Endnotes for Chapter XX

1 General Booth, Commanding General, PGC, replying to a letter from Ambassador Leland B. Morris who called his attention to charges of this sort in the Iranian press, pointed out the high employment resulting from Army operations the avoidance of competitive bidding for items in short supply in the local market, the high degree of self-sufficiency of the American forces, and cash payment for goods in plentiful supply. Ltr, Booth to Morris, 25 Feb 45. Abstract PGF 261.

2 (1) Memo by Gen Connolly, atchd Ltr, Connolly to Dreyfus, 19 Jul 43. 336.01 International Agreements, SL 9012. (2) Note, Charge d'Affaires, USSR Embassy, Washington, to Secy State, handed to Loy Henderson, 27 Jul 43. Div of Near Eastern Affairs, Dept State 711.91/106 PS/FP. (3) U.S. Note to USSR, 16 Jun 43. Same file. (4) Memo, Dept State for WD, 5 Aug 43. OPD 336 Russia (24).

3 R&A 1206, Conflicts and Agreements of Interest of the United Nations in the Nea: East, Office of Strategic Services, Research and Analysis Br, 10 Jan 44, p. 31. A request to the Iranian Prime Minister in October 1942 by Colonel Shingler for extraterritorial rights for American troops (which was refused) did not constitute formal notice of American plans. Interv with Gen Connolly, Pentagon, 18 Aug 50.

4 Note, Charge d'Affaires, USSR Embassy, Washington, to Secy State, 11 May 43, referring to Memo, Dreyfus for Smirnov, 3 Apr 43. Div of Near Eastern Affairs, Dept State 711.91/99 PS/HWL.

5 Memo by Col Johnson, 13 Aug 43. OPD 210.684 Iran (13 Aug 43) .

6 (1) Interv with Col Milford F. Henkel, JAG, PGC, Amirabad, 3 Aug 45, for this and other background material in this section. (2) Documents alluded to or drawn upon for this section include: (a) Those primarily relating to court jurisdiction over troops: Ltr, Gen Andrews to Dreyfus, 16 Dec 42, Folder American Diplomats in M/E, CG/LTSAFIME, AG File, Hq AMET; Note 341, Dreyfus to Iranian Foreign Minister, 18 Jan 43, Treaty File, JAG File, Hq PGC; Ltr, Connolly to Dreyfus, 6 Dec 43, Treaty File, JAG File, Hq PGC, another copy 092.2 Treaties and Agreements, SL 8978; Ltr, CofS, PGSC, to Dreyfus, 30 Mar 43, 336 Foreign, International Affairs and Relations, SL 9012; Rad AMPSC 2189, Marshall to Connolly, 10 Jan 44, Rad AGWAR 156, Connolly to Marshall, 12 Jan 44, 092.2 International Treaties and Agreements, SL 8978. (b) Correspondence and drafts: U.S. proposed drafts, undated, but earliest proposal for an executive agreement, first revision of 24 Feb 43, second revision of 25 Aug 43, Cases 55, 64, Sec II, OPD 210.684 Iran; new draft treaty submitted to Secy State, 21 Apr 44, Treaty File, JAG File, Hq PGC. (c) Correspondence on a comprehensive treaty or agreement: Ltrs, Dreyfus to Connolly, 7, 18 Jun 43, Connolly's reply, 19 Jun 43, 336.01 International Agreements, SL 9012; Rad AMSPC 1041, Marshall to Connolly, 7 Jul 43, 336.01 International Agreements, SL 9012; Memo and Ltr cited n. 2 (1) .

7 It may not have been known to General Andrews that no separate formal understandings existed between the two Allied forces and Iran on exemptions and legal jurisdiction of their troops. These were tried by their own military courts under the general provisions of international law.

8 Ltr, Hurley to Roosevelt, 21 Dec 43. Copy furnished by General Hurley. The President requested Hurley's permission to delete Hurley's views on the contradictions between imperialism and the Atlantic Charter from this letter before circulating it. Interv with Gen Hurley, Washington, 30 Mar 50.

9 (1) Memo, American Policy in Iran, by Div of Near Eastern Affairs, prepared by John D. Jernegan, approved by Secy State, 23 Jan 43. Case 57, Sec II, OPD 210.684 Iran. (2) Commenting on this paper Minister Dreyfus on 14 April 1943 noted that the Iranians themselves were an obstacle to the achievement of American aims on their behalf because of corruption, selfishness, antiforeignism and lack of social consciousness, but that there was a basic "germ of goodness in them which should be protected and nourished." Memo atchd to memo cited in (1).

10 Ltr, Hurley to Roosevelt, 13 May 43. Copy furnished by General Hurley. The first suggestion was made implicit in the Declaration of Tehran; the second was made effective in September 1943 with Iran's declaration of war on Germany; the third was implemented when the U.S. Legation became an embassy on 9 February 1944.

11 The text given here is from the photostatic copy of the draft of 30 November 1943 taken from White House files. Supplied by the Department of State. See Frontispiece.

12 Ltr cited n. 8.

13 Memo, Roosevelt for Hull, 12 Jan 44. Case 28, Sec 1-A, OPD 384 Middle East, HRS DRB AGO. Roosevelt wrote Hurley in the same sense on 25 March 1944. Copy furnished by General Hurley. The President's letters were noncommittal on Hurley's specific proposals.

14 While in Tehran the President and Harry Hopkins had consulted with Dr. h4illspaugh about assistance to Iran. In a letter to Hopkins, written at Hopkins' request, Millspaugh outlined a 20-year program of American aid in accordance with "the proposition that you and the President apparently had in mind," namely, "that Iran, because of its situation, its problems, and its friendly feeling toward the United States, is (or can be made) something in the nature of a clinic-an experiment station-for the President's post-war policies-his aim to develop and stabilize backward areas; that the present American effort in Iran is actually a means of implementing those policies, a means of helping nations to help themselves, with negligible cost and risk to the United States; and that a similar effort might well be made in other regions." Ltr, Millspaugh to Hopkins, 11 Jan 44. Copy furnished by Grace Murphy, secretary to Robert E. Sherwood. At Hopkins' request Connolly also drew up a detailed commentary on U.S. relations with Iran, "American Foreign Policy Toward Iran," forwarded by letter, Connolly to Hopkins, 26 February 1944. Copies of both furnished by Mr. Sherwood.

15 Rad 462, Stettinius to American Embassy, Tehran, 31 Jul 44. State Dept Cable Book, Near East, Iran.

16 See Ltr, U.S. Ambassador to Iran Morris to Gen Booth, 27 Jan 45, and Booth's reply, 8 Feb 45. 092.2 (Iran.-American) Re: Presence of U.S. Troops in Iran, SL 8978.

17 Interv cited n. 6 (1) .

18 (1) Page 13 of document cited n. 3. (2) For the early history of MESC, see Department of State Bulletin VIII (1943 ) 76 (16 Jan 43 ) (3 ) For accounts of its organization and work, see Foreign Economic Administration publication ME-7, The Middle East Supply Center, by Special Areas Br, Middle East Div, May 44; Frederick Winant, "The Combined Middle East Supply Program," Department of State Bulletin X (1944) 199 (26 Feb 44); Winant, with John P. Dawson, "The Middle East Supply Program," Foreign Commerce Weekly XV (1944) 3 (1 Apr 44) ; and John A. Calhoun, "Iran in 1943," p. 8, Foreign Commerce Weekly XV (1944) 3 (1 Apr 44).

19 Although General Hurley, protesting that "the least we should demand is that we be permitted to do our own giving," advised President Roosevelt as late as December 1943 that distribution of United States lend-lease goods in the Middle East ought to be by American agencies, and although the President replied 25 March 1944, "You are right that the distribution of Lend-Lease supplies throughout the Middle East should be taken over by our own people and I have let the Secretary of State know my views in this regard," such steps as were taken amounted only to modification and regulation of the basic conditions. To the end, lend-lease distribution in the Middle East was never wholly under American control. Ltr cited n. 8, and reply, President to Hurley, 25 Mar 44. Copy furnished by General Hurley.

20 General Maxwell, Commanding General, North African Mission, for the War Department, and J. E. Jacobs, Counselor of Legation, for the American Minister, on behalf of the Department of State, were at the first MESC session ( I 1-14 May 1942 ) attended by Americans. Press Release, Maxwell Papers. The question of lend-lease representation at Cairo can be traced through the Hopkins Papers, especially Memorandum, Stettinius for Hopkins, 9 October 1941, suggesting attaching a lend-lease representative "to each of the missions in Egypt and Iran," MS Index to Hopkins Papers, Volume II, Book VII, Middle East Politics and Requirements, Item 11 (2 ) ; Radio, Hopkins to Alexander C. Kirk, American Minister at Cairo, Lt. Col. Edwin W. Piburn, pre-mission lend-lease advance agent in Egypt, and General Maxwell, 8 December 1941, indicating relationship of Piburn as temporary lend-lease representative to the North African Mission, Volume II, Part VII, Lend-Lease Operations in Middle East (6), Item 57; and Ltr, Asst Secy State Dean Acheson to Stettinius, 6 Mar 42, and Memo, Thomas McCabe, Lend-Lease Administration, for Hopkins, 7 Mar 42, sub: Lend-Lease Administration Representative in the Middle East, Vol. II, Pt. VII,' Item 75.

21 Ltr, Stettinius to Winant, 9 Jun 42. Seen at Office of Historian of Foreign Economic Administration.

22 Rad 1491, Somervell to AMSEG, 16 Aug 42. OPD Cable Book, North African Mission, Vol. III.

23 Interns with Winant, Washington, 27 Jul 44 and 26 Apr 45; and with Maxwell, Washington, 12 Mar 46. Background for this chapter was also obtained through: Intern cited n. 8; Intern with Col Kidd, G-5 AMET, Cairo, 6 Jul 45; Intern with Dreyfus, Washington, 14 Apr 49; Interns with James M. Landis, Cambridge, 8 May 45 and 22 Mar 46; and Intern with Gordon P. Merriam, Chief, Near East Div, at Dept State, 6 Apr 45.

24 Ltr, Stettinius to McCloy, 2 Jan 43; and Ltr, McCloy to Stettinius, 11 Jan 43. AG 400.3295 (1-9-43) (1).

25 Kidd felt that as civilian lend-lease representative for Iran he had incurred the displeasure of Minister of State Casey by opposing British efforts, through MESC, to establish quotas for all of Iran, including the Soviet zone, without consulting the Russians. Upon his return to Washington he was commissioned by the Army and sent back to the Middle East to become Maxwell's director of lend-lease affairs at American command headquarters, Cairo.

26 Ltr, Hull to Landis, 17 Sep 43. Original seen at Dean Landis' office in Cambridge.  

27 Casey wrote Landis, 28 December 1943, in praise of "your work and the spirit which has animated it here in the Middle East, and perhaps together we have no need to be ashamed of our record here in this respect:" Letter seen at Landis' office.

28 (1) In the winter of 1941-42, 93,000 tons of wheat had been imported by the British, some of it from American sources. Groseclose, Introduction to Iran, pp. 175, 181, 185-86. (2) Rad AGWAR 705, Connolly to Marshall, 23 Feb 44. Case 28, Sec 1-A, OPD 384 Middle East, HRS DRB AGO. (3) See File 400.3295 Lend-Lease, Iran, SL 9021; and Ltr, Connolly to Ridley, 3 Aug 43, 451.2 Trucks for Iranian Army, SL 9028. The dump was moved in December to Andimeshk. Connolly loaded and delivered stores to the dump; Ridley unloaded them there.

29 Rad AMPSC 902, Marshall to Brereton and Connolly, 15 Jun 43; Rad AMPSC 1545, Marshall to Connolly, info Royce, 27 Sep 43. 400.3295 Lend-Lease, Iran, SL 9021.

30 Excepted governments were Turkey and members of the British Empire and Commonwealth. MBW 69/1, 13 Sep 43. NOW, Bk. IV, ASF Intn Div Files, HRS DRB AGO.

31 Incl "B," 19 Jul 43, atchd to MBW 69/1, cited n. 30.

32 Lt. Gen. G. N. Macready of the British Army Staff, Washington, on behalf of Lt. Gen. Arthur H. Smith, Commander-in-Chief, PAI Force. For radios, memoranda, minutes, correspondence, and reports bearing on the protest and its sequel, see Mission Report File, U.S. Military Mission with the Iranian Army, War Office, Tehran, 17 January, 27 March, 10 and 13 April 1944.

33 Supplies and equipment purchased in the United States under lend-lease for ultimate use by the Iranian Gendarmerie were transferred to the Iranian Ministry of the Interior through the facilities of the PGSC and PGC. Colonel Schwarzkopf's Gendarmerie Mission facilitated receipting and invoicing, and payments were arranged between the Foreign Economic Administration and the Iranian Ministry of Finance. Cases 81, 100, Sec IV, OPD 210.684 Iran.

34 (1) See correspondence between Connolly and Dreyfus, 13 July-4 November 1943. 092 International Affairs and Relations, SL 8978. (2) Memo of conversation, John McCloy, Wallace Murray, and George Allen, 29 Jan 44, sub: Broadening Directives of Gen Connolly. Div of Communications and Records, Dept State 861.24/1773 PS/RGB.

35 Not until 14 June 1945, through an amendment to Schwarzkopf s Letter of Instructions following a strong recommendation by the Department of State of 5 June 1945, did the War Department put the Iranian Gendarmerie on the same footing as the Iranian Army in supply matters. See Memo and amended Ltr of Instructions to Schwarzkopf. Case 100, Sec IV, OPD 210.684 Iran.

36 Rad AMSME 7615, Gen Brereton to Gen Strong, G-2, 26 Aug 43. 371.2 (Apr 42-1 Nov 44 ) Hq AMET.

37 Rad 837, Dreyfus to Hull, 13 Aug 43. Dept of State, VII-4-C, Iran-Foreign Advisers-U.S. Gendarmerie Mission, Div of Near Eastern Affairs.

38 Memo on Consumer Goods in Iran, undated, forwarded under cover of Ltr, Landis to Hopkins, 26 Nov 43. Copy from Hopkins Papers supplied by Robert E. Sherwood.

39 (1) Rad, Somervell to Hopkins, 6 Dec 43 ; and Memo, Somervell for Handy, 7 Dec 43. Hqs, ASF, Theaters of Opns, PGC (13) 1942-44, HRS DRB AGO. (2) Memo, Handy, ACofS, OPD, for CofS, 12 Feb 44, sub: Assistance to Iran by PGC. Case 28, Sec 1-A, OPD 384 Middle East, HRS DRB AGO. This file contains all documents alluded to in text except where otherwise noted. (3) Rads, 17, 20, 22, 24 Feb 44, and Ltr, 31 Mar 44, by Marshall, Royce, Kirk, and Connolly. 334 Minister Landis Mission SL 9011.

40 (1) Ltr, Roosevelt to Landis, 6 Mar 44. Copy supplied by Mr. Landis. ( 2 ) Copy of Landis' proposed draft showing changes from the final text supplied from the Hopkins Papers by Mr. Sherwood along with a letter, Landis to Hopkins, 3 February 1944, and memorandum, Hopkins for President, 11 February 1944.

41 Rad cited n. 28(2).

42 (1) Ltr, Murray to McCloy, Asst Secy War, 26 Feb 44. Case 28, Sec I-A, OPD 384 Middle East, HRS DRB AGO. (2) OPD Note for Record, 26 Feb 44. Same file. (3) Interv with Gen Connolly, Pentagon, 22 Aug 50.

43 Rad cited n. 28 (2 ).

44 On Connolly's inability to furnish Millspaugh transport vehicles because he was "not authorized to comply with requests for articles of civilian end use at any time," see Ltrs, Millspauyh to Connolly, 4 Apr 44, and Connolly to Millspaugh, 17 Apr 44. 451.1 Passenger Automobiles, SL 9028.

45 Rad AMPSC 2614, War Dept to Connolly, 1 Mar 44. 323.361 Powers and Duties, SL 9008.

46 (1) Ltr, Richard Ford, Charge d'Affaires ad interim, to Connolly, 30 Jun 44. 334 Minister Landis Mission, SL 9011. ( 2 ) Ltr, Ford to Connolly, 3 Jul 44. Same file. ( 3 ) Rad, Col Thomas E. Mahoney, Ridley's QM, to OPD, 11 Jan 45. 334 U.S. Military Mission with the Iranian Army, SL 9011.

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