Ambassador Richard Lee Armitage

Mr. Richard L. Armitage, the President of Armitage Associates L.C., is engaged in a range of worldwide business and public policy endeavors as well as frequent public speaking and writing. From March 1992 to May 1993, with the personal rank of Ambassador, Mr. Armitage directed U.S. assistance to the new independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. In January 1992, Mr. Armitage was appointed Coordinator for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance. During his tenure in these positions, he completed extensive international coordination projects with the European Union, Japan and other donor countries. From 1989 through 1992, Mr. Armitage filled key diplomatic positions as Presidential Special Negotiator for the Philippines Military Bases Agreement and Special Mediator for Water in the Middle East. President Bush sent him as a Special Emissary to Jordan's King Hussein during the 1991 Gulf War. In the Pentagon from June 1983 to May 1989, he served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. From 1981 until June 1983, Mr. Armitage was Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for East Asia and Pacific Affairs in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1967, Mr. Armitage graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy. He has been awarded the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service four times, the Presidential Citizens Medal, and the Department of State Distinguished Honor Award.

The Honorable Louis Caldera

The Honorable Louis Caldera became the seventeenth Secretary of the Army on July 2, 1998. As Secretary of the Army, Secretary Caldera has statutory responsibility for all matters relating to Army manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management. Secretary Caldera has overall responsibility for the Department of the Army's annual budget of nearly $70 billion. He previously served as Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer for the Corporation for National Service. Before coming to Washington, D.C., he served for five years in the California State Legislature, where he represented the nearly 400,000 residents of the 46th Assembly District. He served as Chair of the Assembly's Banking and Finance Committee, Revenue and Taxation Committee, and Budget Committee. He also served as a member of the Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee to the U.S. Trade Representative. Secretary Caldera served as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Army from 1978 to 1983 and was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal. On active duty, he served as a military police platoon leader, battalion intelligence officer, and battalion executive officer. He later served in the U.S. Army Reserve. Secretary Caldera graduated from West Point and earned a law degree from Harvard Law School and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School in 1987.

General Michael P. C. Carns, USAF, (Ret.)

General Michael Carns, USAF (Ret.) is the President and Executive Director of the Center for International Political Economy (CIPE), a policy research firm that specializes in strategic assessment of international issues in the areas of international capital flows, international energy assessments, and Pacific Rim security. Previously, he served as the Vice Chief of Staff, United States Air Force (1991­l994); as Director of the Joint Staff during the Gulf War and the Panama invasion (1989­1991); as Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Forces in the late 1980s; and as Commander of the l3th Air Force, Republic of the Philippines, during the Philippine government crisis (1986­1987). General Carns has authored and published a number of articles on topics such as the need to alter substantially the military acquisition process, the benefits of privatizing military logistics functions, the lagging role of the United States in space, the role of the military warfighter, Thailand's financial crisis, and the evolving role of military force. General Carns graduated from the United States Air Force Academy in 1959; from the Harvard Business School, with Distinction, in 1967; and from the Royal College of Defence Studies, London, in 1977. He was awarded the Silver Star and has also been awarded senior decorations by the governments of the Philippines, South Korea and Thailand.

The Honorable Ashton B. Carter

Dr. Ashton Carter is Ford Foundation Professor of Science and International Affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and Co-Director, with William J. Perry, of the Harvard-Stanford Preventive Defense Project. From 1993 to 1996, Dr. Carter served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, where he was responsible for national security policy concerning the states of the former Soviet Union (including their nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction), arms control, counterproliferation efforts worldwide, and oversight of the U.S. nuclear arsenal and missile defense programs. He also chaired NATO's High Level Group. He was twice awarded the Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal. Dr. Carter continues to serve DoD as an adviser to the Secretary of Defense and as a member of DoD's Defense Policy Board, Defense Science Board, and Threat Reduction Advisory Council. Before his government service, Dr. Carter was director of the Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School and chairman of the editorial board of International Security. In addition to authoring numerous scientific publications and government studies, Dr. Carter was an author and editor of a number of books, most recently Preventive Defense: A New Security Strategy for America (with William J. Perry). His current research focuses on the Preventive Defense Project, which designs and promotes security policies aimed at preventing the emergence of major new threats to the United States. Dr. Carter received bachelor's degrees in physics and medieval history from Yale University and a doctorate in theoretical physics from Oxford University.

Lieutenant General Richard Chilcoat, USA

Lieutenant General Richard Chilcoat is currently the President of the National Defense University. General Chilcoat's previous assignments include Commandant, U.S. Army War College; Deputy Commanding General of the U.S. Army Training Center; Chief of Staff of the 3rd Infantry Division; Executive Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Deputy Director, Strategy, Plans and Policy, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans for the U.S. Army; and infantry assignments including command at all levels through the brigade level. He is a graduate of the United States Military Academy, the Infantry Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the Command and General Staff College, and the National War College. He is also an honorary graduate of the U.S. Army War College. General Chilcoat holds an M.B.A. from Harvard University.

Dr. David S. C. Chu

Dr. David Chu is currently the Vice President responsible for RAND's Army Research Division. Dr. Chu is also Director of the Arroyo Center. Previously, he was Director of RAND's Washington Office and Associate Chairman of RAND's Research Staff. Dr. Chu served in the Department of Defense as Assistant Secretary and Director for Program Analysis and Evaluation, 1981­1993. Earlier, Dr. Chu was Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office for National Security and International Affairs, 1978­1981. Dr. Chu was an economist with RAND from 1970­1978 and served in the U.S. Army from 1968­1970. Dr. Chu was educated at Yale University, receiving his B.A. in economics and mathematics and his Ph.D. in economics. He has been awarded the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service with Silver Palm and the National Public Service Award of the National Academy of Public Administration, of which he is a Fellow, and on whose Board he serves as Treasurer.

The Honorable William S. Cohen

The Honorable William S. Cohen was sworn in as Secretary of Defense on January 24, 1997. He previously served three terms in the U.S. Senate for the State of Maine, 1979­1997, and three terms in the House of Representatives from Maine's Second Congressional District, 1973­1979. Secretary Cohen served on the Senate Armed Services and Governmental Affairs Committees from 1979­97. He was a member of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1983­91 and 1995­97, serving as Vice Chairman from 1987­91. Secretary Cohen played a leading role in crafting the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. He was the Senate sponsor of the GI Bill of 1984 and the subsequent enhancements to this landmark legislation. Secretary Cohen's efforts led to the creation of the Rapid Deployment Force, which later developed into the Central Command, and the maritime prepositioning program. He also co-authored the Intelligence Oversight Reform Act of 1991, as well as legislation designed to overhaul U.S. counterintelligence efforts and defend against foreign political and industrial espionage. Secretary Cohen served on the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations from 1989 to 1997, and in 1996 he chaired the Council's Middle East Study Group. He has also chaired and served on numerous study groups and committees at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, and the Brookings Institution on issues ranging from DoD reorganization to NATO enlargement and chemical weapons arms control. In 1996, he received the U.S. Special Operations Command Medal. Secretary Cohen received his B.A. in Latin from Bowdoin College in 1962 and his LL.B., cum laude, from Boston University Law School in 1965.

Dr. Jacquelyn K. Davis

Dr. Jacquelyn Davis is Executive Vice President of the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis and President of National Security Planning Associates, Inc. Dr. Davis is an authority on force planning and military technology trends; U.S.-allied security relations in NATO-Europe, the Persian Gulf, and the Asian-Pacific region; counterproliferation and deterrence issues; and regional security dynamics, especially as they affect U.S. policies regarding forward presence. Her other areas of expertise include defense problems related to the former Soviet Union and the CIS republics and the security policies and programs of key European countries, particularly the United Kingdom, France and Germany. As a member of the Chief of Naval Operations' Executive Committee, she has written and lectured extensively on issues of naval strategy and maritime power. Dr. Davis has written and collaborated on numerous books, articles and IFPA special reports. Her recent publications include: Strategic Paradigms 2025: U.S. Security Planning for a New Era (co-author) and CVX: A "Smart" Carrier for the New Era. Dr. Davis served a four-year tenure (1992-1996) on the Board of Advisors at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. In addition, she was a member of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS), serving as National Chairperson from 1986­1988. Dr. Davis is a member of the Council of Foreign Relations, the CNO Executive Panel, the Hart-Rudman Study Group, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Dr. Davis received her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.

Dr. Richard A. Falkenrath

Dr. Richard A. Falkenrath is an Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He completed a three-year term as Executive Director of the Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA) in 1998. He is principal investigator of the Executive Session on Domestic Preparedness (a DOJ-funded joint project of BCSIA and the Kennedy School Taubman Center for State and Local Government) and of the Jeddah Forum project funded out of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He is the author or co-author of Shaping Europe's Military Order: The Origins and Consequences of the CFE Treaty (1995), Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material (1996), America's Achilles' Heel: Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack (1998), and numerous journal articles and chapters of edited volumes. Dr. Falkenrath has been a visiting research fellow at the German Society of Foreign Affairs in Bonn, as well as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense, the intelligence community, several congressional offices, the RAND Corporation, and a range of private companies in the defense sector. He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Council on Germany, and the American Economic Association. He holds a Ph.D. from the Department of War Studies, King's College, London, where he was a British Marshall Scholar, and is a summa cum laude graduate of Occidental College, Los Angeles, with degrees in economics and international relations.

Ms. Michèle A. Flournoy

Ms. Michèle A. Flournoy is a Distinguished Research Professor and Director of the QDR '01 Working Group at the National Defense University's Institute for National Strategic Studies. Previously, she served as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Threat Reduction and as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy. She was the principal author of the "shape, prepare, respond" strategy and of PDD-56. Prior to joining DoD, she was a Research Fellow at Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs. Ms. Flournoy has published two books and more than fifty articles on international security issues. She received a B.A. in social studies from Harvard University and an M.Litt. in international relations from Balliol College, Oxford University. She is a member of the Defense Policy Board, the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute of Strategic Studies, and the Executive Board of Women in International Security.

General John R. Galvin, USA (Ret.)

General John Galvin is the sixth dean of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He served as NATO Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Army, Navy and Air Forces in Europe during the five years that ended the Cold War. More recently, he was an envoy of the U.S. State Department with the rank of Ambassador to assist with negotiations in Bosnia. Dean Galvin played a central role in many of recent history's defining moments, including the Gulf War, the redesigning of NATO strategy, humanitarian support in Central and Eastern European nations, the rescue of 450,000 Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq, East-West negotiations on arms control, and U.S. military operations in Zaire, Liberia, and other African nations. He has published several books and articles on U.S. military strategy, transatlantic relations, and the future role of NATO. A graduate of West Point, Dean Galvin holds a master's degree in English from Columbia University and continued his military education at the Army Command and General Staff College and the Army War College. He also did postgraduate study at the University of Pennsylvania and attended The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy on a fellowship in 1972­73.

Dr. John J. Hamre

Dr. John Hamre was sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Defense on July 29, 1997. Prior to assuming the duties of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, he served as the Comptroller of the Department of Defense (1993­1997). As Comptroller, Dr. Hamre was the principal assistant to the Secretary of Defense for the preparation, presentation, and execution of the defense budget and management improvement programs. Before coming to the Department, Dr. Hamre served for 10 years as a professional staff member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He was primarily responsible for the oversight and evaluation of procurement, research and development programs, defense budget issues, and relations with the Senate Appropriations Committee. From 1978 to 1984, Dr. Hamre served in the Congressional Budget Office, where he became its Deputy Assistant Director for National Security and International Affairs. In that position, he oversaw analysis and other support for committees in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. In 1978 Dr. Hamre received his Ph.D., with distinction, from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. In 1972, he received a B.A. with highest distinction from Augustana College. The following year he studied as a Rockefeller Fellow at the Harvard Divinity School.

Lieutenant General Patrick M. Hughes, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant General Patrick M. Hughes, President of PMH Enterprises, is a private consultant and advisor. Previously, he served as Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency from 1996­1999. He was Director of Intelligence (J-2) on the Joint Staff from 1994-1996 and Director of Intelligence, U.S. Central Command, from 1992­1994. General Hughes served as Commanding General, U.S. Army Intelligence Agency and Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence for Foreign Intelligence from 1990­1992. From 1988 to 1990, General Hughes served as Commander, 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, Republic of Korea, and from 1984­1986 as Commander, 109th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Lewis, Washington. General Hughes received his B.S. in commerce from Montana State University and his M.A. in business management from Central Michigan University. In addition, he received a doctorate (Honoris Causa) in business from Montana State University and a doctorate (Honoris Causa) in strategic intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College.

General James L. Jones, USMC

General James Jones assumed his current post as 32nd Commandant of the Marine Corps in July 1999. Immediately prior to this assignment, he served as the Military Assistant to the Secretary of Defense. Previously, General Jones served as Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Policies and Operations at Headquarters Marine Corps; Director, Expeditionary Warfare Division (N85) in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations; and Commanding General, 2d Marine Division, Marine Forces Atlantic. General Jones also served as Deputy Director (J-3), U.S. European Command, before being reassigned as Chief of Staff, Joint Task Force Provide Promise, for operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia. Earlier, General Jones served as Commanding Officer, 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit, and participated in Operation Provide Comfort. Earlier in his career, General Jones served as Senior Aide and then Military Secretary to the Commandant of the Marine Corps and as Commander of the 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, 1st Marine Division. General Jones' decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star Medal, Legion of Merit with three gold stars, Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V," and the Combat Action Ribbon. General Jones holds a B.S. degree from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and has attended the National War College.

General George A. Joulwan, USA (Ret.)

General George A. Joulwan retired in 1997 as Commander in Chief, United States European Command (CINCEUR), and as the eleventh Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). As CINCEUR, General Joulwan conducted over 20 successful operations in the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East. He established the first-ever strategic policy for U.S. military engagement in Africa and orchestrated the State Partnership program linking American reserve forces from 23 states with the former non-NATO countries and newly independent democracies of Europe and the former Soviet Union. General Joulwan also served as the Commander in Chief of U.S. forces in Central and South America. As CINCSOUTH, he was instrumental in bringing peace to El Salvador and democracy to Panama, professionalizing the militaries of Latin America, and directing multinational and multiagency operations at the source countries for narcotrafficking and illegal drugs. In addition, he served two combat tours in Vietnam, served in the Pentagon as the Executive Officer for the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, was Special Assistant to the President of the United States, and was Special Assistant to the SACEUR, General Alexander Haig. He is a graduate of West Point and holds a master's degree in political science from Loyola University in Chicago.

Mr. Robert D. Kaplan

Robert Kaplan, a correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly, is the best-selling author of seven books on international affairs, including Balkan Ghosts and Ends of the Earth. Mr. Kaplan is also a provocative essayist. His article, "The Coming Anarchy," in the February 1994 Atlantic Monthly, was hotly debated in the United States and around the world, as was his December 1997 essay, "Was Democracy Just A Moment?" Mr. Kaplan's essays have also appeared in Forbes magazine and the editorial pages of The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and The Boston Globe. He has been a Fellow of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, and a consultant to the U.S. Army's Special Forces Regiment. He lectures at war colleges, the FBI, universities, and business forums. In 1995, Mr. Kaplan delivered the Secretary of State's Open Forum Lecture at the U.S. State Department. He has reported from nearly eighty countries. A collection of his most famous essays, entitled The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post-Cold War, will be published by Random House in February 2000.

General John M. Keane, USA

General John Keane assumed duties as the 29th Vice Chief of Staff of the Army on 22 June 1999. General Keane is an infantry officer who has commanded at every level, from company to corps, and has experience in all types of infantryairborne, air assault, light, and mechanized. His commands include the XVIII Airborne Corps, the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), the Joint Readiness Training Center, the 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division (Light), and the 3/39th and 4/23rd Infantry (Redesignated), 9th Infantry Division. He served as Chief of Staff, 10th Mountain Division (Light); Chief of Staff, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault); Assistant Division Commander, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault); Chief of Staff, XVIII Airborne Corps; and most recently as Deputy Commander-in-Chief, United States Atlantic Command. General Keane's awards and decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, five Legions of Merit, and the Bronze Star. He holds a bachelor of science degree from Fordham University and a master of arts degree from the University of Western Kentucky. General Keane's military education includes the Infantry Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the United States Army Command and General Staff College, and the United States Army War College.

Congressman Jerry Lewis

Congressman Jerry Lewis represents the 40th Congressional District of southern California, including most of San Bernardino and Inyo counties. Congressman Lewis is a senior member of the Appropriations Committee and Chairman of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee. Lewis also serves on the Foreign Operations Appropriations Subcommittee and the Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee. In addition, he is Vice-Chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. In this capacity, Congressman Lewis is responsible for legislative oversight and budget review of all classified U.S. intelligence and national security activities. Lewis is the immediate past Chairman of the VA-HUD and Independent Agencies Subcommittee. Prior to his election to Congress in 1978, he served in the California State Legislature. He graduated from UCLA in 1956 with a bachelor of arts degree in government and continued his education with a graduate fellowship in public affairs at the Coro Foundation in San Francisco.

Senator Joseph Lieberman

Senator Joseph Lieberman represents Connecticut in the U.S. Senate. He is currently in his second term and became the Ranking Democratic Member of the Governmental Affairs Committee in January 1999. He is a member of the Armed Services Committee, the Environment and Public Works Committee, and the Small Business Committee. Since 1995, he has been Chairman of the Democratic Leadership Council. From 1982 to 1988, he served as Connecticut's 21st Attorney General. He was elected to the Connecticut State Senate in 1970 and served there for 10 years, the last six as Majority Leader. In addition, he is the author of four books: The Power Broker (1966), The Scorpion and the Tarantula (1970), The Legacy (1981), and Child Support in America (1986). He received his bachelor's degree from Yale College in 1964 and his law degree from Yale Law School in 1967.

General Lester L. Lyles, USAF

General Lester L. Lyles is Vice Chief of Staff, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C. As Vice Chief, he presides over the Air Staff and serves as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Requirements Oversight Council. Immediately prior to this assignment, General Lyles was the Director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization from 1996 to 1999. From 1994 to 1996, he was Commander, Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles Air Force Base. In 1992 he became Vice Commander of Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, and subsequently served as commander of the center from 1993 until 1994. He became AFSC Headquarters' Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Requirements in 1989 and Deputy Chief of Staff for Requirements in 1990. He has served as Director of Tactical Aircraft Systems at AFSC Headquarters and as Director of the Medium-Launch Vehicles Program and Space-Launch Systems offices. General Lyles received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Howard University and his M.S. in mechanical and nuclear engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology Program, New Mexico State University. In addition, he has attended the Armed Forces Staff College, the National War College, and the Defense Systems Management College. He is the recipient of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, and Legion of Merit.

General Sir Jeremy Mackenzie GCB OBE

General Sir Jeremy Mackenzie became Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea in August 1999. He retired from the British Army in 1999 after having served in the post of Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe under three Supreme Allied Commanders over four years. As Deputy SACEUR he had special responsibility for the Partnership for Peace Program, involving 27 nations of Central and Eastern Europe; the expansion of NATO; and the generation of NATO forces in the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and most recently Kosovo. He was an Aide de Camp to Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, from 1992 to 1996. From 1991 to 1994, he was the first Commander of the Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps. Previously, he was Commander, 1st British Corps, Commander, 4th Armoured Division in West Germany, and Commandant of the Staff College. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) in 1999. He graduated from the Staff College at Camberley.

Lieutenant General Thomas G. McInerney, USAF (Ret.)

General Thomas G. McInerney is President and CEO of Business Executives for National Security (BENS). He was Vice President of Command and Control for Loral Defense Systems from 1994 to 1996. General McInerney retired from the Air Force in 1994 after having served as Assistant Vice Chief of Staff and Director of the Defense Performance Review. Previously, General McInerney served as Commander, 11th Air Force, Alaska, Vice Commander in Chief, U.S. Air Forces in Europe, and Commander, 313th Air Division, Okinawa. He holds a B.S. from the U.S. Military Academy and an M.A. in international relations from George Washington University, as well as diplomas from the Armed Forces Staff College and the National War College.

General Klaus Naumann

General Klaus Naumann was Chairman of the North Atlantic Military Committee of NATO from 1996 to 1999. Immediately prior to this position, he served as Chief of Staff, Federal Armed Forces, from 1991 to 1996. Previously, he served as Commanding General of I Corps in Münster. Earlier assignments included Deputy Chief of Staff (Politico-Military Affairs and Operations) and Deputy Chief of Staff (Planning) on the Armed Forces Staff, MOD Bonn. In addition, he had two Assistant Branch Chief tours in Bonn and an assignment as Executive Officer to the Vice Chief of Staff, Federal Armed Forces, at MOD. He also served on the staff of the German Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee in Brussels, where he was Chief of the Military Policy, Nuclear Strategy, and Arms Control Section. Among his many publications, General Naumann is the author of the book Die Bundeswehr in einer Welt im Umbruch (The Bundeswehr in a World of Transition). Among his military awards and decorations, General Naumann has received the Commander's Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Gold Cross of Honour of the Federal Armed Forces. General Naumann's military education includes the 13th Army General Staff Officer Training Course at the Federal Armed Forces Command and Staff College in Hamburg, and courses at the Royal College of Defence Studies, London.

Dr. Michael O'Hanlon

Dr. Michael O'Hanlon is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution specializing in U.S. defense strategy and budgets, military technology, northeast Asian security, and humanitarian intervention. He has been a senior scholar at Brookings since 1994 and an adjunct professor at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs since 1996. From 1989­1994 he worked in the national security division of the Congressional Budget Office. His most recently published book at Brookings was entitled How to Be a Cheap Hawk: The 1999 and 2000 Defense Budgets. Technological Change and the Future of Warfare, his latest effort, is forthcoming. He and Ivo Daalder are now writing a book on the war over Kosovo. Dr. O'Hanlon received a bachelor's degree in physics and a Ph.D. in public policy from Princeton University.

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr., is the President of the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis and Shelby Cullom Davis Professor of International Security Studies at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He has held a visiting appointment as George C. Marshall Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium, and as Professor at the National Defense College, Tokyo, Japan. He has advised key Administration officials on military strategy, modernization, the future of the Atlantic Alliance, nuclear proliferation, and arms control policy. Dr. Pfaltzgraff has published extensively and lectured widely at government and industry forums in the United States and overseas, including at the National Defense University and the NATO Defense College. Dr. Pfaltzgraff leads the Institute's research projects on future security environments and technology diffusion and curricular development on issues associated with weapons of mass destruction. His work encompasses alliance relations, crisis management, missile defense, the development and conduct of gaming exercises, arms control issues, and strategic planning in the emerging security environment. He holds an M.A. in international relations, a Ph.D. in political science, and an M.B.A. in international business from the University of Pennsylvania.

Admiral Donald L. Pilling, USN

Admiral Donald L. Pilling, USN, assumed his current duties as the thirtieth Vice Chief of Naval Operations in November 1997. Prior to this assignment, Admiral Pilling served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Warfare Requirements and Assessments (N8) from July 1996 to November 1997. From 1993 to 1995, he was the Director for Programming (N80) on the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations. A member of the National Security Council staff from 1989 until July 1992, Admiral Pilling had broad responsibilities in foreign policy and national security issues. From 1986 to 1988, Admiral Pilling was assigned to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, where he was responsible for the development of the Navy Five-Year Defense Plan (FYDP). He has commanded USS Dahlgren (DDG 43); Destroyer Squadron 26; Cruiser-Destroyer Group 12; the USS Saratoga Battle Group; the US Sixth Fleet; and Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe. Admiral Pilling has published articles in both mathematical and professional journals and is also the author of a monograph, Competition in Defense Procurement, published in 1989 by the Brookings Institution. His personal awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (two awards), Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit (five awards), Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal (three awards), and the Navy Achievement Medal. A 1965 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, he also holds a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Cambridge.

Admiral Joseph W. Prueher, USN (Ret.)

Admiral Joseph W. Prueher is Ambassador to the People's Republic of China (Designate). In January 1996, Admiral Prueher became the seventeenth naval officer to hold the position of Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command. As the senior U.S. military commander in the Pacific and Indian Ocean areas, he led the largest of the unified commands and directed Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force operations across more than 100 million square miles. He was responsible to the President and the Secretary of Defense through the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and was the U.S. military representative for collective defense arrangements in the Pacific. Prior to his service at USPACOM, Admiral Prueher served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations. He has commanded the U.S. Sixth Fleet, NATO's Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe, and Carrier Group One. He also served as the seventy-third Commandant of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy. Before reporting to the Naval Academy, Admiral Prueher commanded two carrier air wings, Carrier Air Wing Eight and Carrier Air Wing Seven. He has received numerous personal, combat, unit, and campaign awards. Admiral Prueher is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and holds a master's degree in international affairs from George Washington University.

Senator Jack Reed

Elected to the Senate in 1996, Senator Jack Reed is the 47th United States Senator from Rhode Island. Senator Reed serves on the Armed Services Committee; Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee; Health, Eduation, Labor, and Pensions Committee; and the Special Committee on Aging. Previously, Senator Reed served three terms as a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Rhode Island's 2nd Congressional District. In addition, Senator Reed served three terms in the Rhode Island State Senate. Senator Reed, an Army Ranger and a paratrooper, served in the 82nd Airborne Division as an Infantry Platoon leader, a Company Commander and a Battalion Staff Officer. He later served as an Associate Professor in the Department of Social Sciences at West Point. Senator Reed holds a Bachelor of Science from the United States Military Academy at West Point, a Masters of Public Policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and a law degree from Harvard Law School.

The Honorable Bernard D. Rostker

Dr. Bernard D. Rostker became the 25th Under Secretary of the Army on October 26, 1998. He serves as the deputy and senior advisor to the Secretary of the Army and as Acting Secretary in the absence of the Secretary. As Under Secretary, Dr. Rostker assists the Secretary in fulfilling statutory responsibilities for recruiting, organizing, supplying, equipping, training, and mobilizing the Army and managing its of nearly $70 billion annual budget and more than 1.3 million active duty, National Guard, Army Reserve and civilian personnel. For the four years prior to becoming Under Secretary, Dr. Rostker was Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Manpower and Reserve Affairs. On November 12, 1996, he was also named Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses. He continues in this assignment and is responsible for coordinating all activities related to Department of Defense inquiries into the nature and causes of Gulf War illnesses. From 1990-1994, Dr. Rostker held the position of Director of the Defense Manpower Research Center in RAND's National Defense Research Institute. Previously, from 1984­1990, Dr. Rostker helped establish the Army studies and analysis center, The Arroyo Center, at RAND where he was Program Director of the Force Development and Employment Program and Associate Director of the Center. Dr. Rostker received a bachelor of science degree from New York University in 1964 and holds master's and doctorate degrees in economics from Syracuse University.

The Honorable Warren Rudman

Warren Rudman is a co-chairman of the U.S. Commission on National Security, 21st century and a partner in the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton, and Garrison. He represented New Hampshire in the United States Senate from 1981 to 1993, co-authoring legislation such as the 1985 Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Deficit Reduction Law. Senator Rudman served on the Senate Ethics, Appropriations, Intelligence, and Governmental Affairs committees, as well as the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. He was a co-founder of the Concord Coalition; Chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board; and Vice Chairman of the Commission of Roles and Capabilities of the U.S. Intelligence Community. Senator Rudman earned a bachelor f science degree from Syracuse University and a bachelor of law letters degree from Boston College Law School. He is a U.S. Army veteran of the Korean War.

General Henry H. Shelton, USA

Commissioned a second lieutenant in the infantry in 1963 through the Reserve Officer Training Corps, General Shelton spent the next 24 years in a variety of command and staff positions in the continental United States, Hawaii, and Vietnam. He completed two tours in Vietnam, the first with the 5th Special Forces Group and the second with the 173d Airborne Brigade. Following his selection for brigadier general in 1987, General Shelton served two years in the Operations Directorate of the Joint Staff. In 1989, he began a two-year assignment as Assistant Division Commander for Operations of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), a tour that included the division's seven-month deployment to Saudi Arabia for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Upon returning from the Gulf War, General Shelton was promoted to major general and assigned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where he assumed command of the 82d Airborne Division. In 1993, he was promoted to lieutenant general and assumed command of the XVIIIth Airborne Corps. In 1994, while serving as corps commander, General Shelton commanded the Joint Task Force that conducted Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti. In March 1996, he was promoted to general and became Commander in Chief of the U.S. Special Operations Command. General Shelton became the fourteenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 1 October 1997. In this capacity, he serves as the principal military advisor to the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the National Security Council.

General Eric K. Shinseki, USA

General Shinseki graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1965. Since his commissioning, he has served in a variety of command and staff assignments, both in the continental United States and overseas. These assignments included two combat tours in Vietnam with the 9th and 25th Infantry Divisions, as an Artillery Forward Observer and as Commander of Troop A, 3rd Squadron, 5th Cavalry. He has served in Hawaii at Schofield Barracks with Headquarters, United States Army Hawaii, and Fort Shafter with Headquarters, United States Army Pacific, and taught in the United States Military Academy's Department of English. General Shinseki's 10-plus years of service in Europe included command and senior staff assignments in Schweinfurt, Kitzingen, Wurzburg and Stuttgart. He served as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Support, Allied Land Forces Southern Europe, in Verona, Italy. General Shinseki commanded the 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas. In July 1996, he was promoted to lieutenant general and became the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, United States Army. In June 1997, he was appointed to the rank of general before assuming duties as Commanding General, United States Army Europe; Commander, Allied Land Forces Central Europe; and Commander, NATO Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He assumed duties as the 28th Vice Chief of Staff, United States Army, on 24 November 1998. General Shinseki assumed duties as the 34th Chief of Staff, United States Army, on 22 June 1999.

Dr. Richard H. Shultz, Jr.

Dr. Richard H. Shultz is an Associate Professor of International Politics at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Since 1988, Dr. Shultz has served as Director of The Fletcher School's International Security Studies Program (ISSP). He has lectured and written extensively on several security topics encompassing the role of force in international relations; the evolution of U.S. military doctrine; intelligence and national security; low intensity conflict and power projection; the causes and control of international terrorism; and ethnic and religious conflict. Dr. Shultz is a member of several boards of trustees, including the Board of Trustees to the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. His consultant work for the government has focused on U.S. peacekeeping policy, out-of-area interventions, counterproliferation issues, and the growing impact of international organized crime on U.S. security interests. He received his Ph.D. at Miami University and conducted postdoctoral studies at the University of Michigan.

Major General Robert J. St. Onge, Jr., USA

Major General Robert J. St. Onge, Jr. assumed his present duties as the Director of Strategy, Plans and Policy, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, Headquarters, Department of the Army in August 1998. Immediately prior to this assignment, General St. Onge served as the Deputy Director of Strategy, Plans and Policy, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, Headquarters, Department of the Army. Previous assignments include serving as the 65th Commandant of Cadets at West Point, the Assistant Division Commander for Maneuver, 1st Cavalry Division and Chief of Staff for the 1st Armored Division. From October 1991 to August 1993, he commanded the 3rd Brigade, 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized). A 1969 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, St. Onge also holds a Master of Science in industrial relations from Purdue University. In addition, he has attended the Command and General Staff College and the Army War College. He earned a Master of Military Art and Science degree from the School of Advanced Military Studies.

Representative Mac Thornberry

Representative Mac Thornberry was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1994. He is a member of the National Security Committee, the Committee on Resources, and the Joint Economic Committee. Previously, Congressman Thornberry worked in the cattle business with his brothers and practiced law in Amarillo. Earlier in his career, he worked for the Reagan Administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs. In addition, he spent several years in Washington working on Capitol Hill, first as Legislative Counsel to former Rep. Tom Loeffler, then as Chief of Staff to Rep. Larry Combest. Congressman Thornberry has served on the Board of Directors of both the Children's Rehabilitation Center and the High Plains Food Bank. He graduated from Texas Tech University in 1980, summa cum laude, with a degree in history and earned a law degree from the University of Texas Law School in 1983.

Dr. Edward L. Warner III

Dr. Edward Warner has been the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Threat Reduction since June 1993. As such, he is principal advisor to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and to the Secretary of Defense on national security and defense strategy and on resources, forces, and contingency plans necessary to implement that strategy. He works closely with the National Security Council, the Defense Acquisition Board, and the Joint Staff on strategy and force posture issues. After retiring from the Air Force with 20 years of service, Dr. Warner became a senior defense analyst with the RAND Corporation, conducting studies on American national security policy, the defense and foreign policies of Russia and other successor states of the former Soviet Union, and East-West arms issues. He has authored numerous articles, reports, and books and has taught graduate seminars at The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies and George Washington, Columbia, and Princeton universities. He has been advisor to the National Intelligence Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the United States Strategic Command. Dr. Warner graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and earned both his M.A. and his Ph.D. from Princeton University.

Senator John Warner

Senator John Warner was first elected to the United States Senate from Virginia on November 7, 1978 and in 1996 was reelected to serve his fourth six-year term. In 1998, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He is also the second most senior Republican member of the Environment and Public Works Committee and a member (former Chairman) of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Senator Warner served on the Senate Intelligence Committee from 1987­1995, as Vice Chairman from 1993­1995. From 1974­1976, Senator Warner served in a position representing the Executive Branch in a wide range of bicentennial programs and activities in the fifty states. Previously, Senator Warner had been appointed Under Secretary of the Navy in February 1969 and completed his service in 1974 as Secretary of the Navy. During that period he also had special assignments in the field of diplomacy. He served as representative for the Secretary of Defense to the Law of the Sea talks in Geneva (1969­73), and later as principal negotiator and signatory for the United States of the Incidents at Sea Executive Agreement (INCSEA) between the United States and the Soviet Union (1970­72). He served in the Navy during World War II and later in the Marine Corps during the Korean War. Following his active service in Korea, Senator Warner remained in the Marine Corps Reserve for 10 years. He holds a bachelor of science degree in basic engineering sciences from Washington and Lee University and a law degree from the University of Virginia Law School.

Dr. John P. White

John P. White is a Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. From 1995­97, he served as Deputy Secretary of Defense. From 1993­95, he was director of the Center for Business and Government and a Lecturer at the Kennedy School, following his active involvement in both the Perot and Clinton presidential campaigns in 1992. He chaired a Presidential Commission on Defense and has participated in previous IFPA-sponsored meetings. Dr. White also served in the federal government as the Deputy Director of the OMB (1978­81), Assistant Secretary of Defense, Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics (1977­78), and an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps, on active duty from 1959­61. He has held corporate management positions in the private sector at the RAND Corporation, Interactive Systems Corporation, and Eastman Kodak Company. Dr. White holds a B.S. in industrial and labor relations from Cornell University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Syracuse University.

page created 31 October 2000

Return to Fletcher Conference Front Matter

Return to CMH Online