American Aid in the ME, 1941 and 1942. MEF. ( 2 ) Summary and Index, pp. 9-10, American Aid in the ME, 1941 and 1942. MEF.

14 (1) Min, 3d Mtg of American Aid Subcommittee 24 Nov 41, App. 11, American Aid in the ME, 1941 and 1942. MEF. ( 2 ) See Chart 1. ( 3 ) The administrative and command relationships of British forces in Iraq and Iran to GHQ, India, and GHQ, Middle East Forces, Cairo, during 1941 and 1942 are somewhat obscure. From May 1941 Iraq appears to have been within the Middle East "sphere of interest," though the General Officer Commanding, Iraq, with headquarters at Baghdad commanded British forces in Iran and was in turn under the command of Commander-in-Chief, India. "For administration only," Iran was placed under the command of GHQ, Middle East Forces, "during the period mid-February 1942 to mid-September 1942." Ltr and atchd Memo, Brig H. B. Latham, Chief, Hist Sec, Cabinet Office, London, to author, 5 Mar 48. (4) In January 1942 the War Department received notification from London that Iraq and Iran had been transferred from India to Middle East. This information, not wholly exact, as the above shows, was simultaneously cabled 15 January 1942 to Generals Maxwell and Wheeler. Memo, Brig Gen Leonard T. Gerow for TAG, 15 Jan 42, sub: Transfer of Iraq and Persia to Middle East Comd. AG 400.3295 (8-9-41) Sec 6. (5) For relevance of British command and jurisdictional matters to the creation of USAFIME, see Ch. V below.

15 Ltr of Instructions, 5 Nov 41. AG 400.3295 (8-14-41). See also Ch. IV below for an account of the USSR Mission.

16 Memo, 1 Mar 42, sub: Mtg of Arms and Servs, U. S. Mil Mission to Iran, 27 Feb 42. 323.61 Establishment of Military Districts, Binder i, SL 9008.

17 The first two documents cited are in Iran 2/8, NADEF; the third, in AG 400.3295 (8-9--41) Sec 4.

 18 (1) Ltr, Brig Gen Thomas M. Robins to Div Engr, NAD, NY, 28 Oct 41, sub: Iranian Mission. 381 (Middle East) O&T Sec Files, Folio 1, Serials 1-175, OCofEngrs. (2) GO 7, OCofEngrs, 31 Oct 41.

19 This working arrangement was continued between the district engineer and General Wheeler's successor, Col. Don G. Shingler. (1) Interv cited n. 8. (2) Interv, Gen Shingler with Victor H. Pentlarge, Jr., Pentagon, 22 Apr 46.

20 Inferv cited n. 8.

 21 AG Ltr, 18 Feb 42, sub: Closing Out of Overseas Contracts and Militarization of Contract Activities. AG 160 ( 2-15-42 ) MSG-D-M.

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