Endnotes for Chapter XVIII

1 The title Director of Ports will be uniformly used in this chapter although it actually varied from time to time. The Ports Service was similarly called by several names.

2 Plan for Operation of Certain Iranian Communication Facilities between Persian Gulf Ports and Tehran by U.S. Army Forces, 3 Sep 42, Sec. III, par. 9, and Ind V. Copy PGF 235.

3 Hist Rpt, 9th Port, Molaile, Supplement, 19 Jul 42-1 Mar 43. PGF 12-B.

4 (1) The lighterage basin at Cheybassi was added six months later. ( 2 ) Ltr, Gen Connolly, CG, PGSC, to GHQ, PAI Force, Baghdad, 9 Jan 43, sub: Preliminary Plan for Taking over the Operation of Certain Port, Railway, and Motor Transport Facilities in the Persian Corridor. PGF 26-A.

5 Ltr cited n. 4(2).

6 General Summary Report of the Program of the War Shipping Administration for the Delivery of Russian-Aid to the Persian Gulf Ports and the Relations of the War Shipping Administration with Other Agencies, Public and Private, for the Period Ending December 1944, by Nels Anderson, ME Representative for Recruitment and Manning, WSA, p. 67; and covering Ltr, to H. Chase Stone, Asst Deputy Administrator for Recruitment and Manning, WSA, Washington, 15 Dec 44. PGF 257.

7 U.S. Army Transportation in the Persian Corridor, 1941-1945, Monograph 25, Hist Unit, OCofTrans, ASF, Feb 46, by H. H. Dunham, pp. 26, 27, 30 (cited hereafter as Dunham).

8 (1) Ltr, GHQ, PAI Force, to Hq, PGSC, 1 Jan 43, sub- Movements and Trans. Gulf Dist (Gulf District Hq Files, PGC, now filed at the Kansas City Records Center, AGO, Kansas City, Mo.) 563.52. ( 2 ) Ltr, Col Booth to CofS, PGSC, 17 Feb 43. Same file.

9 W. H. Lock, Chairman.

10 British Rpt, Persian Gulf Ports and Inland Transport Facilities and Organizations: Report on a Visit to Iraq and Persia, October 5th-November 2d, by R. S. Mactier, Basra, 1 Nov 41. PGF 26-A.

11 Lt Comdr Derwood W. Lockard and Eugene Seaholm.

12 Maj Erme B. Myott.

13 (1) Maj James W. Rattray and Maj Elmer E. Anderson. (2) Rpt cited n. 6. (3) State Dept Rpt, British Controls in Iraq, by Richard E. Gnade, 25 Feb 44. MID 330 Great Britain, 3 Apr 44 (12 Mar 43 ) .

14 Min of Allied Mtg, Hq, PGSC, 10 Sep 43, quoted HOTI, Pt. IV, History of the Ports, by Ogden C. Reed, p. 135. PGF.

15 Col Booth was designated Director as of 1 Nov by GO 7, Hq, PGSC, 25 Nov 42.

16 PGSC Headquarters were then also at Basra, but moved to Tehran in January 1943. For removal of Ports Serv Hq to Basra, see SO 1, Hq, Basra Dist, 22 Dec 42. PGF 13.

17 Hist Rpt, 9th'Port, Mobile, Mar-Apr 43, p. 1. PGF 12-C, D.

18 (1) At Khorramshahr, after brief periods in which Major Rattray and Lt. Col. John S. Wilfley served as commanders, Col. Bernard A. Johnson bore for eighteen months the brunt of the early and difficult days of adjustment as well as the strains and satisfactions of the period in 1944 of highest efficiency and peak performance. At Bandar Shahpur Maj. Harry C. Dodenhoff served from 2 February 1943 to November 1944, from the very beginning nearly to the date of returning the port to the British. He was succeeded by Lt. Col. Gordon D. Cornell of 9th Port. Colonel Booth was succeeded as Director of Ports and Commanding Officer, Gulf District, on 17 November 1943 by Col. Theodore M. Osborne, who, on 31 October 1944, as a brigadier general, was succeeded by Colonel Johnson. Informal Hist Rpt, Mil Pers Br, Adm Div, PGC, 19 Dec 44. PGF 150-W. (2) When Gulf District was abolished on 24 February 1945, Colonel Dodenhoff became Commanding Officer, 9th Port, and Director, Ports Service. Hist Rpt, Ports Serv, Feb 45. PGF 26-Z. (3) Colonel Dodenhoff was succeeded on 23 May 1945 by Col. Louis T. Vickers. Hist Rpt, Ports Serv, May 45. PGF 26-C-1.

19 Movement Orders 2, Hq, Dir of Ports and Gulf Dist, PGSC, 28 Sep 43. PGF 13. Move completed 10 October 1943. GO 57, Hq, PGSC, 21 Sep 43. Same file.

20 (1) GO 36, Hq, PGC, 24 Feb 45. ( 2 ) PGC Headquarters had moved from Tehran to Khorramshahr on 15 September 1945. The command in October became a service command of the .Africa-Middle East Theater. GO 111, Hq, PGSC, 10 Oct 45. (3) Final Hist Rpt, Ports Scrv, for 1 Sep-10 Oct 45, 22 Oct 45. PGF 26-G-1.

21 Memo, Hq, Office Dir of Ports and CO, Basra Dist, for Off in Charge, Opns, Basra Dist, 15 Apr 43. PGF 26-A. The director of ports was also responsible for training and processing arriving troops and handling departing troops.

22 (1) HOTI, Pt. I, Ch. 8, Sec. 3, History of Movements Branch, Operations Division, Hq, PGC, prepared by Movements Branch, Operations Division, with Supplement by Laurence P. Corbett, and statistical appendix, Complete Summary of Port and Transportation Agencies Performance of PGC Operations through 31 May 1945, 5 July 1945. PGF. (2) Ltr, Col Osborne, Dir of Ports and Gulf Dist, to CG, PGC, for ACofS, Opns Div, 18 Dec 43, sub: Establishment of Port Trans Offs. PGF 26-A.

23 (1) Dir of Ports Instruction Bull 1, 29 Dec 42. Gulf Dist 563.52. (2) History cited n. 22(1). (3) Rads, Col Booth to Col Wilfley, 19, 26 May 43. Gulf Dist 453.0 (4) Page 62 of History cited n. 14. (5) Loading of trucks at the ports was done by Motor Transport Service personnel. Dir of Ports Instruction Bull 2, 29 Dec 42. Gulf Dist 563.52.

24 Memo, ACofS Opns for CG, 8 Jan 45, sub: Relations between WSA and PGC. Historical Data on PGC Furnished Mead Committee, SL 8997.

25 History cited n. 22 (1) .

26 Rad, Gen Booth to Port Comdrs at Khorramshahr and Bandar Shahpur, 31 Mar 43. Gulf Dist 453.0.

27 (1) Rad, Gen Connolly to Gen Sidney Spalding, repeated to Admiral William H. Standley, U.S. Ambassador at Moscow, for Gen Faymonville, 16 Jan 43. PGF 26-A. (2) Interv with Gen Connolly, Pentagon, 18 Aug 50.

28 Hist Rpt, Bandar Shahpur Port, Nov 44. PGF 9-W.

29 (1) Ltr, Lt Col B. E. Bushnell, to CO, Gulf Dist, PGSC, 7 Jun 43, sub: Inspection of Motor Transport and Cons Equipment, Khorramshahr, Iran, p. 2. PGF 26-A. (2) By way of contrast, the men at the British Ordnance Base at Shu'aiba were still under canvas nearly two years after their arrival, and their officers remained in tents for another year. PAI Force History, II, 40.

30 (1 ) Rpt, Port Facilities at Port of Khorramshahr, prepared by Opns Div, Hq, PGC, for U.S. MA, Tehran. PGF, 26-A. (2) Maps of Khorramshahr. Hq Port and Gulf Dist File, SL 8973.

31 Roughhewn poles used in Iran for structural framework.

32 (1) Rpt, Port Facilities at Port of Bandar Shahpur, prepared by Opns Div, Hq, PGC, for U.S. MA, Tehran. PGF 26-A. (2) Hist Rpt, Bandar Shahpur Port, Dec 43. PGF 9-L. ( 3 ) Map, Annex 7-C of Rpt cited n. 47 below.

33 Memo, IG, PGSC, for CG, PGSC, 3 Sep 43. PGF 26-A.

34 Rad AGWAR 1801, Gen Styer to Gen Somervell, 15 Jul 43. PGF 26-A. This was no isolated case either for the Ports Service or for the other agencies in the command. There were numerous instances of the sort over the years, but this one emerges from anonymity because it was lucky enough to come to the attention of the high command.

35 Report of Military Police Activities, PGC, United States Army, p. 62. PGF 130.

36 (1) Ltr, Iransovtrans (Mr. Krasnov) to U.S. and British Movements Contl, 4 Mar 43. Gulf Dist 400.6. The Russians stated that they shot those caught pilfering. (2) Ltr, Col Booth to Port Comdr, 9 Mar 43. PGF 13.

37 Rpt, Investigation of Pilferage and Security at the Port of Khorramshahr, by Maj Cornell and Capt Joseph W. Kuns [n. d.]; and, passim, Gulf Dist 400.6.

38 Rad AMPSC 309, Gen Somervell to Gen Connolly, 27 Feb 43. PGF 26-A.

39 Ltr, Col Booth to Gen Connolly, 1 Mar 43, sub: Monthly Rpt of Port Opns, Khorramshahr, Period to 28 Feb 43. PGF 26-A. Tonnages discharged or landed, unless otherwise indicated, will be found in `Fable 3.

40 Testimony of Maj. Walter D. Brennan quoted Rpt cited n. 37. His remarks concerned the 378th Port Battalion only.

41 Ltr, Col Booth to Maj Brennan, 3 Mar 43, quoted pp. 41-42 of History cited n. 14. ( 2 ) Memo cited n. 21. ( 3 ) Rpt on Port Opns at Khorramshahr, by Maj Anderson, for Dir of Ports, 10 Aug 43. OCofTrans, Hist Br-Overseas Comd, Pentagon.

42 Rpt cited n. 41( 3 i.

43 (1) Hist Rpt, 380th Port Bn, 2 Jul 43. PGF 24-E. (2) Hist Rpt, 378th Port Bn, 31 Jul 42-31 Jul 43. PGF 19-E.

44 (1) Chs. 3, 4, 5 of History cited n. 14. ( 2 ) HOTI, History of Civilian Personnel Branch Activities, Administration Division, Hq, PGC, by Col Richard W. Cooper. PGF.

45 (1) Rpt cited n. 43(2). (2) Memo, Deputy QMG, GHQ, PAI Force, for Hq, PGSC., 27 Jan 43, sub: Persian Ports. PGF 26-A.

46 (1) Memo, Col Osborne for Col Booth, 28 Apr 43, sub: Lighterage Facilities; and 1st Ind, Col Booth to Col Osborne, 6 Jun 43. GF 26-A. (2) Ltr, Col Booth to Col Osborne, 29 Jul 43. PGF 26-A.

47 Report on Transportation at Persian Gulf Ports, by Lt Col Benjamin C. Allin and Capt Robert G. Stone [n. d.]. OCofTrans Hist Br-Overseas Comd Pentagon. Supplemented by: Ltr, Col Allin and Capt Stone to CG, PGSC,. 22 Apr 43, sub: Report on Port Study, Persian Gulf Ports; and Memo, Col Allin for Mad Gen C. P. Gross, CofTrans, 10 Jul 43, sub: Operating Conditions at Persian Gulf Ports. PGF 26-A. Colonel Allin and Captain Stone were traveling under letter orders dated 11 March 1943. No copy exists in the files of the Office of the Chief of Transportation, Historical Branch-Overseas Command, but Dunham (page 115) indicates their instructions covered survey and recommendation on port discharge (equipment, method) and clearance, but not inland clearance by road and rail.

48 The Allin reports say the delays (as of mid-April) ran up to 58 days for a single ship. The report cited note 41 (3 ) gives the following "average number of days elapsed since ship arrived in Gulf until discharge completed": March, 50; April, 51 ; May, 45; June, 40; July 26.

49 Prior to receipt of the Allin recommendation in Washington, the home office of PGSC had prepared a report for General Connolly indicating that a maximum of 200,000 long tons per month of shipments was under discussion. Rpt of Activities 7-29 Mar 43, Proposed Opns, 27 Mar 43. 336.01 International Agreements, SL 9012.

50 Rpt cited n. 41(3). 

51 Rad cited n. 34.

52 Ibid.

53 (1) Dunham, p. 121 and n. 87. (2 ) As of 1 August 1944 Lt. Col. Emery C. Creager was Operations Officer, Water Division, Ports Service. List of Personnel Assignments as of 1 Aug 44. PGF 26-A.

54 (1) Rpt, Col Hans Ottzenn to Gen Connolly (through Dir of Ports), 5 Aug 43. Hq, ASF, Theaters of Opus, PGC (13 ) 1942-1944, HRS DRB AGO. General Connolly forwarded this report to General Somervell under covering letter of 11 August 1943. (2) Rad, Col Ottzenn to Gen Gross, 5 Aug 43. Same file.

55 (1) Rad, Gen Faymonville to Gen Connolly signed Standley, 12 Jun 43. 400.3295 Lend-Lease Russia, SL 9021. ( 2 ) Memo, Col N. M. Martin to CG, PGC, 26 Mar 44, reporting on conferences in Washington and transmitting OPD instructions. 322 War Dept Conference on Theater Administration 1944, No. 1 Organization, SL 8961.

56 (1) Ltr, Oscar A. J. Henricksen to W. S. McPherson, 20 Jun 43. PGF 26-A. Another copy Hq, ASF, Theaters of Opns, PGC (13 ) 1942-1944. HS DRB AGO. Other documents referred to in the text following and filed m the latter file are: (2) Ltr, Gen Somervell to Gen Connolly, 10 Jul 43. (3) Rad SPTTT 7, Gen Gross to Gen Styer, 10 Jul 43. (4) Rad cited n. 34. (5) Memo, Gen Styer for Gen SomervelL, 24 Jul 43,.sub: Rpt on Investigation of Complaint Made by WSA Representative at Basra re Handling of Shipping by PGSC. (6 ) Rpt and Rad cited n. 54. ( 7 ) Ltr cited n. 54 (1) .

57 An apparent reference to Colonel Allin and Captain Stone. The reports were known to General Connolly, the Chief of Transportation, Washington, and the Commanding General, ASF, Washington, to whom the full versions were submitted, and to the following officers of the command in the field to whom Colonel Allin communicated his full views in a personal conference on 22 April: the executive officer of Basra District, Colonels Osborne, R. C. L. Graham, A. C. Purvis, Maj. J. V. Story, and Capt. A. B. Swank. No representative of WSA was present at this meeting.

58 An apparent reference to the Allin reports.

59 I. e., dispatch of Colonel Ottzenn.

60 At the conference and on the tour were Connolly and Styer, Booth, Osborne, and Johnson, Brennan and Hill (assistant to Brennan), and Henricksen and French of WSA.

61 Rpt cited n. 41 (3).

62 What the general meant by "rate of movement" is obscure. The CBI Section, OCMH, states that between 11,000 and 20,000 long tons were hauled over the Burma Road in its peak month of December 1941. The general therefore does not seem to have meant long tons accepted in August by the USSR at their receiving points, as 157,388 long tons of all cargo (USSR, British, Iranian, American) were discharged at Khorramshahr and Bandar Shahpur in August 1943.

63 (1) Rpt, by R. Player, Feb 44. Gulf Dist 323.361. ( 2 ) Competition between port companies and battalions at berths was intensified by use of numbered flags according to berth tonnage performance. It was rumored that wagers amounting to as much as $4,000 were made by various crew members. Hist Rpt, 9th Port, Mobile, Jun 43. PGF 12-F.

64 Covering ltr cited n. 6.

65 Charts 8, 9, 10, 11 and Table 3.

66 Pages 15, 19 of Rpt cited n. 6.

67 (1) Opus Directive Consecutive 1, Hq, Opns Div, PGSC, signed by Col Osborne, ACofS, Opns, 30 Mar 43, sub : Target for April. PGF 26-A. ( 2 ) Ltr, Port Opns Br, Gulf Dist, to CG, PGSC, 13 May 43, sub: Study of Port Performance. PGF 26-A. (3) Ltr, CofS, PGSC, to CO, Gulf Dist, 31 May 43, sub: Estimated Ship Clearances. PGF 26-A.

68 Page 20 of Rpt cited n. 6. The figures are ascribed to American command sources but do not tally with them in every instance.

69 Pages 22, 70, 71 of Rpt cited n. 6. 

70 Hist Rpt, Gulf Dist, May 44. PGF 13-Q.

71 Ltr, covering period 1-15 Apr, CofTrans, ASF, 25 Apr 44, quoted Hist Rpt, Gulf Dist, Apr 44. PGF 13-P.

72 Of these troops 1,800 were white, with 327 of them attached to headquarters companies; and 1,156 were Negro, with 34 of them attached to headquarters companies. Station List Hq, PGC, as of 31 Jul 44, Sec. 3. PGF 230-5.

73 (1) The operations during July 1944 at Sentab Jetty, Failiyah Creek, the Russian Dump, Customs Jetty, and Khumba Wharf are described in detail in Hist Rpt, Khorramshahr Port, Jul 44, PGF 16-5 ; and Hist Rpt, Gulf Dist, Jul 44, PGF 13-5. ( 2 ) Ltr, Col Booth to Maj Daniel P. Caulkins, 13 Jan 43. Gulf Dist 823.361.

74 Hist Rpt, Khorramshahr Port, Aug 44, p. 2. PGF 16-T.

75 Hist Rpt, Ports Serv, Mar 45. PGF 26-A-1.

76 Page 1 of Rpt cited n. 18 (3 ) .

77 Rpt cited n. 32(2).

78 Of these troops 555 were white, 183 of them attached to headquarters companies; 692 were Negro, 18 of them attached to headquarters companies. Station List cited n. 72.

79 Rpt cited n. 28.

80 Rpt cited n. 20 (3) .

81 In 1941 its capacity was about 3,000 long tons a day.

82 The name was given to Cheybassi by Cir 53, Hq, PGSC, 20 Jul 43, as recommended by Ltr, Dir of Ports and Gulf Dist to CG PGSC, for ACofS Opns, 1 Jul 43, citing recommendation in Min of Basra Port Committee, Mtg 416, 24 Mar 43. PGF 26-A.

83 (1) Rad, Col Booth to Brig Gen Stanley L. Scott, CofS, PGSC, 2 Jun 43. PGF 162. (2) Min of Allied Mtg, 23 Jun 43. Gulf Dist 323.361. (3) Effective 6 Dee 43, Cheybassi became a subport .under the Port Comdr, Khorramshahr. GO 27, Hq, Dir of Ports and Gulf Dist, 5 Dec 43. PCT 26-A. (4) Hist Rpt, Cheybassi Port, Jul 43. PGF 162-G. (5) For Cheybassi see also Rpt, Port Facilities at Port of Cheybassi, prepared by Opns Div, Hq, PGC, for U.S. MA, Tehran, PGF 26-A; Hist Rpts, Gulf Dist, 1944, PGF 13; Ten-Day Rpts and Rpts of Cheybassi Port Opns, 1943, Gulf Dist 323.361. (6) The Port Comdr was Capt W. H. Besselman.

84 In February 1945 it reverted to ISR operation.

85 Hist Rpts, Gulf Dist, Aug 43-Aug 44. PGF 13-H, L, P, Q, R, S, T.

86 (1) Hist Rpt, Gulf Dist, Oct 44. PGF 13-V. ( 2 ) Rad, Gen Booth to Brig Rhodes, info Col Osborne, 18 Aug 44. PGF 26-A.

87 Command policy as announced by' Col Osborne, ACofS, Opns, at meeting at office of Port Comdr, Khorramshahr, 23 Apr 43. Memo, signed by Maj Cornell, Ex Off, Office of the Port Comdr, Khorramshahr, 24 Apr 43. PGF 26-A.

88 Page 46 of History cited n. 22 (1) .

89 Colonel Ottzenn, who had returned to the United States after temporary duty in the Persian Gulf, came back in early December to assist in close-out and evacuation. Top Secret Book IV, p. 551, European Sec, OPD.

90 Rpt cited n. 20 ( 3 ) .

91 Strength of the Army, prepared for War Department General Staff by Machine Records Branch, Office of Adjutant General, under Direction of Statistics Branch, GS, 1 Dec 45, p. 6. See also Table 12 and Chart 2.

92 A subsidiary of American Eastern Corporation whose Basra representative was Mr. Seaholm, formerly with WSA.

93 The following Rads have been drawn upon: WARX 85023, WARCOS to CG, AMET, 24 Nov 45; PX 32580, CO, PGSC, to WARCOS, 25 Nov 45; Ocean Traffic Br, Water Div, CofTrans, to CO, PGSC, 6 Dec 45; PX 32640, Hq, PGSC, to WD, 8 Dec 45; DTG 1211172, Hq, PGSC, to WD, 12 Dec 45; PX 32700, CO, PGSC, to WD, 15 Dec 45; BD 200, CO, Abadan Field, to WD, 25 Feb 46. Ocean Traffic Br, Water Div, OCofTrans.

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