DOCUMENTS ACCOMPANYING FOREGOING REPORT
II. REPORTS OF SUBORDINATE OFFICERS.
Reports of Lieut. Col. John P. Wisser, Artillery Corps, Acting Inspector-General.
SIR : I have the honor to report that in compliance with letter of instructions appended (marked A), dated headquarters Pacific Division , June 25, 1906. 1 have made an inspection of the money accounts pertaining to the relief funds appropriated by Congress and which have been disbursed by the following-named officers: Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general; Maj. C. A. Devol, depot quartermaster; Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, Commissary Department; Capt. W. C. Wren, constructing quartermaster; Capt. L. D. Wildman, Signal Corps.
The accuracy of the vouchers has been verified and the legality of the expenditures determined in each and every case.
Suitable methods for protecting the interests of the Government were followed in making purchases, particularly since May 1, 1906. The extreme difficulties attending the making of purchases and the obtaining of services in San Francisco since April 18, 1906, have caused all actions to be necessarily of an emergency character, but proper inspections of materials were made when possible and well-known and reliable firms were dealt with when practicable.
In connection with the letter of Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, of June 19, 1906, appended (marked B), investigation showed that the disbursements of the department under Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general, were confined to the payments for services and material strictly pertaining to the Medical Department. especially as to quarters, shelter, etc.
A statement in the case of each separate department is appended hereto (marked C), showing the amount of clerical services and the services not clerical in the different depots and at headquarters Department of California and headquarters Pacific Division, the amount of materials in each case, and the expenditures covering what may be called " permanent improvements." As nearly as was possible these expenditures are given in, the aggregate for each month.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
Lieut. Col. J. P. WISSER.
SIR : The division commander desires that you make an inspection of the money accounts pertaining to the relief funds appropriated by Congress and which have been disbursed by the following-named officers: Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general; Maj. C. A. Devol, depot quartermaster, Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, Commissary Department; Capt. L. D. Wildman, Signal Corps.
Your report should cover not only the accuracy of vouchers, but the legality of expenditures, and also whether suitable methods for protecting the interests of the Government were followed in making purchases, particularly since May 1. In regard to the latter-named point, the division commander directs your attention to the extreme difficulties attending the making of purchases and obtaining services in San Francisco since April 18, actions necessarily being of an emergent character in most cases.
In connection with the letter of Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, of June 19, you will particularly examine as to whether Lieutenant-Colonel Brechemin's department's disbursements have been confined to the payments for services and material strictly pertaining to the Medical Department, especially as to quarters, shelter, etc.
It is desired that the statements in the case of each one of the separate departments be segregated so as to show the amount of clerical services and the services not clerical not only in the different depots but at headquarters Department of California and headquarters Pacific Division, and also as to materials purchased and especially in expenditures covering what may be called permanent improvements. Unless you should think other action necessary, these expenditures for the various departments will be given in the aggregate for each month.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
SIR: Referring to your letter of June 13, especially that part directing me to pay, out of the allotment to the Medical Department for relief purposes, all expenses relating to transportation for sanitary purposes, all appliances and material heretofore furnished only by the Quartermaster's Department, I have the honor to inform you that such bills are not considered as properly payable by the Medical Department. As I am a disbursing officer of the Medical Department and not of the Quartermaster's Department, I am therefore obliged to decline the payment of these accounts from the special fund allotted
by the Secretary of War for the Medical Department unless renewal of each specific order is made by the commanding general, Pacific Division. In this connection attention is invited to decision of Second Comptroller, page 234, Davis' Military Laws of the United States, 4th edition.
EXPENDITURES FROM RELIEF FUND.
I. Chief Signal Officer, Department of California.
[Capt. L. D. WILDMAN, Signal Corps.]
Of this amount the following was expended in what may be called permanent improvements, $725.
II. Chief Quartermaster, Department of California.
[Capt. W. C. WREN, Quartermaster.]
No expenditures for permanent improvements.
III. Medical Supply Depot.
[Lieut. Col. L. BRECHEMIN, Deputy Surgeon-General.]
No expenditures for permanent improvements.
IV. Chief Commissary, Department of California, Purchasing Commissary.
[Maj. C. R. KRAUTHOFF, Commissary.]
a $193.50 for meals
No expenditures for permanent improvements.
V. Depot Quartermaster, San Francisco, Cal.
[Maj. C. A. DEVOL, Quartermaster.]
No expenditures for permanent improvements.
Summary of receipts and expenditures by the different departments.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report in the case of the disappearance of liquors which have been received at and transferred from the medical supply depot, the Presidio, San Francisco, Cal .
The investigation was made in compliance with letter of instructions dated headquarters Pacific Division, July 21, 1906, copy attached (marked C). The testimony in the case is appended (marked D). During the progress of the investigation the communication , a copy of which is appended hereto (marked E) was received and acted on.
The managing editor of The San Francisco Call was requested to furnish the name of the reporter who made the statement referred to, and to send him to headquarters Pacific Division for examination. The managing editor sent the reply attached hereto (marked F). Nevertheless, the reporter appeared in person before the inspector, and on interrogation admitted that the statement in The Call referred to in the telegram was made without sufficient data, was entirely unwarranted and a mistake. That particular subject was therefore dropped.
On July 30, 1906, the telegrams attached hereto, and marked respectively G and H, were referred to the inspector, with verbal instructions from the division commander to submit a preliminary report at once, closing the investigation for the present.
The papers referred to on page 11 , line 7 [261, of the testimony appended hereto (marked D), relate entirely to stores of Messrs. Goldberg, Bowen & Co., seized by Lieut. Col. R. H. Patterson, Artillery Corps, and turned over to the medical supply depot, part of which were afterwards purchased for the use of the hospitals and rest returned to Messrs. Goldberg, Bowen & Co.
The evidence, so far as it goes, shows conclusively that the liquors received by the medical supply depot were all transferred to the Central Emergency Hospital, Jefferson Square, or to the Moulder School, and proper receipts taken in every case. The receipts could not be verified, as they are now in the possession of Colonel Brechemin, and the War Department has indicated that it is not deemed practicable to have them returned to headquarters Pacific Division for use and reference. The liquors sent to the Moulder School are still on hand there, except the broken packages, which were sent to the Central Emergency Hospital, Jefferson Square.
A letter was forwarded by the inspector, copy inclosed (marked I). requesting that Colonel Brechemin be directed to submit a full report of all liquors received by and transferred from the medical supply depot after the great fire of April 18-21, 1906. No reply has been received as yet, although it is known that Colonel Brechemin is at work on this report.
The evidence is, of course, very incomplete, but, so far as it goes, the inspector is satisfied that all the liquors transferred from the medical supply depot are properly accounted for, as receipts were taken in every case, wagons were guarded by sentinels, and in many cases a commissioned officer accompanied the wagon trains. As regards the liquors received by the medical supply depot, the evidence
shows that the goods came without invoices of any kind. Whether or not an inventory was taken by Colonel Brechemin will probably appear in his report to be submitted, and the amount of such goods received will then be determinable.
Conclusion.-The conclusion, from the evidence now available, is therefore that the liquors of all kinds received by the medical supply depot, Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., were promptly stored and cared for there after their receipt, and were afterwards transferred to the Central Emergency Hospital, Jefferson Square, and to the Moulder School. The liquors transferred to the Moulder School are there now, with the exception of certain broken packages, which were transferred from the Moulder School to the Central Emergency Hospital.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
On July 31, 1906, after closing this report, the telegram, a copy of which is appended (marked K), was received from Col. L. Brechemin.
[ Indorsement. ]
Approved, but a final report should be made after Colonel Brechemin in reports fully.
Maj. C. R. KRAUTHOFF,
Eight wagonloads of miscellaneous drugs and hospital supplies sent here from the Presidio. Order not signed. Drivers instructed to deliver same to Moulder warehouse. Have no space for them. Please wire instructions.
Reference your telegram, do not receive drugs and hospital supplies from Presidio.
Lieut. Col. JOHN P. WISSER,
SIR: The division commander desires that you examine into and report on all liquors which have been received at and transferred from the medical supply depot to all points in the city of San Francisco. In this report it is desired that you distinguish between liquors which belong to the regular medical supply and those which were sent here for relief purposes. This report should show quantities shipped and received, with time and place of destination.
TESTIMONY IN THE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARANCE OF LIQUORS WHICH HAVE BEEN RECEIVED AT AND TRANSFERRED FROM THE MEDICAL SUPPLY DEPOT (LETTER DATED HEADQUARTERS PACIFIC DIVISION, JULY 21, 1906).
JOHN K. WAGGAMAN, teamster, was called, and, having been duly sworn by Lieut. Col. John P. Wisser, Artillery Corps, acting inspector-general, testified as follows:
Question. What is your occupation?
Answer. Until to-day I have been train master for the depot quartermaster, San Francisco, Cal .
Question. Now, what is your position?
Answer. I don't know exactly; I am employed by the post quartermaster. Presidio.
Question. Please state what you know of the transportation of liquors, from the medical supply depot to other points in this city.
Answer. All the liquor that I know of went to Goldberg & Bowen; one wagonload supposed to contain liquors.
Question. Do you remember the date?
Answer. No, sir; I could not give you the date.
Question. State more fully about it.
Answer. They refused to accept them. They were returned to the medical supply depot.
Question. What became of them after that?
Answer. That I am unable to state.
Question. But you do state that they went afterwards to the Moulder School ?
Answer. No, sir; you misunderstood. I said that the load I took to the Moulder School were boxes labeled " maltine " and " creoline ," to the best of my knowledge.
Question. Did you have any information that they contained liquor?
Answer. No, sir ; I have no reason to think that they did.
Question. Go on.
Answer. They refused to accept them at the Moulder School. Captain Kilian stated that they had no doctor there, and they did not need any medical supplies. He told me to take them back where I got them, which I did.
Question. To the medical supply depot?
Answer. Yes, sir. That afternoon I pulled them back to the Moulder School .
Question. Did they accept them?
Answer. No, sir; I was held there an hour and fifteen minutes and then told to take them to the Jefferson Square Central Emergency Hospital.
Question. What happened then?
Answer. That is all.
Question. They received it?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. How many cases were there?
Answer. I am unable to say. There was a man always sent from the medical supply depot, and he had them sign a receipt and turned it in to the medical supply depot.
Question. Did you haul any other loads that were supposed to contain whisky?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Do you know anything further about the matter that appeared in the papers this morning regarding the whisky?
Answer. No, sir; only that Captain Kilian came down there and asked me about it, if I knew or remembered when he refused to accept a wagonload of goods. I told him I did. He asked me what it contained. To the best of my knowledge and belief it contained maltine and creoline, as it was so labeled. There was a man with Captain Kilian and he said, " Didn't some of it contain whisky?" I replied, " I don't know you; it is none of your business." He says, " I see you have read the papers; I see you are posted." He asked my name. Then he asked me where I took it. I told him to the Central Emergency Hospital. I told him all the employees had left, and there was not sufficient force to unload it. So, sooner than lose more time, we volunteered to unload it. Then they gave all the teamsters a drink.
Question. What! A drink?
Answer. Yes, sir; whoever was in charge there-out of a small demijohn. So he says, "Are you sure about that?" I says, "Yes." He came back and asked me if I took a receipt for it. I told him, "No." I didn't have any authority to take a receipt. There was a man sent from the medical supply with a receipt, which I suppose was signed, but I don't know. He was with the wagon.
Question. Did you find out who this man was?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. How long have you been connected with the service?
Answer. Off and on, sir, for about twenty years, I guess.
Question. What were you before the earthquake and fire?
Answer. Well, I had just got back from Manila about a year ago. I was master of transportation over there for General Bell and General Lee. That
was at the brigade corral. I have been employed in the post here continuous since about the 21st day of September, two years ago, when I came back fro the islands.
Question. Have you ever had any trouble with the army officer with whom you served?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Is there any other information that you can give me with reference to the transportation of liquors from the medical supply depot?
Answer. The only thing is there were several wagonloads-I don't know how many-I understood were shipped to Oakland. Whether they were or not could not say.
Question. Do you know that these contained liquors?
Answer. No, sir; I do not. I know part of them contained beer.
P. J. KING was then sworn by the inspector, and testified as follows:
Question. What position did you hold until recently?
Answer. Acting quartermaster, under Lieutenant Powell, from about May 20 to June 30, at the medical supply depot.
Question. Please state what you know of the transportation of liquors of any kind from the medical supply depot to points in the city .
Answer. On or about June 3 or 4-between the 1st of June and 5th of June-Colonel Brechemin ordered the whisky stored in warehouse 3 shipped to the health department or Moulder School. The train of wagons was loaded with barrels of whisky. The train master (whose name, I believe, was Holtman or Boltman-depot quartermaster's train master) signed for the load. He signed under Colonel Brechemin's orders. Colonel Brechemin ordered me to make out a receipt for the whisky; one I made out for the train master to sign and one for him to have signed when it reached its destination. I headed the receipt, " Health Department, Moulder School." On the return of the wagons the train master turned over the receipt to me, and I destroyed his receipt to the quartermaster for the load, as I had the original receipt from the receiver at the Moulder School. L turned the receipt over to Colonel Brechemin.
Question. Do you know who signed it?
Answer. I can not recollect the name, sir.
Question. But it was signed for at the Moulder School?
Answer. It was signed for at the Moulder School. It was signed, but they had not changed the heading where they signed it. I did not ask the driver where he delivered it.
Question. How many wagons were there?
Answer. I believe, eight. The next shipment of whisky was a day or two after. I shipped the remainder of the whisky in warehouse 3 in barrels and also the whisky in warehouse 4-that is, wines, cordials, bitters, etc. The wagon master was also given a receipt to have signed when he delivered it. The receipt was headed, " Health Department, Moulder School." On his return the wagon master brought me two receipts-one for the full barrels and full cases received at the Moulder School; another was a copy of the broken cases, partly emptied barrels and demijohns received at the Central Emergency Hospital , Jefferson Square, signed by Doctor Hughes. I asked the wagon master why he did not deliver it all to the Moulder School. He replied that they would not receive any but full barrels and full cases, and that they directed him to deliver the partly emptied kegs, barrels, and demijohns to the Central Emergency Hospital at Jefferson Square. That is all pertaining to
the whisky that I had anything to do with the shipment of. There was whisky shipped to Goldberg & Bowen, Oakland, but that was shipped by Mr. Byrne, the chief clerk of the medical supply depot. This occurred previously-in the early part of May, not later than the 15th of May. I was requested by Colonel Brechemin to send a guard to escort the whisky to its destination. This I did.
Question. Is there any further information that you can give me on this subject?
Answer. No, sir. Colonel Brechemin has all the receipts, and dates I am not positive of.
Question. What has been your service in connection with the Army previous to the earthquake and fire?
Answer. I worked in the Medical Department, 655 Mission street, since January , 1903.
Question. Has your conduct always been satisfactory to the officers under whom you served, so far as you know?
Answer. Yes, sir.
WILLIAM L. BOLTON, wagon master, depot corral, was sworn by the inspector-general, and testified as follows:
Question. Please state in full what you know of the transportation of liquors from the medical supply depot to points in the city.
Answer. On the 23d day of June I was ordered by Captain Nugent to take a train of either five or seven wagons-I have forgotten which-and report to the medical supply depot, and haul whisky from the Presidio to the Moulder warehouse. I arrived there. Colonel Brechemin bad the wagons loaded with cases of whisky and barrels, and I requested him to put a soldier in charge of the whisky, which he did, I going along to see that the teamsters did not tamper with the cargo. I arrived at the Moulder warehouse and reported to Captain Kilian, and he ordered it unloaded there, which we did. I found out that one of the clerks employed there was going to receipt for the whisky, and I advised the soldier to have Captain Kilian himself receipt for it in person. Captain Kilian informed me it was none of my business and that when anything was invoiced to him he would sign for it. lie told me to mind my own business and be would mind his. So the clerk signed the receipt and returned it to the soldier, who returned it to some one in the medical supply depot, I don't know whom.
Question. Then the whisky that you hauled was left at the Moulder School , so far as you know
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Who was the soldier you refer to?
Answer. I don't know; I think it was a messenger in one of the quartermaster's offices of the Presidio-I don't know whether Major Devol's or Captain Nugent's. That is all I know about it.
Question. How long have you been connected with the depot quartermaster's ?
Answer. Just since the 24th of April. I was transferred from the Presidio-from the depot quartermaster's office-at the trouble.
Question. What was your duty at the Presidio ?
Answer. I was carried as teamster; was working in the wheelwright shop. Question. For how long?
Answer. Probably about two months. I have been altogether employed for two years in the Quartermaster's Department, Presidio, as teamster.
Question. Did you at any time take any whisky from the medical supply depot to Goldberg, Bowen & Co.?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Or any other whisky dealers in town?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Did you have any beer or liquors transported to the ferry for Oakland?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Do you know anything further as to what became of this whisky that was taken back from the Moulder School to the medical supply depot?
Answer. No, sir; I never hauled any.
SAMUEL A. BYRNE, chief clerk of the medical supply depot, was sworn by the inspector, and testified as follows:
Question. Will you state in full what you know of all liquors received at and transferred from the medical supply depot to points in the city ?
Answer. All that I know or had anything to do with, with reference to the shipment of liquors, was on June 23-two wagonloads. I oversaw their being loaded in Colonel Brechemin's absence. There were two wagonloads, 41 cases is each wagon, making 82 cases on the receipt from the guard.
Question. Where did they go?
Answer. To the Moulder schoolhouse. We had a guard placed over them.
Question. An enlisted man?
Question. Who receipted for it?
Answer. Yes; he receipted for the cases.
Question. You don't know anything about a further receipt?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. How did the medical supply depot get this whisky-where did it come from?
Answer. I don't know.
Question. It was not purchased by the Medical Department?
Answer. That I could not say.
Question. In the vouchers that I overlooked with you there was no mention of any beer, whisky, or liquors of any kind?
Answer. No, sir; none of any kind.
Question. Is there anybody in the medical supply depot who would know where they came from besides Colonel Brechemin, who is absent?
Answer. Not to my knowledge. All that I know of is that I receipted, on or about the 25th of April, for one wagonload of assorted liquors from Goldberg, Bowen & Co., which was stored in the medical warehouse of the General Hospital , and reported to Colonel Brechemin.
Question. Were the cases that you saw shipped from the medical supply depot to the Moulder School labeled whisky?
Answer. Yes, sir; they were.
Question. Did you superintend the shipment of any supplies to the Moulder School labeled " maltine " or " creoline "?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Do you know of any such supplies?
Question. Is there any further information that you can give me on this subject, or can you give me the names of any persons who can give me information upon it?
Answer. Mr. Sternberg might have some knowledge of it.
Capt. JULIUS N. KILIAN, commissary, U. S. A. , was interrogated by Lieut. Col. John P. Wisser , Artillery Corps, acting inspector-general, on July 23, 1906, at the Moulder School, and having been duly sworn by the inspector, testified as follows:
Question. Will you please state all the liquors of any kind that you have received from the medical supply depot in this city since the earthquake and fire?
Answer. I took charge of this warehouse on May 1, 1906, and I found a large quantity of liquors and medical supplies in the warehouse. In consulting with Major Krauthoff, who was my superior officer, he instructed me to send all medical supplies of every description to the medical supply depot at the Presidio; all quartermaster's stores to the Crocker School. A similar order I received afterwards, I think, direct from Major-General Greely. I had not receipted for this whisky and was not accountable for it, so I sent it within two or three days to the medical supply depot at the Presidio in accordance with these instructions.
Question. You don't remember how much there was?
Answer. A large quantity ; there must have been over 10 or 12 wagonloads.
Question. Barrels and cases?
Answer. No, only cases; no barrels. On June 2, between 11 and 12 o'clock. a teamster came into the office here and informed me that he had 8 wagonloads of whisky for the Moulder warehouse. I told him that he had made a mistake in bringing the whisky here; that all whiskies or medical supplies go to the medical supply depot at the Presidio. He informed me that it was from there he was sent here to me. Upon my request for the dray bill or waybill he produced a slip of paper upon which there was nothing written but, if I remember correctly, " 179 cases of hospital supplies." That is my best recollection of it. There was no name and no directions on this slip of paper. The wagon master informed me that it was a colonel of the United States Army who sent him here. I doubted his word, maintaining that if an officer of the United States Army had sent any stores to me he would sign his name and rank and give the authority by which he directed it to me. Prior to that I had questioned him as to whether it was Major Krauthoff, Major Devol, or Colonel Febiger. He stated that it was neither one of these names, but it was a colonel with a name that was hard to remember and hard to pronounce. When, thereupon, I refused to take the stores he argued with me, saying that it was a hard matter for his horses to return to the Presidio and possibly be sent back here. So, to make sure that there was no mistake, I wired Major Krauthoff at Folsom street dock, asking instructions. (See Exhibit A, appended.) About half-past 12 o'clock I received Major Krauthoff's answer, instructing me not to receive drugs and hospital supplies from the Presidio. (See Exhibit B, appended.) About 5 o'clock in the evening the same wagon master, accompanied by a first lieutenant, assistant surgeon in the United States Army, whose name I do not know-I think, however, it was Lieutenant Powell-came again to demand of me to receive the stores, the lieutenant saying that it was a direct order from General Greely. I informed him that I had written orders from General Greely not to receive nay other stores but subsistence articles, and that unless I had a written or direct
order I would not receive them. After talking the matter over with the lieutenant and Dr. George H. Richardson, contract surgeon, United States Army. I decided to consult Doctor Shiels, who was then and is now in charge of hospitals and charitable institutions. Doctor Shiels in my presence called up the doctor in charge of the Central Emergency Hospital, at Jefferson Square, and asked him whether he had room for eight wagonloads of medical supplies. I think Doctor Shiels said whisky; the wagon master told me it was whisky, and I reported to Doctor Shiels that it was whisky. He evidently received an answer in the affirmative, and addressing me, he said, "Captain, it will be all right to send it over to the Central Emergency Hospital, in Jefferson Square." I immediately returned to the warehouse and informed the lieutenant, who, in my presence, instructed the wagon master to go and deliver the stores at the Central Emergency Hospital, in Jefferson Square, on Geary and Gough streets. The lieutenant started with the wagon master in that direction. Do you want me to tell you all I know about it?
Question. If you please.
Answer. On or about June 15 I was called by telephone to Doctor Devine's office in the Hamilton School, the request being that Mr. Bicknell, assistant to Doctor Devine, wanted to see me on a private matter. Upon arrival there Mr. Bicknell stated that they had a quantity of whisky coming, part of which would have to be received immediately, and whether I could possibly make room for it at the Moulder schoolhouse, as the committee were desirous of placing it in my charge, for the reason that a large quantity of similar stores had disappeared and no trace of it could be found; and my impression now is that he stated that for that very reason they did not desire this quantity of whisky stored at the Central Emergency Hospital, in Jefferson Square. I stated that whisky not being a subsistence article, I did not like to be responsible for it, and, in the second place, that it always causes trouble in a warehouse; that men who could be trusted with all other stores would have to be closely watched, so that it causes a great deal of trouble and annoyance; that personally I was opposed to being made a storekeeper of intoxicating liquors. Upon my request, however, that nothing but original packages should be turned over to me and that under no circumstances orders would be given for part of the whisky, and as a personal accommodation to Mr. Bicknell and Doctor Devine, I would take charge of any amount of liquor that they wanted me to take care of.
(At Captain Kilian's request a clerk brought him a warehouse book, consulting which he continued:)
On June 15 we received 45 cases of whisky from the Santa Fe warehouse, 1 case being in bad condition. On June 23 I received 2 loads of whisky-1 of 38 and 1 of 40 cases, 1 bottle being broken in one of the cases. On June 23, later in the afternoon, 82 cases more were received. This came from the Presidio. Again, on June 26 I received from the Presidio 25 barrels of whisky. On June 28 there were received from the Presidio 3 barrels of claret, each about half full; 1 keg of port, about 8 gallons; 11½ barrels of port, about half full again 11 barrels of port, about half full; 1 barrel of port, about three-quarters full; 1 barrel of sherry, three-quarters full; 2 barrels whisky, nearly empty; 1 barrel of gin. On June 29 I received from the Presidio 13 barrels of whisky, 9 boxes of whisky; 13 cases of port. All broken packages or barrels not full I sent to the Central Emergency Hospital, in Jefferson Square. These included 4 cases whisky; 1 keg brandy; 8 demijohns assorted liquors; 2 cases sherry; 1 barrel sherry; 1 demijohn vinegar; 41 gallons alcohol; 1 keg port, about 8 gallons; 1½ barrels port, about half full; 1 barrel port, three-quarters full; 1 barrel sherry, three-quarters full; 1 barrel whisky, nearly empty; 1 barrel whisky, nearly empty; 1 barrel gin, about half full. I have now on hand 160 cases whisky, 38 barrels.
Question. Part of this you say you received from the Presidio. What office in the Presidio do you refer to?
Answer. The medical supply depot.
Question. Who received the liquors sent to the Central Emergency Hospital
Answer. I don't know, sir.
Question. Did you get any receipt from anybody there?
Answer. No, sir; I got no receipt and demanded none. I didn't take charge of the liquor at all; I refused to take it.
Question. Who was in charge of the Central Emergency Hospital at that time?
Answer. If I am not mistaken, Doctor Hughes.
Question. Was this liquor sent to the Central Emergency Hospital with the consent and knowledge of the people who asked you to store it for them-Doctor Devine and Mr. Bicknell?
Question. The whisky that was stored at the request of Mr. Bicknell, is that still on hand in your warehouse-all of it?
Answer. Yes; all of it with the exception of those broken packages sent to the Central Emergency Hospital.
Question. As to the broken packages, you didn't tell Mr. Bicknell?
Answer. Yes, I did. I made an express condition that I was not to be asked to store broken packages or barrels only part full, and so I sent all broken packages to the Central Emergency Hospital. I have no other information on the subject.
On June 24, while Lieut. Col. John P. Wisser, Artillery Corps, acting inspector-general, was examining witnesses at the medical supply depot, Presidio of San Francisco, SAMUEL A. BYRNE, chief clerk, medical supply depot, appeared and stated that he desired to modify his testimony previously given. With reference to the subject of papers left in the office by Colonel Brechemin, he now testifies that certain papers were left, and these he handed to the inspector-general; also that there were papers in the safe relating to Goldberg, Bowen & Co.
C. M. WOLLENBERG, purchasing agent for the relief work at the medical supply depot, having been sworn by the inspector, testified as follows:
Question. Will you please state what you know with reference to the receipt and delivery to points in San Francisco of liquors by the medical supply depot, and of their transportation to different parts of the city since the fire of April 18-21, 1906?
Answer. Well, I can not state much about the receipt of it, Colonel. I have nothing to do with the receipt of the liquors at all. While I was not in an official way in charge of the issuing of liquors, I know that no liquors went out of here without requisition and a receipt being given for them after the I depot was located on these grounds. On the shipping of the liquors to Moulder School, the wagons were loaded in the morning and returned here shortly before noon, as the contents of the wagons were refused.
Question. What date was that?
Answer. I can not state the date.
Question. How many wagonloads were there-about?
Answer. About eight. To my recollection, a train of eight wagons. It consisted of relief stores entirely ; that is, not regular army supplies-drugs and liquors.
Question. Well, by relief stores you mean stores that had been donated?
Answer. Donated. The cases were marked, " General Funston, for San Francisco relief," " San Francisco sufferers: " a lot of liquor was marked that way-nothing else on cases at all; and "Red Cross, Doctor Devine : " four or five marks. I helped to pack part of the goods that went in that shipment. Later on in the day, I should judge between 3 and 4 o'clock, the wagons were again sent to the Moulder School, in charge of Lieutenant Powell. Next day 1 heard him state he had, after a great deal of trouble, succeeded in delivering the goods.
Answer. My impression was, to the Moulder School, but I can not state positively. There was another shipment delivered to Goldberg, Bowen & Co., for which we hold Goldberg, Bowen & Co.'s receipts. The inventory of these goods was made by a clerk of Goldberg & Bowen's and two clerks of this depot. The goods were loaded here on army wagons and accompanied by Goldberg & Bowen's men and a guard when they left the depot. My understanding was they were to go to Oakland, but their disposition was in the hands of Goldberg, Bowen & Co.'s representatives. There was a third shipment of liquor toward the last of June consisting of some case goods, not barrels, which left here in two or three wagons. I don't think it was over three. I understood they were to go to the Moulder School. They also left in charge of the wagon master and sentries on the wagon. The drugs that we sent out in the latter part of June-well, after the middle of June-were all delivered to the Central Emergency Hospital, and I personally seen them in the hospital. They might be away from there now, but they were there during different visits that I paid to the hospital.
Question. Have you any record of the wagons?
Answer. I don't know anything about that Question. Do you know his name?
Answer. No, sir. It was customary to send down to the guard that was stationed below here and ask for a sentry, and there was sometimes two or three.
Question. Of what organization was this guard?
Answer. I could not tell you. The case goods I could identify. I know the brands on them. As to the maltine, we had nearly a carload of it. That was part of the shipment refused down there. All of it went out that day. There was also lots of creoline for relief. Creoline is a disinfectant. We emptied two tents that date right out here.
Question. Is there any liquor store
Answer. Yes: there is-regular supplies
Question. No, but, I mean that which came as a relief?
Answer. No; there is no relief stores. The relief whisky was all delivered. We might have a few cases of relief whisky here that were to take the regular army whisky issued for relief purposes and replaced with this.
Question. You don't know how much?
Question. Are there any records here at present showing the liquors received by the medical supply depot?
Answer. I will ask Mr. Sternberg. No; the books are not here. They were taken with the other papers East. The record was kept in those books of everything received. For the most part, we don't know where it came from. It was simply marked "Quartermaster's dock." We had no way of telling who sent the goods in.
Question. Is there any other information you can give me on the receipt and transportation of liquors by and from the medical supply depot?
Answer. No: I believe not.
Advise Wisser that I desire investigations looking to accuracy statements in The Call alleging distribution liquor through volunteer nurses from Presidio, presumably General Hospital. While having confidence that such statements are unfounded, yet consider it advisable in present condition public press to investigate anything they charge. Suggest as first step that Wisser interview Call reporter and ascertain his source of information. If such seems unreliable drop matter, but otherwise follow it up. Address Vancouver Barracks till Saturday noon.
8.28 a. m.
Lieut. Col. JOHN P. WISSER,
DEAR SIR: The only possible information our reporter could give you, concerning the alleged distribution of liquor through the volunteer nurses at the Presidio, would be what was published in this paper in that regard, plus the names of the persons from whom he obtained the facts upon which the article was based. It is the rule of The Call not to make public the sources of its information, and on this account I can see no good to be gained from sending a reporter to you as is requested in your letter of July 27.
Reference to papers of Lieutenant-Colonel Brechemin pertaining to relief work, owing to alleged loss of quantities of liquor, desired information from Colonel Brechemin as to time, from whom, and quantities of liquor received, and to whom, quantities, time, and receipts for liquors transferred from medical supply depot.
COMMANDING GENERAL PACIFIC DIVISION,
Reference your telegram 21st instant, Surgeon-General reports not practicable to return to San Francisco all records pertaining to relief work, as more important papers are being used to ascertain value of medical property furnished for relief work and to settle money and property accounts of Lieutenant-Colonel Brechemin. If you state specifically what information is needed, effort will be made to furnish it from records in Surgeon-General's Office.
8.06 a. in.
The MILITARY SECRETARY,
SIR : I have the honor to request that Lieut. Col. Louis Brechemin, Medical Department, deputy surgeon-general, now in charge of medical supply depot, New York City, be directed to furnish me with a report of all liquors which were received at and transferred from the medical supply depot, San Francisco, Cal., to all points in the city of San Francisco during the time, since the earthquake and fire, that he had charge of said depot, inclosing to him, for his information, a copy of the letter, dated headquarters Pacific Division, July 21, 1906, directing me to examine into the subject.
Lieut. Col. JOHN P. WISSER,
Referring to article in Chronicle of July 24, page 12, I hold receipt from Dr. C. T. Millar, dated June 2, for eight wagonloads of miscellaneous drugs and articles-191 packages. This shipment was
made by Sternberg, and did not contain any liquor. The first shipment of whisky was made June 23. The receipts for 78 cases are signed by Edward, receiving clerk. Later 40 barrels were receipted for by Post Com. Sergt. John Glenn. All these shipments were made under my personal supervision, and two sentries accompanied each train.
Reports of Maj. Carroll A. Devol, Quartermaster, U. S. A.
SIR: In compliance with your instructions of the 15th instant, to render report of the operations of the Quartermaster's Department under my direction since the 18th of April, 1906, I have the honor to submit the following:
At 5.14 on the morning of April 18 the conditions in the city of San Francisco were changed from that of normal supply and demand created under a system, the result of gradual evolution and business experience of many years, to that of chaos. The entire population of San Francisco was returned to primitive conditions in regard to all the necessities of life. All depot warehouses and offices in the city of San Francisco had been destroyed by fire by noon of the 18th, consuming a stock of clothing, equipage, and quartermaster supplies approximately to $2,200.000. The four warehouses at the Presidio, containing what was known as the surplus or dead stock of the depot, were uninjured by the earthquake, and on the morning of the 19th I moved my office force to these warehouses, establishing an office in warehouse No. 2.
The first available means of assistance from supplies in the depot on April 18 being that of shelter, an immediate distribution of the 3,000 tents in stock was instituted. Conferring with Col. Charles Morris, in command at the Presidio, he stated to start a camp wherever space was available, suggesting the vacant ground between the General Hospital and the Model Camp. The issue from the four warehouses at the Presidio was continued during the first five days after the earthquake, an effort being made to relieve immediate distress and provide for the many people whom it was found were homeless and shelterless. When the severe rain set in, ending with the torrent of April 23, ponchos and shelter tents were issued in large quantities, thousands of people standing drenched to the skin and without any protection from the storm. It is believed that this issue relieved much distress. and it is hoped saved some lives. Ponchos were also used by the refugees to keep them at night from lying on the wet ground.
There being in stock 84,002 pairs shoes, russet, returned from the Philippines to be sold, owing to the pattern being obsolete, 40,173 pairs of these shoes were issued to various relief stations for the pur-
pose of distribution among the needy. These shoes were charged against the appropriation, by direction of the Quartermaster-General, at the reduced price of $1.35 per pair.
Advices having been received that a large quantity of relief stores were en route from all parts of the East, various Government depots and other sources, consigned to me, arrangements were at once instituted to properly care for and distribute these supplies on arrival, as it was realized that an immense state of congestion would ensue unless delivery was promptly taken aid systematically carried out. As the great bulk of these supplies was to arrive over the Southern Pacific road I decided, in a conference with Mr. Calvin, general manager of the Southern Pacific Railroad, to institute three avenues of supply for the city of San Francisco-the Presidio dock, Folsom street dock, and Fourth and Townsend streets-where cars were delivered. This plan was thoroughly gone over, outlined, and never changed, and it is thought the results have proved its wisdom. Santa Fe deliveries were afterwards taken from their freight yards at Spear and Harrison streets on this side or delivered by float at Folsom street dock.
Capt. Jesse M. Baker, quartermaster, U. S. A., with my chief transportation clerk, Mr. W. H. Ruddell, was placed on duty at Oakland pier, in touch with the general officers of the Southern Pacific Company, and where he could keep in absolute touch with all incoming freight. A dispatch boat, the Lieut. Geo. W. Harris, was turned over to me by the chief quartermaster, and placed on the run between the Presidio dock and Oakland pier, making two trips daily, Captain Baker sending me full reports twice a day of the freight situation, supplementing the information by wire as far as the facilities would permit. I was enabled to advise him daily as to the needs of the various distributing points, and keep the supply properly distributed.
Capt. James A. Hutton, 27th Infantry, was afterwards placed on similar duty at Point Richmond, in connection with the Santa Fe, the work, however, there, owing to the small amount of business, being much less than at Oakland pier.
Lieut. L. D. Cabell, 14th U. S. Infantry, was placed in charge of Folsom street dock, and with the consent of the State board of harbor commissioners, Piers 8 and 10, lying next to Folsom street dock, were taken over by the Government-Pier 8 for tentage, Pier 10 for forage, and Pier 12, or Folsom street, for food supplies. These docks are still retained by the Government, but it is hoped that Piers 8 and 10 may be reverted to the harbor commissioners in a few days, in order that business may be resumed on them as under normal conditions.
Capt. G. H. Shields, jr., 3d U. S. Infantry, was placed in charge of the Fourth and Townsend street yards, with Lieut. H. F. Wilson, Philippine Island Scouts, as his assistant. He took charge of all freight arriving at this depot, keeping me constantly advised by wire.
Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, 24th Field Battery, was placed in charge of the Presidio dock, the facilities of which were sadly inadequate to the amount of work demanded of it. Enormous amounts of freight went over this little dock, requiring work far into the night, and sometimes all night, to keep the freight in motion, the dock space
being so limited that it became immediately congested if delivery was not taken from the dock as fast as consignments reached it. The business of conducting issues from the four warehouses at the Presidio had grown to enormous proportions in a few days. Capt. John J. Boniface, regimental quartermaster, 2d U. S. Cavalry, was detailed to take charge of these issues, with Lieut. George W. Winterburn, 9th U. S. Cavalry, as his assistant.
The matter of disbursements also requiring immediate attention, Capt. Wendell L. Simpson, being a bonded officer, and entirely familiar with quartermaster accounts, was by me placed on duty as disbursing officer for the depot, the duties in connection with which requiring his constant attention.
In the earlier days of distribution the crying need of the hour required delivery from car to boat, boat to dock, dock to wagon, and from wagon to hands of the people, time not permitting proper segregation of the component parts of the ration, or separation properly of the various donated relief supplies of clothing.
As soon as time permitted three commissary depots were established, No. 1 at the gun sheds, Presidio; No. 2 at Spear and Harrison streets warehouse (then under rental to the Quartermaster's Department), and No. 3 at the Moulder School, Page and Gough streets. These were taken over by Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, depot commissary, and, working in conjunction with him, as soon as established, I transferred all food supplies to these three depots, where they were properly separated and issues made, all issues from docks and railroad yards then being discontinued.
On April 23, 1906, Capt. G. A. Nugent, quartermaster, Presidio of San Francisco, was directed to report to me as my assistant in connection with the establishment of a depot corral, as part of the transportation being under my direction and part under his it was deemed best on the lines of general administration to consolidate. The corral was parked on the plain just east of the Presidio warehouse. Under the direction of Captain Nugent, with Lieut. A. McIntyre as his assistant, the transportation from this corral was as follows:
Later it became apparent that necessity demanded another corral at Folsom street to take deliveries from that point, Fourth and Townsend streets, and Spear and Harrison streets. This corral was established on a vacant lot, rented for this purpose at $450 per month from May 1, and the number of teams used being as follows:
In connection with the matter of hired drayage, I would state that the city drayage contractor, Mr. William R. Morton, had been burned out, and as his contract was by the pound, and no means of weighing existed, it was deemed best to suspend his contract for the time being, and employ his teams on the same basis as all others, at the union rate. Under the direction of the division commander schedule was arranged for such work, and is as below:
The above is the union scale or rate in San Francisco under ordinary conditions. Twenty per cent was deducted from this schedule when teams and drivers were cared for and subsisted by the Government.
Transportation in the earlier periods from depots to all outlying distributing stations was made up of voluntary teams and hired teams under an organization controlled by the finance committee. I was directed by the division commander, in compliance with a request from the finance committee, to take over the matter of this transportation, bringing all the transportation for relief purposes in the city of San Francisco under my direction. To accomplish this I detailed Capt. Peter Murray, 18th U. S. Infantry, giving him Mr. W. W. Witt, wagon master, as his assistant, to take charge of all transportation from the various depots to outlying stations. He established an office in the Hamilton School on May 2. Prior to this there was engaged in city transportation 557 teams. By the morning of May 4, Captain Murray, by constant and systematic attention to his work, had the number of teams engaged in this work reduced to
109, hired at a cost of $918 per day, union rates. Thirty Government teams were engaged also in the work, these not being charged against the relief appropriation. Report for this day shows 68 teams hired, engaged in city transportation, at a daily cost of $552, and 15 Government teams, not charged against appropriation. Captain Murray was given an automobile and visited all outlying distributing stations twice daily, keeping in constant touch with the situation and being able to offer adequate information as to the general progress of transportation matters in the city. It is believed his services in this connection were the means of saving many thousands of dollars in the transportation account.
As the distribution of food supplies within the city of San Francisco had been taken over by the Commissary Department of the Army similarly in regard to clothing, after consultation with Dr. E. T. Devine, special representative of the Red. Cross Society, and Mr. Allen Pollok, chairman supervising committee, it was decided to establish at once a clothing supply depot for the issue of all donated clothing. An application to the city Board of Education, which fortunately was found in session, met with prompt response, and they offered any available schoolhouse in the city for this purpose. Several schoolhouses were visited by Doctor Devine, Mr. Pollok, and myself, and the Crocker School, 1111 Page street, being new and having the best facilities, was at once selected. The scheme of adopting this method was decided upon Wednesday, May 2; on Thursday afternoon the building was selected; on Friday morning, by direction of the division commander, Capt. John J. Bradley, 14th U. S. Infantry, was ordered to report to me and was placed in charge of this school. By Saturday afternoon a large amount of the stock was in the building and this distribution of clothing depot in operation. Later it became apparent that a distinct line should be drawn between new clothing of good character and suitable for any issue and the vast amount of old or second-hand clothing that was constantly pouring into the city. The Everett School, corner Sixteenth and Sanchez streets, was selected for the second-hand clothing, and, by Doctor Devine's direction, Mrs. A. M. Curtis instituted the supply from this school of all second-hand clothing being sent to her. Later on Capt. Robert Field, 5th U. S. Infantry, was placed in charge of this school, Mrs. Curtis ably assisting him.
The enormous amount of food supplies arriving and en route soon made it apparent that some means of storage would have to be used to care for the surplus stores. An authority was received to use the three transports Crook, Warren, and Buford for this purpose. The Crook was placed at Folsom street dock and loaded with flour; the Warren at Oakland pier and loaded with flour and meal. When loaded she was pulled into the stream and the Burford placed in her berth, where she is now loading with the same cargo. The amount. of cargo on these three ships to date is: Crook, flour, 1,567 tons; Warren, flour and meal, 2,200 tons; Buford, flour and meal, 2,000 tons. Permission was also given by the Quartermaster-General to hold the Burnside and use her for storage purposes, but at this date it appears that this action will not be necessary.
During the rush days of receiving supplies it was thought this spare storage space might not take care of the surplus, and warehouse facilities at Port Costa, of 50,000 tons capacity, was secured, an officer
being detailed there temporarily to take charge of this overflow stuff. In a few days it was found that this station would not be required, and the reservation was released.
Up to date there has been received 1,331 carloads of relief supplies, aggregating approximately 26,620 tons, and 20 steamers have arrived with relief supplies approximating 5,700 tons.
On the 15th instant the division commander decided that matters had reached such a state that no more Government clothing, tentage, or equipage were required for the needs of destitute citizens of San Francisco. I therefore by his direction rendered him a full detailed report of all receipts, issues, money value of same, and money value of stock remaining on hand that could be diverted to War Department purposes. (Copy of report herewith.) A telegram was forwarded to the Quartermaster-General in reply to one from his office on same subject. (Copy of telegram herewith.)
The officers detailed as my assistants under division orders are as follows:
Capt. Wendell L. Simpson, quartermaster, U. S. A., assistant to depot quartermaster and disbursing officer.
Capt. Jesse M. Baker, quartermaster, U. S. A., in charge Oakland pier.
Capt. G. A. Nugent, quartermaster, U. S. A., in charge Presidio transportation and corral.
Capt. Peter Murray, 18th Infantry, in charge city transportation. Capt. John J. Boniface, regimental quartermaster, 2d Cavalry, in charge Presidio warehouse.
Capt. G. H. Shields, jr., 3d Infantry, in charge Fourth and Towns end streets.
Capt. John J. Bradley, 14th Infantry, in charge Crocker School clothing distribution station.
Capt. J. A. Hutton, quartermaster, 27th Infantry, in charge Santa Fe, Point Richmond.
Capt. R. Field, 5th Infantry, in charge Everett School clothing distribution.
Capt. A. W. Bjornstad, 28th Infantry, unassigned at this date. Lieut. L. D. Cabell, 14th Infantry, in charge Folsom street dock. Lieut. George W. Winterburn, 9th Cavalry, assistant at Presidio warehouse.
Lieut. A. McIntyre, Artillery Corps, assistant to Captain Nugent, in charge of Presidio corral.
Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, 24th Field Battery, in charge Presidio dock.
Lieut. H. F. Wilson, Philippine Island Scouts, assistant to Captain Shields.
Lieut. A. S. Cowan, 14th Infantry, in charge Folsom street corral.
They are all energetic, capable officers, and it is realized that the great work thrown on the depot could absolutely not have been accomplished without their assistance. They have all worked in the best possible manner for the benefit of the service and the department. I desire, however, to give the following special mention:
Capt. Wendell L. Simpson's services were of the greatest assistance, owing to the fact that he is an officer of wide experience, entirely familiar with all matters pertaining to disbursements, and capable of taking charge of this most important branch.
Capt. Jesse M. Baker. at Oakland pier, who worked in entire harmony with all the railroad interests, preventing congestion and confusion and producing the best. possible results.
Capt. G. A. Nugent, quartermaster, U. S. A., in charge of Presidio transportation, has shown good business executive ability in handling these trains. The trains throughout the city have been organized into ten wagon trains, each wider the direction of a wagon master of experience in the service. These trains have all responded to organization and rendered good service.
Capt. Peter Murray, 18th U. S. Infantry, who took one of the most difficult problems, that of city transportation, systematizing it and reducing it economically and on the best business lines.
Capt. John J. Boniface, 2d Cavalry, an officer of experience and most excellent judgment in managing the large issues of the depot.
Capt. George H. Shields, jr., 3d U. S. Infantry, who worked most untiringly at Fourth and Townsend streets, handling the vast amount of stores that came in at this depot systematically, expeditiously, and of advantage to the Government.
Lieut. L. D. Cabell, 14th U. S. Infantry, having charge of three docks (Piers 8, 10, and 12) and all transportation in lower part of city, using good judgment with zeal and energy, accomplishing excellent results.
Lieut. George W. Winterburn, 9th U. S. Cavalry, assistant at Presidio warehouse, who subsequently relieved Captain Boniface of this duty and is now in charge, is a young officer of zeal and most excellent business capacity. He has entirely filled all the requirements of his position.
Lieut. Thomas E. Selfridge, 24th Field Battery, in charge of Presidio dock, was in command of a battery at the time of the earthquake. He appeared on the Presidio dock as a volunteer, stating that his battery only required his attention up to 9 o'clock a. m., and therefore he desired to offer his services. His ability became apparent at once, and I had him regularly detailed for this work. The requirements on this little dock, as before mentioned, have been tremendous, and Lieutenant Selfridge's push, energy, and ability, disregard of all working hours-using night as well as day-has kept this part of the work moving. This dock never would have been kept clear without personal and energetic endeavor of this kind.
I also desire to make special report in regard to the assistance rendered by army tugs in preventing the conflagration spreading to the water front and destroying the docks and piers of San Francisco. On Friday evening, April 20, when making a tour of the water front, I found the situation near Pier 25 (Lombard street) to be most alarming. The fire was spreading rapidly, and the hundreds of cars on the siding at this point were in momentary danger of catching fire and carrying the flames well up the street and into the docks. I proceeded to Folsom street, got the tug Slocum and the General McDowell, took them to the danger point, and put them in service with their pumps to assist the large tug from Mare Island, the two fire-patrol tugs, and many other commercial tugs that were working there. The wind was blowing fiercely from the west, carrying flames, sparks, and cinders over onto the dock. At 11 o'clock that night it appeared as though the entire water front must be destroyed. The Slocum had a very powerful pump, and, with the heroic help of Capt. I. L.
Smith, master, who kept his main pump working through the hose onto the fire and the smaller hose playing onto the Slocum to prevent her catching fire, great assistance was rendered at this point.
Capt. John J. Stofen, of the General McDowell, with a less powerful pump, but with good judgment and ability, played on the sheds of the docks, preventing falling cinders from catching the roofs, Both tugs stuck to their posts all night long, and it is believed that their assistance at this most critical time may have saved the water front.
I also wish to state, in conclusion, that the clerical force of the depot have responded entirely to the needs of the situation; hours have been disregarded, and they have worked unselfishly and zealously to promote the interests of the service. It is hoped that this will be remembered if, in future, recommendations are made in regard to individuals of the office force.
Quantities of tentage, blankets, and equipage received to May 10, 1906, from all army sources for relief, as follows: a
* * * *
Total issues to May 10, 1906, from supplies received and stock on hand at Presidio warehouses to destitute people and relief commit as follows:a
* * * *
Total value of supplies received from all army sources to May 10, 1906, $993,539.11; total value of supplies issued to May 10, 1 $638,238.31; balance available May 10, 1906, $355,300.80.
Issues made from May 11 to May 14, 1906:a
* * * *
Amount available May 10, 1906, $355,300.80; value of supplies issued May 11 to May 14, 1906, $22,158.91; balance available May 14,$333,141.89.
Issue made May 15, 1906:a
* * * *
Amount available May 14, 1906, $333,141.89; value of supplies issued May 15, 1906, $243.69; exact value of stores withdrawn May 15, 1906, $332,898.20.
a Itemized list of articles here omitted.
Reference your telegram even date, tentage sufficient on hand to replace that shipped by Governor of Nebraska here; twelve ninety-nine blankets, woolen, army standard, gray, and twenty-three saddle blankets, furnished by him, not available. Following on hand and can be safely drawn on by your office for supply to other points, issues for relief purposes having ceased except by direct order of division commander: Twenty-five three forty-four blankets, olive drab; fifty-one six thirty-nine blankets, light weight; ten six sixty-two mattresses; twenty-one naught seventy-eight mattress covers; six twelve paulins, large, five sixty-eight paulins, small, tents complete; twenty-four sixty-seven common, sixteen thirty conical, sixteen fifty-eight hospital, two sixty-four storage, twenty-three fifty-six wall; forty-two eigthy-eight tent stoves, seventeen five eighty tent stovepipe.
SIR: As supplementary to my report of the operations of the Quartermaster's Department, in connection with the relief of San Francisco sufferers, forwarded to your office May 16, 1906, I have the honor to submit the following:
Since the rendition of this report the arriving stores have grown less daily, until at the present time only a few occasional shipments are recorded. The contraction in the amount of business was duly attended with a reduction in the force and facilities from day to day and week to week, as occasion required. Piers 8 and 10, foot of Howard street, were duly returned to the harbor commission. Pier 12, foot of Folsom street, was returned to the transport service for use of transports, which now sail every twenty days as formerly. The various stations of officers enumerated in my former report were abandoned and the officers returned to their various duties in the Army, until at. the present time I have remaining for relief work only Cape. Peter Murray, 18th Infantry, in charge of transportation, and Lieut. G. W. Winterburn, 9th Cavalry, assisting in inspection of relief supplies. My permanent assistants, Capt. W. L. Simpson, quartermaster, U. S. A., Capt. Courtland Nixon, quartermaster, U. S. A., and Lieut. L. D. Cabell, acting quartermaster, U. S. A., render assistance, but at this date it occupies only a small portion of their time.
The transportation known as the depot corral is being broken up this date, and the teams, wagons, and harness are to be sent to American Lake to be utilized for the maneuvers at that point. The contract in force with the Morton Drayage Company for the transportation of supplies from the various railroad depots and wharves
to points in the city will remain in force, by direction of the division commander, until the 31st of this month.
Capt. Peter Murray has still employed at this date 20 teams for distributing relief supplies from the depots to the various stations. Five teams are also being furnished for the five sanitary wagons now being used outside of the Government reservation for relief purposes. It is expected that a few extra teams will have to be put under daily hire until the end of the month to take the place of the teams utilized in what is known as the depot corral.
All connection with the Everett School and the Crocker School by this office has been discontinued by direction of your office.
This office is at the present time making purchases to the amount of $50,000 for relief, the articles approved by your office consisting of a variety of women and children's clothing, shoes, mattresses, etc. These purchases are made after due advertisement in the daily newspapers and by circular and opening of bids, the award being made to the lowest bidder, if the article offered is of suitable quality. To effect these purchases Capt. Peter Murray was detailed to visit the various stores and supervise inspections in the selection of articles for which bids had been received.
Two sections in one of the storehouses at the Presidio dock were cleared of Government stores and one of these sections was given in charge of Lieut. G. W. Winterburn, as supervising inspector of all goods ordered, which are delivered and inspected and the count verified. This being accomplished, they are passed on to section No. 2, where Lieutenant Robinson, representing the relief committee, receipts for them and directs their distribution to the various stations, the responsibility of the depot quartermaster ceasing when they are properly turned over to Lieutenant Robinson.
Expert inspectors and packers, tinder pay by the War Department, have been utilized in this service without charge to the relief funds; notably Mr. John Schmid, general inspector of supplies; Mr. Handsel, inspector of fabrics; Mr. Fillmore, inspector of shoes, and Mrs. Scully, inspector of women's clothing. The clerical force in the purchasing branch has also been utilized without charge.
The disbursement on account of relief funds, to include July 18, 1906, as shown by my account, is $224,634.80. The value of stores remaining on hand from supplies forwarded to this depot for relief purposes from various War Department sources and unexpended, amounts to $266,812.07.
The number of carloads of relief supplies received to and including this date is 1,702.
The total amount of issues, with money valuation for relief purposes from stores received from War Department sources, is as per list herewith, totaling $717,141.42.
It is understood that all connection of this depot with relief matters will cease on the 31st of this month.
Maj. Gen. A. W. GREELY,
LIST OF CLOTHING AND EQUIPAGE.
Issue to destitute sufferers of the earthquake and conflagration in the city of San Francisco, Cal., by Maj. C. A. Devol, quartermaster, U. S. A., depot quartermaster, Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., between April 18, 1906, and July 20, 1906, under authority of the division commander and Quartermaster General of the Army, April, 1906.
Report of Capt. John J. Bradley, Quartermaster, 14th U.S. Infantry.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the following report, covering the period from May 4, 1906, to June 30, 1906, inclusive. This report includes the report submitted on May 31, in accordance with the instructions of the division commander of that date.
On May 3, 1906, in accordance with Special Orders, No. 48, headquarters Pacific Division, Presidio, San Francisco, I was assigned to duty at division headquarters with station in this city and to report at once to Maj. C. A. Devol, depot quartermaster, for assignment.
Under provisions of paragraph IV, General Orders, No. 18, headquarters Pacific Division, Presidio, San Francisco, April 29, 1906, provision was made for the establishment of a depot for handling supplies, other than food, and the filling of requisitions for such supplies, after approval by Major Febiger, Doctor Devine, or other duly authorized official. Pending the selection of an officer for this position, Major Devol was put in charge of this work.
Having been selected by Major Devol to take charge of the clothing depot to be established, I received from him the following instructions, conveyed to me by telegram on the night of May 3:
In accordance with these instructions, I proceeded to the Crocker School building, 1111 Page street, on the 4th instant, at 8 o'clock a. m., and found that same was partially occupied with stores belonging to the hospital that had been established by General Girard,
U. S. A., retired ; also the furniture and books belonging to the school; this furniture was being removed from the various schoolrooms and gathered together on the fourth floor by the school authorities. It has remained untouched by anyone connected with this depot.
About 9 o'clock Mr. Allen Pollok, chairman of the supervising committee, appeared and informed me that this building was to be used for the reception, storage, and issue of all supplies, Red Cross and relief, that were then in San Francisco or en route thereto, except food and medical supplies. He proceeded to effect an organization of civilians who were familiar with handling dry goods, clothing, furniture, etc., assisted by three civilians, Messrs. Hecht, Gerstle, and Ramsdell, whom he designated as the advisory committee to assist me in organizing this force of employees. This force was to be sufficient to properly handle the incoming goods, distribute them to departments, and prepare for the filling of approved requisitions from the seven districts into which the city had been divided. Accordingly, a receiving and shipping department was established; also nine other departments for the reception of men's clothing and hats, women's clothing and hats, children's clothing and hats, men's furnishings and underwear, women's furnishings and underwear, children's underwear, boots and shoes for men, women, and children, bedding, furniture, and household goods. All these departments were put in charge of civilians selected by Mr. Pollok and his three associates on the advisory committee. Mr. Pollok authorized the payment of wages to all employees and in such number as was necessary to prepare the goods, then being received, for distribution on the following Monday morning, May 7, 1906. He also authorized the employment of a cook and assistants for the feeding of the civilians employed in handling all goods received, incurring such expenses as might be necessary for the proper feeding of these people from the relief stores on hand in the building and for the purchase of milk and ice. On May 1 about 60 people were thus fed; on May 5, about 100 people, and on May 6, 100 people. This was kept up for a period of one week, when breakfast and dinner were dispensed with and only luncheon was served.
On May 5 Dr. Edward T. Devine appeared at my office and approved the system inaugurated by Mr. Pollok and his associates on the advisory committee. He requested that a specific statement covering expenses be submitted as soon as practicable to Mr. Pollok.
Doctor Devine's instructions to me were given in the presence of Mr. Pollok, and are as follows:
Doctor Devine authorized me to employ whatever force was necessary, but to reduce same to the lowest number practicable as soon as possible.
These instructions of Doctor Devine were subsequently confirmed in paragraph 1, General Orders, No. 24, headquarters Pacific Division, Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., May 7, 1906. All work in connection with the operations of this consolidated clothing bureau has been performed by this force in accordance with the above authority.
Mr. Pollok informed me that the employees would be paid by the finance committee at the Hamilton School. At the end of the first week, May 12, he sent me time checks and notifications, which were made out under my direction and certified to by me and sent to Mr. Pollok. Upon presentation of these time checks the men received the amount due them from the finance committee at the Hamilton School. This amount was $1,436.85. For the second week-from Alai, 13 to May 19-it was $963.10; for the third week-from May 20 to May 26-it was $952.25, and from May 27 to May 31, $599.70, making a total of $3,951.90.
For the purpose of receiving and distributing relief stores, consisting of all kinds of goods other than food and medical supplies, nine departments were organized as follows:
These departments are under the charge of experienced clerks, who are familiar with the handling of these goods.
Receiving and shipping departments were also established. All issues from this depot have been made on requisitions properly approved by the civilian chairmen of the civil sections, by Doctor Devine, Mr. Pollok, and such as have been specially authorized by
the division commander. Each requisition is acted on by me and, after approval, sent to the requisition clerk, who makes from this department requisitions covering the articles required. These department requisitions are then sent to the department managers and filled out with goods, as far as the stock permits. As soon as the department requisitions are filled they are sent to the shipping clerk, who enters them on shipping receipts in triplicate. The goods are then loaded upon wagons and sent to destination under care of mounted enlisted men, furnished for this purpose. Receipts for each requisition were taken from these enlisted men and also from the persons to whom the goods were delivered. This method has been pursued from the beginning and still continues.
All goods received at this school have been received by the receiving clerk, with daily record of the number of the wagon, name of driver, character of package, so far as known, and by whom and from where shipped. During the first week of May contributed supplies and relief stores of all kinds were sent to this depot. These supplies consisted of donations of clothing, bedding, shoes, and medicines, addressed to various persons whose names had appeared in the public press as being connected with the relief work in this city. In a great many instances there was more than one name on the package, many packages had no name at all, and many others were addressed illegibly.
Owing to the vast quantities of second-hand clothing arriving, it was deemed advisable to separate the new from the old. Accordingly, on May 9 the Everett School, at Sixteenth and Sanchez streets, was obtained for the purpose of receiving, storing, and distributing supplies under the charge of Mrs. A. M. Curtis. A sufficient number of employees to receive, store, and distribute this second-hand clothing was authorized by Mr. Pollok.
During the month of May there were received at this depot 4,164 cases, 835 bales, and 325 packages or bundles of new clothing of all kinds, consisting of outer and under garments for men, women, and children, shoes and hats for same, 2,570 cots, 915 mattresses, 1,109 stoves, 616 tents complete, and 56 rolls of building paper. During this time there were received at this depot 1,077 cases or boxes, 10 barrels and 5 wagonloads of contributed second-hand Red Cross clothing, of which 12 cases were sent to the first section, 65 cases to the second section, 168 cases to the third section, 335 cases to the fourth section, 56 cases to the fifth section, 245 cases to the sixth section, 166 cases to the seventh section, 50 cases to fraternal organizations, and 180 cases, 10 barrels, and 5 wagonloads to the Everett School.
My supervision and control over the Everett School remained until May 12, when Capt. Robert Field, 5th Infantry, was placed in charge. From that date any second-hand clothing received at this depot was sent to the Everett School, and any new clothing received at the Everett School was brought to the Crocker School depot. From May 9 to May 12 at the Everett School there was paid in wages, upon certified time checks, $418.
Under provisions of section 2, General Orders, No. 24, headquarters Pacific Division, the authority of Major Febiger to approve requisitions on this depot was revoked. Under date of May 23, division. commander informed me that he had notified officers previously
authorized to issue orders on this depot to discontinue that practice, the time of emergency being past. Under date of May 30, the division commander ordered that thereafter no stores other than those addressed specifically to the Red Cross for relief general purposes should be delivered or received at this depot without specific instructions from division headquarters.
Owing to the rapidity of deliveries and the vast quantities of supplies received at this depot during the first two weeks of May, it was impossible to keep a record of boxes, bundles, or cases, and for whom intended. Individual packages were separated, as far as possible, and put aside and held until called for or shipped to destination. From May 16 a complete record has been kept at this depot of all goods received here. This record is inclosed and marked Exhibit A.a For the first three weeks goods were delivered at this depot in a damaged condition. Boxes, parcels, and cases had been broken open and the contents of same disturbed and looted. It is impossible to say where this was done, whether in the railroad cars, in the railroad yards, or en route to this depot. There has also been further loss after goods had been received at this school, by employees and others, while handling the same. This loss has been kept down as far as was practicable by the employment of watchmen and the use of enlisted guards furnished me. What the loss has been it is not possible to determine. Considering the vast quantities of supplies received, it is my opinion that it has not been excessive.
A detail of nine mounted enlisted men has been furnished me daily for the purpose of safeguarding supplies after they have left this depot. No wagons have left the building without being under the direct control of one of these enlisted men. On June 28 I recommended that this cavalry detail be discontinued, which was done on the 30th. Since that date there has been sent with every wagonload of goods a watchman, whose special duty was to safeguard these supplies from this depot to the point of delivery. In addition to this detail a permanent guard of nine enlisted men from Company B, 14th Infantry, has been furnished.
On June 6 I was directed by the division commander to make arrangement to pay immediately from the army appropriation all amounts due laborers at the Crocker School depot, excepting those that had been discharged, in which cases time checks should stand and be paid by the finance committee. Since that time all employees have been paid from the army appropriation by Captain Simpson, Quartermaster's Department. In accordance with my request of June 11, 1906, authorization was issued from division headquarters for the payment of employees for services rendered at the Crocker School depot prior to June 3, 1906, who had not been paid by the finance committee.
The total expense of conducting this depot has been, from May 4 to May 31, $3,951.90; from June 1 to June 2, $299.80; from June 4 to June 9, $786.75; from June 11 to June 23, $1,475; from June 25 to June 30, $646; making a total from May 4 to June 30. 1906, $7,159.45.
During the month of May there have been sent out to section chairmen an average of 20 truckloads of new goods daily. During June this average has been 18 loads per day. Over 1,050 consolidated
a Not received at the war Department with this report.
requisitions have been received and acted upon, besides many other special ones that have been sent here by Doctor Devine and others authorized by the division commander. All this work has been done under extraordinary conditions. For days there was not even a hand truck available to handle these cases, parcels, and boxes. After receiving these goods they had to be carried up from two to six flights of stairs, and when requisitions were filled carried down the same way. The facilities for handling, distributing, and delivering goods have been very poor, and this schoolhouse not adapted for the purpose for which used. The question of delivery of the goods to section chairmen was an important one. At first it was decided by Doctor Devine that these civilians should send their own wagons, which had been furnished for their use, for these requisitions. Almost immediately this was found to be impracticable, as they could not or would not obtain the transportation at the proper time. These filled requisitions, assembled on the main floor at the front entrance of the building, would not be taken away, thus interfering with the going out of other requisitions. At my request, Capt. Peter Murray, quartermaster, 18th Infantry, in charge of wagon transportation, ordered whatever wagons might be required by me to handle outgoing requisitions to report to me daily. From that time the deliveries were made more promptly and satisfactorily.
In acting upon approved requisitions it has been my policy to fill them as far as the stock in the building would permit. No discrimination was made in sending out requisitions, they being acted upon, as far as possible, in the order in which received by me. I have attempted no follow-up system. We supplied whatever goods possible, and they filed that requisition as having been completed. If any articles were not supplied on any particular requisition, no attempt was made to do so later. The shipping receipt would show exactly what was furnished on the requisition, thus enabling the section chairman to keep track of what he was receiving.
It has not been possible to know the value of the goods received and distributed at this depot. As with the goods received from personal and private donations, so with those received by way of purchase, this calamity has served the purpose of cleaning out old and dead stock and stock of mediocre and poor quality.
During the past sixty days many individuals-men, women, and children-have applied at this station for relief, claiming that they could not obtain it in the section of the city in which they lived, or else that they did not know where to apply. In many cases information was all that was necessary to enable them to get what they wanted. In several special and worthy cases I supplied the persons with what they needed. It would appear, from the experience of this depot, that not enough information has been given to the people as to the procedure necessary for them to follow to obtain relief clothing. Nor has there been a uniform system or sufficiently good system to insure the applicant getting what was necessary.
On May 5, Second Lieut. F. B. Kobes, battalion quartermaster and commissary, 14th Infantry, then on duty with Maj. Lea Febiger, was by the latter, at my request, ordered to report to me for duty. On June 2, 1906, these orders were confirmed by paragraph 2, Special Orders, No. 74, headquarters Pacific Division. During the past two months he has been in charge of all deliveries to and from this depot,
transportation, and employees. He has performed the duties assigned him with ability and credit.
On May 24, First Lieut. A. S. Cowan, 14th Infantry, was at my request ordered by Major Devol, depot quartermaster, to report to me for duty. His services were required, owing to the disappearance of the advisory committee, who originally assisted me, and to the increasing amount of work. He has been in charge of the handling and filling of consolidated and individual requisitions and the disposition of individuals coming to this depot for supplies. He has performed this duty with tact and ability. Both these officers have materially assisted me in the management of this important depot.
The amount of goods distributed to the sections in the city, including outlying districts and individual cases, is shown in the accompanying report, marked Exhibit C.a
On June 2, at a meeting of the relief commission, I was offered the position of superintendent of this clothing bureau, with a salary of $200 per month, payable from the relief funds. In a letter to Doctor Devine I declined the offer, giving as reasons therefor that I did not believe that army officers should accept pay for services rendered the civil authorities and also that I did not believe army officers should enter the fields of commercialism.
I was relieved from duty in this city by paragraph 10, Special Orders, No. 98, headquarters Pacific Division, 1906.
[The foregoing report was forwarded to The Military S, of the Army by Maj. Gen. Arthur MacArthur, command Pacific Division, August 16, 1900, " in connection with Greely's comprehensive report, dated July 30, 1906."]
Report of Maj. Charles R. Krauthoff, Subsistence Department, United States Army.
REPORT OF DUTIES PERFORMED BY THE SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT, UNITED STATES ARMY, IN EXTENDING RELIEF TO THE DESTITUTE AND HOMELESS PEOPLE IN SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., AND PROVIDING SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES FOR THE USE OF TROOPS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA DURING THE PERIOD FROM APRIL 18 TO JUNE 30, 1906.
OFFICE OF THE PURCHASING COMMISSARY,
The earthquake occurred at 5.13 a. m., April 18, 1906. Immediately thereafter fire broke out in different parts of the city, and, as there was a great scarcity of water, due to broken water mains, the
a Not received at the War Department with this report.
fire spread with great rapidity, practically destroying the entire business part and a considerable portion of the residence part of the city. The total area burned equaled 2,593 acres, or 4.05 square miles. Four hundred and ninety city blocks were entirely burned.
The depot commissary and subsistence branch, Army Transport Service, occupied the premises No. 46 Spear street. Soon after the earthquake the building and all records and subsistence supplies stored therein were destroyed by fire. Important papers and records stored in safes were found entirely destroyed when the safes were opened after the fire. After the destruction of the depot commissary storehouse, the personnel of the depot commissary and subsistence branch, Army Transport Service, was reported to Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, commanding Pacific Division, for duty.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF TEMPORARY DEPOT COMMISSARY.
On the morning of April 19, 1906, a temporary depot was established at the Presidio of San Francisco. As all subsistence stores had been destroyed in the depot and as it was doubtful if purchases could be made in San Francisco, Lieut. Col. George B. Davis, deputy commissary-general, purchasing commissary, Vancouver Barracks, Wash., was requested to ship 100,000 field rations and a considerable quantity of sales stores. The requisitions were promptly filled by Colonel Davis, which insured a plentiful supply of subsistence stores for use of troops on duty and those that might be ordered here.
SUBSISTENCE STORES ORDERED SHIPPED BY THE COMMISSARY-GENERAL, U. S. A., TO THE DEPOT COMMISSARY FOR THE RELIEF OF THE PEOPLE OF SAN FRANCISCO WHO WERE RENDERED DESTITUTE AND HOMELESS BY THE EARTHQUAKE AND FIRE.
Under date of April 18, 1906, the following telegram was sent:
To provide the rations asked for by Gen. Frederick Funston, Gen. Henry G. Sharpe, Commissary-General, U. S. A., sent the following telegrams and memoranda:
Memorandum sent to the Secretary of War April 19, 1906:
Capt. L. B. Simonds, commissary, U. S. A., was directed by General Funston to proceed to Los Angeles, Cal., and vicinity to purchase 200,000 rations, as requested in the memorandum of the Commissary-General to the Secretary of War.
By direction of General Funston, surplus rations at posts in the Departments of California and the Columbia were shipped to the depot commissary, San Francisco, Cal., for distribution to the hungry. The first of the 900,000 rations arrived front Portland, Oreg., on April 21, 1906, and continued to arrive from time to time until all shipments had been received. The rations were well adapted to the needs of the people. The coffee, sugar, soap, salt, candles, and similar articles were especially needed, as there was a great shortage of those necessities. All of the stores were of the best quality, and especial care was taken by the shipping officers to have shipments move promptly.
Colonel Davis, Major Geary, and Captain Simonds deserve great praise for making the purchases and shipments so promptly. To prevent a large accumulation of perishable foodstuffs and unnecessary expenditures of funds, the Citizens' Relief Committee was notified that 900,000 rations had been ordered shipped by direction of the Secretary of War, and if additional rations were needed the Commissary-General would be so advised. After making a careful investigation with the relief committee as to the quantity of subsistence stores on hand, those in transit, and the needs of the people, it was decided that additional rations would not be needed unless something unforeseen occurred. In event that additional food supplies were needed, the relief committee were to give timely notice, so that additional supplies could be arranged for. It was found that the rations on hand and the relief supplies which were received from time to time were sufficient to meet the wants of the people.
FIRST STEPS TAKEN TO PREVENT SUFFERING AMONG THE DESTITUTE AND HOMELESS PEOPLE.
On the morning after the earthquake the Subsistence Department began to extend such relief as was practicable to the thousands of homeless people who had fled to the military reservations of the Presidio and Forts Mason and Miley. Such subsistence stores as were available were issued. The bakeries were run to their full capacity and large quantities of bread baked for distribution. The cooks on duty at the training school for cooks and bakers at the Presidio made large quantities of hot coffee for distribution to the women. Wagon trains, under charge of officers and clerks of the Subsistence Department, were sent to warehouses and factories not destroyed by fire and all available food supplies were obtained, hauled to the reservations and other places where people had assembled, and issued to the hungry. The gathering of food continued until the factories and warehouses were destroyed and the men driven out by the fire. This work was very hazardous, as the warehouses were near the water front and there was danger of men and teams being cut off and prevented from reaching places of safety. The stores issued by commissaries and those obtained from warehouses were much needed, as little food was available for the hungry.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PERSONNEL OF THE DEPOT COMMISSARY AND SUBSISTENCE BRANCH, ARMY TRANSPORT SERVICE, FOR GENERAL RELIEF WORK.
On the morning of April 20, 1906, the first relief supplies for the destitute and hungry people began to arrive from neighboring cities. The people were demoralized and unsettled by the effects of the earthquake and fire. Everything was in confusion and disorder, and immediate steps were taken by the Quartermaster's and the Subsistence departments to receive the relief supplies, the former to handle the clothing and supplies pertaining to that department and the latter to care for the food supplies.
Relief subsistence supplies poured into the city with great rapidity, and to handle them with dispatch and get them to the hungry people temporary receiving and distributing points were established as follows
1. Presidio wharf, the Presidio of San Francisco; 2. Transport dock foot of Folsom street; 3. Santa Fe warehouse, Spear and Harrison streets; 4. Southern Pacific freight sheds, Fourth and Town send streets; 5. Southern Pacific freight yards, Sixteenth and Kentucky streets.
Relief stores were received by rail and by water. Stores received from the Southern Pacific Company were unloaded from the cars on freight steamers at the Oakland mole and sent to the Presidio wharf or transport dock and unloaded. The Southern Pacific Company also unloaded a large number of cars at their freight sheds and yards at Fourth and Townsend streets and at Sixteenth and Kentucky streets. The Santa Fe system sent their cars to their freight sheds at Spear and Harrison streets, or to the transport dock. Relief stores arriving by water were unloaded at the transport dock, or at the Presidio wharf. The receiving points were well adapted for the handling of large quantities of supplies with celerity and dispatch. At each receiving and distributing point there was an officer and a number of
employees of the Subsistence Department to receive, sort, and deliver food supplies to persons authorized to receive them. The receiving and distributing points were temporary, as time did not permit the establishment of regular depots.
The people were homeless, destitute, and suffering from the want of food and clothing, and it was absolutely necessary that immediate relief be afforded them. Everything that was possible to alleviate the sufferings of the people was done. Officers and men worked night and day in getting supplies to the people. Bakeries were established, ranges obtained, and bread baked. Arrangements were made for the slaughtering of cattle and the issuing of fresh meat. Relief stations were established at places where large numbers of people had congregated, and supplies hauled and distributed to the hungry and needy.
On the afternoon of April 18 the Mayor of San Francisco ap pointed a general relief committee, consisting of prominent citizens of San Francisco. Under direction of the relief committee, relief stations were established throughout the city, each station being placed in charge of a responsible person. The general relief commit tee had a representative at each receiving point, who determined as to the right of persons receiving food supplies.
The relief committee and Subsistence Department worked together without the slightest friction. The members of the committee were intelligent business men and it was a pleasure to be associated with them in the work we were performing.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GENERAL RELIEF DEPOT
After the first wants of the people had been satisfied, the issuing of food at the temporary receiving points was discontinued and general relief depots were established. The Citizens' Relief Committee established one at the Moulder School, Page and Gough streets (which was turned over to the army April .2S, 1906), and the Subsistence Department established one general relief depot at the Presidio of San Fran cisco and one at the Haslett Warehouse, Spear and Folsom streets. An experienced officer of the Subsistence Department and the necessary post commissary sergeants, clerks, and laborers were assigned to each general relief depot. Each depot was complete in itself and was organized on the same general lines as the subsistence depots of the Army would be organized for the subsisting of a large army occupying a great city. The depots were located as near as practicable to the base of supplies and at points accessible to the district dependent upon it for rations and stores. Food supplies arriving at the wharves or railroad freight depots or yards were hauled to the general relief depots and there sorted, classified, and arranged for issue.
Relief supplies would, as a general rule, consist of mixed lots of clothing, food, medicines, and household supplies. The supplies would be of every conceivable variety and packed in every style of package, some marked and some not marked at all. It was necessary to detail experienced officers and clerks at receiving points to separate the supplies and designate those that were to be sent to the general relief depots. Perishable stores would be at once sent out and issued, semiperishable stores would be stored and next issued, while nonperishable stores would be delivered last or stored for reserve use. There
was absolutely no delay in handling freight. As fast as cars or cargoes were received they were promptly unloaded and the supplies hauled to warehouses. This was necessary, as delay in unloading and storing would have caused a congestion of freight. The three general relief depots had a capacity of receiving, storing, and issuing 400,000 rations daily.
The following is a roster of officers who were on duty at receiving points, general relief depots, and at the fresh meat depot:
Headquarters depots of relief subsistence stores:
Folsom street dock:
Southern Pacific freight sheds (Fourth and Townsend streets):
Fresh meat depot (Seventeenth and Harrison streets):
Santa Fe depot:
Warehouse No. 1, Presidio:
Warehouse No. 2, Haslett Warehouse:
Warehouse No. 3, Moulder School:
As the number of destitute and homeless people became less, officers were relieved from duty and the number of clerks and laborers reduced. The Haslett Warehouse was abandoned May 24, 1906.
THE TURNING OVER OF GENERAL RELIEF DUTIES BY THE CIVIL RELIEF COMMITTEE TO THE ARMY.
Under date of April 29, 1906, Major-General Greely, commanding Pacific Division, issued the following order:
* * * * *
[For General Orders, No. 18, here omitted, see p. 146, ante.]
Under date of May 1, 1906, Maj. Lea Febiger, inspector-general, issued the following instructions:
GENERAL SYSTEM OF FILLING REQUISITIONS BY GENERAL RELIEF DEPOTS OF FOOD SUPPLIES.
As seen by General Greely's order, paragraph XIV, and Major Febiger's instructions, the city was divided into relief sections and an officer placed in charge of each section. Each relief section was divided into a number of official relief stations, where food and other supplies were issued to deserving people.
A department of transportation was organized by the quartermaster's department and placed under charge of an officer. The
officer in charge of transportation assigned to each section wagon trains, the number of wagons depending upon the quantities of supplies to be transported and the distance they had to be hauled. In drawing rations the officer in charge of sections would prepare ration returns, showing number of mouths that were to be fed, and submit the approved return to the officer in charge of one of the general relief depots. The rations called for would be loaded into wagons, hauled to the relief stations, and issued to the people as circumstances demanded.
The receiving of supplies from railroads and steamers, the hauling of supplies to general relief depots, the sorting and arranging of stores, and the methods of filling requisitions were based on well-defined army methods and proved simple, expeditious, economical, and effective.
THE ISSUE OF FRESH BEEF.
As the supply of salt and canned meats on hand was not sufficient to make full issues of the meat component of the ration, and to afford variety and prevent scurvy, issues of chilled fresh beef were made three times each week. A central point, conveniently located so that the haul to relief stations would be short, was selected, and a fresh meat depot was established under charge of an officer of the Subsistence Department. The issues of fresh beef were made direct from iced refrigerator cars or from chill rooms of cold-storage plants. The fresh beef was inspected either by an inspector of the United States Department of Agriculture or by an inspector appointed by the president of the Board of Health of San Francisco.
To prevent a congestion of wagons at the issuing point and to insure speedy delivery certain hours were assigned to each relief section, the sections having the longest hauls drawing first. Ration returns calling for fresh beef would be presented, by officers in charge of relief sections or their representatives, to the officer in charge of the fresh meat depot, who would issue the quantity called for. The fresh beef would then be hauled to the relief stations, cut up, and issued, under proper supervision, to the people. The fresh beef depot worked very satisfactorily. Clean wagons, with covers to protect the meat from the sun, flies, and dirt, were always insisted upon. During the months of May and June 1,047,307 pounds of fresh beef, costing $60,957.59, were purchased and paid for from relief and Red Cross funds.
THE ISSUE OF FRESH BREAD.
Fortunately three large bakeries, having a total capacity of approximately 200,000 1-pound loaves of bread, were not destroyed by the earthquake or fire. The bakeries were for a time without light and power, and the work usually done by machinery had to be done by hand. This made the process slow, laborious, and expensive.
Bread was also baked at the post bakeries at Alcatraz Island, Forts Baker, McDowell, and Miley, the Presidio of San Francisco, and at the depot of recruits and casuals, Angel Island. With the hard bread
and crackers pertaining to the relief stores, there has always been a plentiful supply of bread available for issue.
THE ISSUE OF FRESH MILE.
As fresh milk is very perishable and easily contaminated, the supply necessary for babies, children, and women was delivered dairyman, upon proper requisition, direct to the relief station and to hospitals.
SPECIAL DIET ARTICLES FOR HOSPITAL.
Under date of May 5, 1906, Major-General Greely issued the following order:
* * * * *
[For paragraphs 8 and 9, General Orders, No. 23, here omitted, see p. 152, ante.]
The following-named hospitals and charitable institutions were designated by the health commission to receive commissary supplies:
Major-General Greely further ordered, under date of May 10, 1906, as follows:
To provide the necessary special diet articles a special diet department was established at the Moulder warehouse and Dr. George H. Richardson, contract surgeon, United States Army, placed in charge. All articles of food especially suitable for the sick were sorted from
the general stock on hand at the various depots and sent to the special diet department for the exclusive use of the sick. There was available for issue to the sick large quantities of cocoa, chocolate, teas, soups, fancy canned meats, extracts, canned and evaporated fruits, preserves, jellies, canned vegetables, specially prepared foods for infants and invalids, cereals, crackers, etc. Purchases were made of ice, fresh meats, vegetables, oranges, lemons, eggs, butter, milk, bread, and similar fresh stores whenever needed. A large refrigerator, for the preservation of perishable stores, was constructed by the Quartermaster's Department and proved of great benefit.
QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLIES RECEIVED FOR RELIEF PURPOSES.
Relief supplies were received from nearly every State in the Union. There was a great abundance in quantity but the variety was not always suitable. Large quantities of flour and potatoes were received and it was found difficult at times to find storage for the surplus. At times there was only a limited quantity of coffee, sugar, salt, pepper, soap, and candles on hand. The articles received with the 900,000 rations supplied by the Subsistence Department proved of great benefit and helped to make up the deficiency. The sugar-cured meats required careful attention as they had to be carefully handled and stored and quickly issued. Much cooked food, as meats, sandwiches, fresh bread, etc., were unfit for food when received and were destroyed. One carload of dressed meats arrived in such bad condition, due to failure to ice the car, that it was rejected. The meat was inspected by a surgeon and pronounced as unfit for human food.
THE USE OF AUTOMOBILES IN CONNECTION WITH RELIEF WORD.
Especial attention is invited to the value of automobiles where depots are widely scattered and a considerable distance apart. Owing to the number of points where stores were received and the number of depots where stores were issued, it was impossible to keep in direct touch with the work by using the horse as a means of transportation. The automobile solved the problem of rapid transportation. Each station and depot could be visited four times or more daily, besides keeping in touch with the offices of the commanding general, the depot quartermaster, and other administrative officers. For night work, especially under the conditions as existed in San Francisco at the time when the streets were dark and littered with wire, brick, and other obstructions, the automobile, equipped with strong side lights, proved most valuable. The machine was driven over networks of wire, through piles of debris and over obstructions that under ordinary circumstances would have blocked the streets. It would have been impossible to, have ridden a horse through certain streets, yet a machine was driven through without the slightest effort. For quick transportation, and when it is necessary for an officer to be out night and day, no better means of transportation exists than an automobile of the best makes. At no time was the machine out of commission except for a short period, and the delay was easily made up by increasing the speed.
RAILROADS IN CONNECTION WITH RELIEF WORK.
In connection with this report, especial attention is invited to the excellent work performed by the Southern Pacific Company and the Santa Fe system. Food supplies were absolutely necessary to prevent suffering. The railroads opened up their entire systems for the rapid transportation of relief supplies. For weeks their terminals at San Francisco were crowded with cars containing relief supplies. The officials were extremely courteous and obliging and assisted the Subsistence Department in every way possible.
The following data shows the number of cars handled by the Southern Pacific Company:
In closing this report it is desired most earnestly to thank Generals Greely and Funston and the officers of their staffs for the support and advice given in connection with the relief work performed by the Subsistence Department.
Maj. C. A. Devol, quartermaster, depot quartermaster, rendered the department every assistance possible, and the work carried on by the Quartermaster's and Subsistence departments was done in absolute harmony and without the slightest friction.
Capt. L. D. Wildman, chief signal officer, Department of California, performed excellent services in keeping up telegraphic communications between the various receiving points, the general depots, and the various civil and military headquarters.
The relations between Colonel Febiger, chief of the consolidated relief stations, and his officers and the officers of the various general depots were most harmonious, which enabled the work to be carried on without friction and delay.
The commanding officers of the Presidio, Forts Mason and Miley, the commanding officers of troops on duty in the city, and the offi-
cers of the Navy and the Marine Corps rendered every possible assistance in directing the distribution of relief stores and the furnishing of guards, details, etc.
The officers, post commissary-sergeants, and clerks engaged in the relief work performed their duties in a most excellent manner. During the early part of the work they were engaged night and day in extending relief to the destitute and homeless people. No task was too hard, no hours too long, their one aim being to care for the people. For days the officers and men had no opportunity to change their clothes and were compelled to sleep on docks or in freight sheds, The officers in charge of general depots displayed rare executive and administrative ability, and their depots were models of neatness and order. Stores were received and issued with promptitude and dispatch. Excellent care was taken of stores, and the losses by deterioration and waste were kept to a minimum. From the time that the Subsistence Department took charge of the relief subsistence stores until the depots were turned over to the relief commission there was never a day that the general depots did not have a sufficient supply of stores on hand to fill requisitions when called upon to do so.
Attention is invited to report attached hereto showing articles of subsistence stores received, purchased, and issued tinder the provisions of appropriation for relief of sufferers from earthquake and conflagration on Pacific coast; also list of relief stores issued during flay and June, list of stores on hand June 30, and list of store sold by the finance committee, relief and Tied Cross funds, to contractors operating hot meal kitchens.
In closing this report, it is desired to thank the Commissary-General, United States Army, for his loyal support given me in the performance of the duties in extending relief to the people of San Francisco rendered destitute and homeless by the earthquake and fire.
Report of subsistence stores received and issued by Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, purchasing commissary, U. S. A., from April 19, 1906. to June 30. 1906, for relief of sufferers front earthquake and conflagration on the Pacific coast.a
* * * * *
a Itemized list, here omitted, shows articles received, respectively, from Maj. William L. Geary, Lieut. Henry R. Smalley, Lieut.. Howard L. Martin, Capt. Frederick W. Phisterer, Lieut. Offnere Hope, Capt. James B. Gowen, Lieut. George C. Rockwell, Lieut. John K. Hume, Lieut. Elisha G. Abbott, Lieut. Charles A. Clark, Lieut. Col. George B. Davis, Lieut. Avery J. Cooper, Maj. Alexander M. Davis, and Capt. Lawrence B. Simonds, amounting in money value to $194,289.64.
Articles, quantities, and value of subsistence stores on hand for use of the Army, issued for the relief of sufferers from earthquake and conflagration on the Pacific coast.a
* * * * *
Report of subsistence stores purchased by Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, purchasing commissary, U.S.A., from April 19, 1906, to June 30, 1906, for relief of sufferers from earthquake and conflagration on the Pacific coast.b
* * * * *
Total amount money (appropriation relief of sufferers from earthquake and conflagration on the Pacific coast) disbursed during period April 19 to June 30, 1906, inclusive: For supplies, $43,621.89; for wages, $13,188.05; for meals, $193.50; total, $57,003.44.
List of relief subsistence stores issued by Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, commissary, U.S.A., in charge general relief depots, from May 1, 1906, to June 30, 1906.
(Previous to May 1, 1906, the Army did not have entire control of the issues of relief supplies.)
aItemized list, here omitted, shows articles issued, respectively, by Maj. Charles R. Krauthoff, Lieut. Gilbert A. McElroy, Lieut. Frederic C. Test, Lieut. Jarvis J. Bain, Lieut. James L. Long, Lieut. James F. Hall, Lieut. A. M. Wilson, and Capt. Henry T. Ferguson, amounting in money value to $9,444.11.
bItemized list, here omitted, shows purchases amounting in money value to $43,621.69.
cFlour issued to relief stations and bakeries.
Summary of rations (relief subsistence stores) issued by Maj. C. R. Krauthoff, commissary, U.S.A., in charge general relief depots, from May 1, 1906, to June 30, 1906.
List of relief subsistence supplies on hand June 30, 1906, and turned over to the civil relief commission.
List of rations (relief subsistence stores) on hand June 30, 1906, and turned over to the relief commission.
.....a) Excess not required for use; sold by finance committee, relief and Red Cross funds, under public notice date June 6, opened June 18 1906.
List of rations (relief subsistence stores) on hand June 30, 1906, and turned over to the relief commission-Continued.
Money value, as determined by board appointed by finance committee, $8, 317.91.
Report of Lieut. Col. George H. Torney, Medical Department, United States Army.
SIR: In compliance with telegraphic instructions from the Surgeon-General of the Army, Washington, D. C., I have respectfully to submit the following brief narrative statement of the work of the Medical Department, United States Army, which began shortly after the earthquake in San Francisco, Cal., at 5.13 a. m. on the 18th of April, 1906.
At this time, in addition to my duties as commanding officer of the Army General Hospital at the Presidio, I was serving as chief surgeon, Department of California, and because of this fact, among others, the work of the Army Medical Department in a great measure centered around the hospital. In this connection I desire to state that the Army General Hospital was badly wrecked by the earthquake. The power plant was disabled and the water shut off by a break in the pipes of the city water mains. The ward ventilators, heavy brick structures, were thrown upon the roofs of the wards, crushing through the roofs; sheets of plaster fell from the ceilings and walls of all buildings, and all telegraphic and telephonic communications were broken. This, of course, does not describe fully the extent of the damage, but is merely a statement made that the condition of the hospital may be understood.
April 18.-Early on the morning of the 18th of April all available officers of the Medical Department were instructed to hold themselves in readiness for active work. Company B, Hospital Corps, accompanied the troops from the Presidio into the city for active relief work in fighting fire. The actual work of relief for the refugees and sick began at the General Hospital at about 9 a. m., when a relief party in charge of Capt. H. H. Rutherford, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., was dispatched to the city with instructions to give relief where needed and to notify the city authorities that this hospital was open for the care of injured and sick. This was done because from the apparent magnitude of the calamity it was deemed necessary that refuge should at once be offered for the sick and injured. By 1 o'clock on that day 75 patients had been admitted to the hospital from the city, and by 11 o'clock p. m. the total had reached 127.
April 19.-On April 19 145 refugee patients were admitted to the General Hospital, mostly from the hospitals in the city which were either burning or threatened by fire; after that date the number lessened , but patients have been admitted even up to the present. During this day the bed capacity of the wards of the General Hospital having been exhausted, the four barracks of the men of the Hospital Corps were vacated and established as wards. The hospitals at the post of Presidio and Fort Mason were ordered open April 19, and received large numbers of refugee patients.
On the morning of April 19, owing to the great demand on the General Hospital for first-aid work, a tent emergency hospital was organized and established on the plain in front of the hospital reservation, Capt. H. H. Rutherford, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., in charge,
with instructions to advise patients arriving from the city, to direct them to the proper hospitals, and to render assistance, treatment, and first-aid dressings to those on the ground.
April 20 to May 7.-On the morning of April 20 the president of the health commission of the city of San Francisco requested me to act as the head of the sanitary committee which it was proposed to establish in connection with sanitation of the city of San Francisco, this in order that there might be coordinate action between the army and civil authorities. Acting in the capacity of chief surgeon, I presented this request to the division commander, who, at my suggest ion, issued the following order detailing me as chief sanitary officer of the city
I immediately relinquished my command of the General Hospital, transferring it to Capt. James M. Kennedy, assistant surgeon. U. S. A., and upon assuming the duties of chief sanitary officer, I divided the inhabited parts of the city into districts and placed a medical officer in charge of each. Within the first twenty-four hours organized relief and sanitary work began to assume definite shape and assisted many thousands of people who thronged the roads and streets seeking refuge on the Presidio and Fort Mason reservations and Golden Gate Park.
Presidio reservation.-The camps of refuge on the Presidio reservation were place in charge of Capt. H. H. Rutherford, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., who, by the end of the first three days, had perfected an organized relief and sanitary force which constructed concentrated camps, supplying tentage, tools, and necessary camp conveniences for cooking and carrying out sanitary measures after the manner of military camps. This arrangement continued until May 7, when these camps were turned over, by direction of the division commander, to the control of the officers of the line.
Golden Gate Park.-Practically this same arrangement obtained in Golden Gate Park under the charge of Capt. A. E. Truby, assistant . surgeon, U. S. A., the camps in that part developing into permanent institutions under essentially the same methods of administration.
Fort Mason.-First Lieut. John A. Murtagh, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., was placed in charge of the district immediately surrounding Fort Mason, and was instrumental in procuring supplies and tentage for the refugees in that locality.
Small city parks.-First Lieut. R. U. Patterson, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., was detailed as sanitary officer of the small parks through out the city and in this capacity rendered valuable assistance in relieving much distress amongst the refugees.
Post of Presidio.-In the post of Presidio the medical officers on post duty rendered valuable assistance, not only in professional services given, but in assisting the refugees in every possible manner.
Company A, Hospital Corps.-Company A, Hospital Corps, on its arrival in San Francisco, was ordered to Golden Gate Park and a hospital established by Capt. H. L. Gilchrist, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., who, with exceptional industry and ability, soon placed this hospital in order and established a model institution and began almost immediately to receive patients from the surrounding camps and the hospitals in the city.
Permanent camps.-The health commission of the city has selected sites for permanent camps, ten of which have already been established. Four of these camps are located on the Presidio reservation and are on the same sites as those originally selected by Captain Rutherford when he organized the refugees. Between the Presidio and Fort Mason two large camps have been established, and the erection of a third one is contemplated on the Fort Mason reservation. It is proposed to establish a camp in Franklin Square, corner Sixteenth and Bryant streets. In Golden Gate Park one large barrack was constructed by the Citizens' Relief Committee, and at this barrack have been erected the sanitary troughs sent to this city by the War Department. At the suggestion of the sanitary officers it is now proposed to place these sanitary troughs at all permanent camps, and, carrying out the system for sanitary and economic measures originally recommended by the medical officers, these camps will contain only community kitchens, large kitchens corresponding to company kitchens in military camps. Under the proposed scheme these camps will be in charge of an officer of the line, and a commissioned medical officer of the Army will perform the duties of sanitary inspector and attending surgeon, with a civilian physician as assistant.
Contagious hospital.- On April 21, by authority of the Mayor of San Francisco, Harbor View Park, adjacent to the Presidio reservation, with tents, bedding, and hospital appliances, was established as a hospital for contagious diseases, under the control of Capt. H. H. Rutherford, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., Dr. K. A. J. Mackenzie, of Portland, Oreg., with an ample corps of assistants, nurses, and attendants, being placed in immediate charge. This plant was selected as a place for contagious diseases because of its admirable facilities in the possession of its own water supply, a large pavilion which could be used to accommodate 200 patients, and its own laundry. In this hospital cases of measles, scarlet fever, and diphtheria have been received and cared for. This is still under the control of the chief sanitary officer, but will be abandoned to-day and the patients transferred to the charge of the hospitals in the city.
Medical supply depot.-On April 19 requests for supplies were received from hospitals in the city and various camps, and these were furnished freely from the storeroom of the General Hospital, which was at that moment well equipped for all purposes. On April 21 a medical supply depot was improvised within the grounds of the General Hospital, Lieut. Col. L. Brechemin, deputy surgeon-general, U. S. A., medical supply officer, in charge, the entire stock of medical supplies in the city of San Francisco having been destroyed by fire. All medical supplies except those in the dispensary of the General Hospital were turned over to him for issue to authorized applicants, in addition to which he made purchases of relief stores in accordance with telegraphic instructions from the Surgeon-General of the Army. This small depot remained on the ground until April 28,
when a larger establishment was organized east of the General Hospital reservation, which at this time has grown into an institution fully capable of meeting every demand made upon it. Vaccine virus is being received at this depot at the rate of 3,500 points per day and is being distributed on requisitions by the civil and army surgeons.
Free dispensaries.-At my suggestion to the health commission of the municipality, twenty, six free dispensaries have been established in the city and are receiving their supply of medicines from the medical supply depot of the Army.
Summary.-In conclusion, I desire to state that the magnitude of the disaster to the city of San Francisco, which occurred on April 18, 1906, was from the very moment of the calamity fully appreciated, and the necessary orders given by me to the officers of the Medical Department for measures of immediate relief not only to the sick and injured, but to the stricken multitude which called upon them for material assistance from the supplies under their control and those furnished to the General Hospital from the Quartermaster's Department, under charge of Maj. C. A. Devol, quartermaster, U. S. A., and from the Commissary Department, under charge of Maj. Charles It. Krauthoff, Subsistence Department, United States Army. This by order of Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, U. S. A., commanding Pacific Division at that time.
After the pressing wants of the refugees had been met the problem of sanitation was paramount, as the large mains of the Spring Valley Water Company, which supplied the city with water, had been badly damaged, and the sewer system of the municipality seriously impaired-an extraordinary condition, which menaced the health of the whole population and required the enforcement of coercive measures to prevent a large class of people from proving, because of ignorance of sanitation, a danger to the whole community. In overcoming this danger the power granted me by General Funston, in the order quoted above, enabled the Medical Department of the Army, working in conjunction with the health commission of the city of San Francisco, to act promptly and effectively in solving at least the emergency problems of sanitation which presented. Paragraph 5, General Orders, No. 18, headquarters Pacific Division, April 29, 1906, modified the order mentioned continuing in force the arrangement whereby cooperation with the health authorities of the city was effected. This arrangement terminated this (late by mutual agreement between the health commission and myself, as the Board of Health of the city is now in full control of its sanitation, except in the permanent refugee camps, within the limits of which military control is exercised by the commanding general, Pacific Division.
As chief sanitary officer, I will hereafter act under the, provisions of General Orders, No. 29, headquarters Pacific Division, May 13, 1906, which was received this date.
The general health of the city may be considered good. The sanitation of the municipality proper is now little, if any, different from that existing under normal conditions, as the water in the city system is now being supplied freely and defects in the sewers corrected as rapidly as possible. In refugee camps on the Presidio the sanitation is as good as could be expected of a population of the character inhabiting the camps. The same may be said of the other camps. It is
hoped that this may be improved from day to day, as facilities are furnished for that purpose.
The sanitary inspectors acting under my immediate orders were Capt. W. T. Davidson, First Lieut. R. E. Noble, First Lieut. R. U. Patterson, and First Lieut. C. D. Buck, assistant surgeons, U. S. A.; First Lieut. John H. Allen, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., acting in capacity of adjutant. All of these officers rendering at all times most reliable service.
This report has been necessarily very brief and will be elaborated at a future date.
Report of First Lieut. John R. Devereux, Medical Department, United States Army.
SIR: In compliance with instructions of the division commander, I have the honor to make the following report on the subject of typhoid fever and smallpox
We have an account of 99 cases of typhoid fever; of these 99 cases 4 cases occurred prior to April 18; of the 95 remaining cases 30 originated in April, 55 in May, and 10 in June. Of these 95 cases there are remaining 49 either in hospitals or in private houses, 17 have died, and 33 have been discharged as cured. Of the 49 remaining cases there are 4 in the United States General Hospital that are, to all intents and purposes, cured cases, so that practically we have but 45 cases of typhoid fever remaining in the city. Of the total number of cases reported there have only been 5 that were derived from the permanent camps whose residence was sufficiently long to have made their infection possible at these camps.
The monthly statistics here given will differ considerably from those of the health department of this city, inasmuch as they consider a case reported in any particular month as being " an admitted case for the month," whereas all of the 99 cases have been carefully analyzed, taking into consideration the day reported, the length of time sick previous, etc., and from this data was determined their proper "day of admission."
3 The United States General Hospital and the United States Field Hospital have had a total of 26 cases treated in their hospitals, with deaths. One of these, which occurred at the United States Field Hospital, was admitted at 6 o'clock one evening and died next morning. The mortality for all cases is high.
Statistics from the State Board of Health show that the average number of admissions per month for the past two years have been 12. Comparing this with the figures given above it will be seen that the month of April showed 30 cases, not one of which was infected as
a result of any of the conditions following the disaster, for the reason that the period between April 18 and May 1 was less than the shortest period of incubation.
Smallpox.-Of the smallpox cases there were admitted in the smallpox hospital in the month of April 74 cases, with 9 deaths; during the month of May 41 admissions, 2 deaths; during the month of June to date there have been 8 new cases admitted, no deaths, and 25 cases remaining in hospital. The total number of cases therefore is 123, with 11 deaths.
There have been approximately in permanent camps 15,000 people, and only one case has originated in a camp under our control. The health department gives me a report of 5 cases as having been taken from camps. An analysis of those cases will show them to have originated either before we took charge or them not to have been at what we now call " permanent camps."
Report of Capt. Meriwether L. Walker, Corps of Engineers, United States Army.
FORT MASON, CAL., May 11, 1906.
GENERAL: I have the honor to make the following report concerning operations of engineer troops during the recent earthquake and fire
1. At about 5.15 a. m., April 18, 1906, I was awakened by terrific shaking of the house and rushed out. Upon inspection the damage to my house appeared very slight, and I concluded that it was not a really severe shock and returned to my bed and fell asleep.
2. About 6.45 a. m., April 18, 1906, I was awakened by a call at my door, and found a civilian who said General Funston, department commander, ordered that I bring all available men to the Hall of Justice at once and report to the Mayor for duty, as the city was all in flames. Assuming that the message was all straight, I dressed hurriedly and sent orders for all officers and men to turn out in field equipment and 20 rounds of ball ammunition. The command, 5 officers and 150 men, moved out at 7.15 a. m., about, leaving 1 officer and necessary guard and working force to keep kitchens, quartermaster, commissary, and stables running.
3. At about 7.45 a. m., April 18, 1906, I reported to Mayor Schmitz at the Hall of Justice. He directed me to protect public and private property, and that I should go to the extent of taking life if necessary. The troops were disposed as follows: C Company, Captain Kelly, Lieutenants Barber and Emerson, and 75 enlisted men, protecting the banking district along Montgomery street and east for about three blocks. D Company, Captain Walker and Lieutenant Ehrn beck and 75 enlisted men, covering Market street and one block north and south from Third street to the City Hall, where were some $7,000,000 of city funds.
4. This disposition was preserved until 6 p. m., April 18, 1906, although many other troops came into the same localities, and every one joined in the work of guarding property and protecting citizens from their own rashness in going into and around burning and burned buildings, and preserving order. No effort at fighting the fire was practicable, as there was no water and no dynamite.
5. At 6 p. m., having in the meantime been directed to report to Colonel Morris, Artillery Corps, for orders, we were withdrawn, and the two companies patrolled Van Ness avenue and the five streets west thereof from the burned district about Golden Gate avenue to the sea.
6. At noon on April 19, 1906, we were hurriedly withdrawn by the department commander and returned to the post for sanitary work in connection with camps for refugees in the vicinity, and also to protect the post in case of fire. In the meantime the headquarters of both Pacific Division and Department of California had been established at Fort Mason.
7. The night of the 19th and all day of the 20th people poured in upon us so fast that we were swamped. My men and officers were exhausted, having been steadily on the go for forty hours, and all were turned in for rest, a company of the 22d Infantry taking guard of the post about 10 p. m. the 19th.
8. About 7 p. m. the 19th I sent an officer to Admiral Goodrich, commanding naval forces, on the Chicago, and requested the use of a fire boat if it could be obtained. He had one report to me early on the 20th, and she took station at our wharf and laid two lines of hose up the hill. A fire engine and more hose were obtained from the city, and as I had sufficient fresh water in my tanks to run the engine, the fire danger to the post was past. We, however, made arrangements to demolish all buildings near the post if necessary.
9. All day of the 20th the fire burned fiercely toward the post, and the fire department made use of my arrangements for water by relaying the salt water with their engines for about three-quarters of a mile up Van Ness avenue, their engines being supplied with fresh water and coal hauled from the post by post teams. I am of the opinion that this was largely instrumental in saving the west side of Van Ness avenue. By 9 p. m. the 20th the fire in this locality was under control and all danger past.
10. Saturday morning the condition confronted us of more than 20,000 people practically without food, water, or shelter, and all energies were bent toward remedying this, the medical officers having taken up the matter of sanitation. Conference with the navy developed that they could bring down from Vallejo ammunition barges carrying 50,000 gallons of water. This they promptly did, and they also installed a hand pump on the dock, and there was immediately ample fresh water for drinking and cooking. As soon as a barge was emptied, the navy would send in another.
11. A relief steamer from Stockton came in Saturday night and delivered quite a large supply of provisions and 1,500 blankets, and a little later a tug arrived with supplies of canned goods. A distribution station was opened at the flagstaff and these supplies issued to applicants, each person being given enough for a good substantial meal. The 20th and 21st, issues were made three times a day, and after that only twice per day.
12. In addition each one of the companies doubled their kitchen forces, ran night and day, and fed the refugees hot meals as far as could be done. Every effort was made to secure tents and bedding, and issues were made as soon as any were secured. The D Company kitchen established a mess for officers and civilian employees of the headquarters, where about 250 people were fed daily.
13. In the meantime C Company had entirely vacated its quarters, wherein a hospital was established, and D Company had turned almost all of its quarters over to women, children, and old men.
14. The next week, from the 20th to the 29th, was spent in feeding and caring for the people, as outlined above, the usual guard duties being carried on and much police work being done. The enlisted men were assisted by about eight civilians employed in the D Company kitchen by the department quartermaster, and also by six men for police work.
15. During this period the dock here was used as a shipping point for getting the refugees out of the city, and thousands were taken away each day, there being several steamers plying regularly, including one of the large ferry boats.
16. By the 29th the number of people around here was tremendously reduced and nearly all had been concentrated in a camp established by the 22d Infantry in the large grass lot which forms part of the reservation. A regular water supply was arranged by the Government steamer Mifflin pumping our tanks full every day, and issues of rations to refugees were largely cut down and the number fed at the company mess much reduced.
17. Conditions remained the same until Thursday, May 2, when the Department of California moved headquarters to the Presidio, and the Pacific Division followed them on the 3d. At this same time a permanent relief station was established within a block of the post, all relief supplies were turned over, and all issues here ceased.
18. Since that date the command here has been engaged in making repairs around the post, going over property, and otherwise endeavoring to straighten out conditions. All storerooms had to be thrown open for occupancy by sick and injured people, nurses, and physicians, and endeavor is being made to recover property and cut down losses to a minimum.
19. On April 22 Captain Kelly and Lieutenant Emerson were by me put on duty with the division engineer, with a view of rehabilitating the city water supply. Afterwards the military authorities not having gotten charge of the water supply, these officers were assigned the construction of a permanent camp for refugees on Lobos Square, Captain Kelly being in charge. This work was brilliantly carried out, and the camp, which accommodates about 3,000 people, is practically completed, all tents being floored, and cook and mess houses constructed and ranges installed. Owing to the confusion, the difficulty of getting any material was very great, and too much credit can not be given for the manner in which material was rustled and this work done.
20. On May 6, 1906, I was ordered to turn out a detachment to demolish ruined buildings which were threatening transportation lines which it was desirable to open at once. Lieutenant Emerson and twelve enlisted men were detailed for this work. Upon arrival down town, Captain Harts, Engineer Corps, joined the party, he
having some time before been put on this duty and not relieved. Two buildings were taken down, the second one falling unexpectedly and catching Battalion Quartermaster-Sergeant Robbins, who was a volunteer, in the ruins. An eight-story front fell directly upon him while he was in the basement. Falling metal beams and fire escape, protected him, and when dug out he had not a bone broken, was merely bruised, and is to-day up and around. His escape was nothing short of miraculous.
21. On May 7 and 8, 1906, I was myself present with the detail working in conjunction with Captain Harts; owing to the dangerous character of this work, volunteers were called for, and the previous detail volunteered. All work desired of us was accomplished without loss or injury to either person or property.
22. We are now down to garrison duty again, except that Captain Kelly is putting the finishing touches to his camp, and Lieutenant Barber and five men are on detached service at division headquarters where they have been since May 3.
23. I can not speak too highly of the conduct of the officers an men tinder me during this trying period. Every one has worked day and night, not a shirker or grumbler in the crowd, and not have spared themselves. A list of men deserving special commendation would be almost a duplicate of our rolls. Special reports by a officers will be submitted in due time, and any special recommendations will be submitted after perusal of them.
24. I have had a photographer out continuously since the quake and fire, and a number of pictures have been obtained which give a excellent idea of the extent and character of damage, one being panoramic view of the burned district. Owing to lack of water, these can not be forwarded now, but will be made the subject of special report.
Report of Capt. Le Vert Coleman, Artillery Corps, United States Army.
SIR: Pursuant to accompanying orders from the department commander under date of the 8th instant, I have the honor to submit a report of all the operations of the dynamiting party under my charge in the city of San Francisco during the recent earthquake and fire. This report I have made as complete as possible, citing the authority given for the demolitions, which was in every case derived from the Mayor of San Francisco, through his duly authorized representative, or from the Mayor in person.
The operations of my party comprised two separate and distinct parts
First, the checking of the fire in the city of San Francisco by the use of dynamite and other high explosives. This was performed from about 9 a. in., April 18, 1906, to about 3 p. m., April 21, 1906.
Second, the destruction of dangerous standing walls in the principal thoroughfares of the city of San Francisco immediately after the earthquake and fire. This was performed from 7 a. in. Monday, the 23d of April, to 1 p. m. Monday, the 30th of April, 1906.
About 6.30 a. m. the morning of the earthquake, April 18, 1906, the fire department of the city of San Francisco sent a messenger to the Presidio requesting that all available explosives, with a detail to handle them, be sent to check the fire, as the earthquake had broken the water mains and the fire department was practically helpless. I reported with the messenger to the commanding officer, Col. Charles Morris, Artillery Corps, reporting the amount and kind of explosives under my charge as ordnance officer. Colonel Morris directed me to get the suitable explosives in readiness. First Lieut. Raymond All. Briggs was detailed to report to me with four field battery caissons to convey explosives to the city. I then sent about forty-eight barrels of powder in these caissons, under charge of Lieutenant Briggs, to the Mayor. As the caissons, however, were not suited to carrying large amounts of explosives in the form required for demolitions, I procured two large wagons, and loading them with all the remaining powder and with about 300 pounds of dynamite obtained from civilian employees of the Engineer Department-the only dynamite procurable at that time-I reported to Colonel Morris on O'Farrell street. By his orders I immediately reported to the Mayor at the Hall of Justice. Here I found Lieutenant Briggs with the powder I had sent, and also a large supply of dynamite provided by Mr. Birmingham, of the California Powder Works. General Funston and the Mayor, who were both present at the time, placed me in charge of handling all the explosives.
At this time Lieutenant Briggs had begun dynamiting buildings on Montgomery street under orders from the Mayor, and a member of the fire department was also doing some dynamiting on Montgomery street.a * * * Lieutenant Briggs and a few enlisted men I had brought with me, and a few others who had come with the powder caissons and assisted Lieutenant Briggs on Montgomery street, were the only then available to assist me in the work required. From time to time some citizens assisted us, but they soon left.
The authority for demolitions was in every case derived from the Mayor or his representatives. During all of the 18th and until the afternoon of the 19th the city authorities withheld their permission to blow up any buildings, except those in immediate contact with others already ablaze. Consequently, although we were able to check the fire at certain points, it outflanked its time and again, and all our work had to be begun over in front of the fire. It was soon found that dynamite produced the best results, and, except a small amount of gun cotton, no other explosive was used.
At the request of the city, authorities, represented by the Chief of Police, the black powder, together with some giant powder (granular
a Some strictly personal matter omitted,
dynamite with active base, unsuited to use on account of its liability to ignite combustible articles in buildings where it might be used), was temporarily stored in the Fairmount Hotel inclosure for the use of the police and fire departments, who at that time contemplated using it as a last resort. This was about 6 p. m. the 18th. As I was opposed to the use of this kind of explosive on account of its great liability to ignite buildings demolished by it, I desired to remove it from the city, but the police desired it, and I therefore turned it over to them. I took a memorandum receipt from the Mayor for this powder. I showed the police how to protect the powder barrels from sparks by the use of wet paulins, and turned over to them the necessary wire firing machines and electric detonators for using with this powder in case they decided to do so.
Up to this time the following demolitions had been made by my party: Buildings from Clay to California streets, between Sansome and Montgomery streets; east side of Montgomery street at corner of Commercial street; buildings on Commercial street, between Montgomery and Kearney; buildings at and near the southeast corner of Kearney and Clay. These were demolished under the immediate supervision of Lieutenant Briggs and on directions from the Mayor and his representatives. In this connection attention is invited to the report of Lieutenant Briggs, hereto appended and marked F.
Buildings in Chinatown on Commercial, between Dupont and Kearney, two houses at the request of members of the fire department with whom the Mayor had requested us to cooperate.
Here the supply of stick dynamite entirely gave out, and for several hours none could be obtained. By request of the Mayor and authority of the commanding general two boat loads of dynamite were finally obtained from Pinola for the use of my party. The energy and resourcefulness of Lieutenant Briggs were of the greatest value in securing this dynamite, as, in spite of the Mayor's orders to secure it for our party, it was not forthcoming. By this time the Mayor gave permission to take more drastic measures to stop the fire, which was steadily gaining ground and threatening the entire city, including the Western Addition. Having crossed the broad avenue of Van Ness, which had been selected as a last stand by the fire department, the fire began to eat its way on several blocks west of Van Ness. Resuming operations on the east side of Franklin street, we demolished all the buildings on that side of Franklin, between Clay street and Sutter street, except the wooden buildings between Pine and Bush. This regular order was not followed out at the time, but buildings were blown up in the order in which the existing conditions of wind and the encroachments of the fire demanded as most urgent. Colonel Morris, Artillery Corps, commanding that portion of the existing territorial districts of the city, was consulted in all this, and in every instance the general authority for demolitions as given by the Mayor was adhered to. A rapid survey of passing conditions was made before each series of demolitions, those houses whose demolition would check the fire were selected; authority was obtained from Colonel Morris. All this was directly in accordance with the wishes of the city authorities.
The fire department at this place and time was utterly helpless mid unable to meet the situation. To illustrate the condition of affairs.
about 9 p. m., this, the 19th ultimo, the water supply gave almost completely out. I could not at first understand this, as I knew that provision had been made before this for repairing breaks in the mains. We were urgently in need of water to keep down the heat of the fire, and I found that the engines of the fire department near by did not have steam up for lack of fuel. Unloading some of my dynamite wagons I procured the fuel for the engines, and after a considerable delay at a time when water was most urgently needed steam was made and the engines resumed their work. Time and again the fire outflanked my small party and we were importuned by numerous property owners looking after their own interests. But the work as outlined was carried out successfully, and by getting ahead of the fire on Franklin and demolishing houses between Franklin and Van Ness on the north side of Sutter, the fire was finally stopped.
While we were operating on Franklin urgent demands for help came from the city authorities and fire department on Broadway and North Van Ness, where the fire was out of control and threatening to outflank us. I sent some men with Lieutenant Briggs to attend to that, while I continued on Franklin and its cross streets. Working in this way at opposite ends of the fire we demolished the following: Clay street, south side, from Franklin to Claus Spreckles' house; Sacramento, between Franklin and Van Ness, several houses; California street, both sides, from Franklin to Van Ness; Pine street and Van Ness, two corner houses and the north side of Pine from Van Ness to Franklin; Sutter street, north side, Franklin to Van Ness. The wooden buildings at and near the southwest corner of Austin and Franklin caught fire, and the water supply being poor and the fire department tired out, the fire started to get behind us toward Gough street. In order to head off the fire, in accordance with the preconcerted plan authorized by the Mayor, I obtained authority from Colonel Morris to demolish the two wooden houses of flimsy construction and highly inflammable nature fronting on Gough, on the east side of Gough, between Pine and Austin. As the corner of Pine and Gough (southeast corner) was a vacant lot, and as the massive stone structure of Trinity Church on Gough, Bush, and Austin would check the flames, this demolition of the two little wooden structures would absolutely stop the fire coming up front Austin and Franklin. One of these wooden houses, the one next to Pine street, was accordingly demolished, but before the other could be prepared the fire department, which had succeeded in putting out the fire at Austin and Franklin, called for help at Sutter, where the fire was getting out of control, having gotten out of hand while the fire department was working at Austin. This wooden building was the only house whose debris was not actually burned by the fire, and its demolition was imperatively demanded by the conditions existing at the time, though a change in the course of the fire left its debris and the two adjacent houses unburned.
At the other end of the fire the following demolitions were made, acting under the same authority: North side Broadway, between Larkin and Van Ness; on east side of Van Ness, two houses north of Broadway; southeast corner Pacific and Van Ness, two houses.
On the next day the following demolitions were made in the North Beach district, acting under the same general instructions from the
Mayor (the exact localities of these demolitions are not so definitely known, as I am not familiar With this part of town, and the fire which subsequently swept over it from Russian hill obliterated all definite trace of our work) : Buildings on and near southeast corner of Greenwich street and Montgomery avenue; along Lombard street, between Powell and Stockton; along Lombard, between Powell and Mason; Chestnut street, between Powell and Mason; south side of Francisco street, east of and near Mason. In this work we tried to head off the fire along successive lines and seemed on the point of success when another fire from the direction of Russian Hill swept back of us and I received instructions from the commanding general to cease operations in that section of the city and report to the Mayor for more work on Van Ness.
Having reported personally to Mayor Schmitz, I received instructions to get ready to demolish everything left standing on the east side of Van Ness. This I did, and under orders from the Mayor prepared the charges and laid them in the house at the northeast corner of Van Ness and Union, and in the next house on the east side of Van Ness. These were blown up on the Mayor's orders, but the fire found no further fuel in the vacant lots near by along the east of Van Ness and the cross streets, and further operations were not required. On the 21st instant, under orders from General Funston, I stored the unused dynamite at Fort Mason after carefully collecting it.
This completes the account of all operations during the fire. Those subsequent are treated of in Part II of this report.
PART II.-DYNAMITING OF DANGEROUS STANDING WALLS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE FIRE.
I have the honor to render the following report of the operations of the dynamiting party under my charge in demolishing unsafe walls in the principal thoroughfares of the city of San Francisco from the 23d to the 30th of April, 1906
On the afternoon of April 22, 1906, I received orders from General Funston, at that time commanding the Pacific Division, that, upon request of the Mayor of San Francisco, I should report with First Lieut. Raymond W. Briggs, Artillery Corps, at division headquarters at 7 a. m., the 23d of April, to meet the representatives of the Mayor and receive instructions concerning the demolition of dangerous walls left standing by the fire and earthquake in the principal thoroughfares of the city of San Francisco.
Pursuant to this order, I took the enlisted men who had volunteered for the dynamiting party during the fire, viz : Master Electrician John L. Davis, Artillery Corps; Electrician Sergt. Winfield S. Williams, Artillery Corps; Electrician Sergt. Albert E. Jenkins, Artillery Corps, and Corpl. John E. McSweeney, 66th Company Coast artillery, with some additional helpers from the 38th and 60th Companies Coast Artillery, and proceeded With Lieutenant Briggs, Artillery Corps, to Fort Mason, reporting at division headquarters at 7 a. in. the 23d ultimo.
Here I received instructions from Capt. Frank L. Winn, aide-de-camp to the commanding general, to get everything in readiness for the work of demolition which I was to perform entirely in accordance
with detailed instructions in each case from a duly authorized representative of the Mayor, who was to accompany me throughout the operations of the party.
The subcommittee of the Committee of Fifty, known as the Restoration of Buildings Committee, were directed by the Mayor to take charge of and supervise the demolitions. This committee comprised the following members: Mr. J. A. Deneen, chairman; Mr. George F. Duffey; Mr. J. Mahoney; Mr. W. H. Leahy, secretary.
Mr. Leahy having arrived at division headquarters, Captain Winn repeated my orders and instructions in his presence and directed me to proceed with Mr. Leahy, who would take the party to the headquarters of the Restoration of Buildings Committee. Here Mr. George F. Duffey joined us and, with Lieutenant Briggs, Mr. Leahy, and myself, made a rapid inspection of the dangerous walls which the city desired demolished. The committee above named had already made a critical inspection of the walls and designated those which were to be demolished. Mr. Duffey had a list of all these in writing and he was designated to accompany the demolition party at all times and to instruct one as to exactly what walls or parts of walls were to be destroyed. Accordingly, after the rapid inspection of the work to be clone, we began operations on Market street.
Mr. Duffey was with me throughout and no work was done without a detailed and written order given by him as the authoritative representative of the Mayor. I will acid here that at all times the most perfect understanding existed between Mr. Duffey and the other gentlemen of his committee and myself, and while I deferred throughout in every detail to their wishes, they gave me every assistance and courtesy, without which the work could not have proceeded. Mr. Duffey provided transportation, tools, and men for handling the wet sand used in tamping the charges, furnished police patrols for clearing the streets during the blasting, and in every way assisted me in the work.
The following is a list of the dangerous walls demolished. The orders therefor are hereto appended as exhibits marked A, B, C. and D:
Bare Brothers, Market street; Odd Fellows building walls, Market street; Prager's building, Market and Jones, opposite Hibernia Bank; Sterling Furniture Company's building; walls of building south side of Market street and west of Sixth; buildings on Market street immediately opposite hale Brothers; buildings on Market street opposite Mason; Cook building, Market street; Columbia building, Market street; Academy of Sciences, Market street; Phelan building, Market and O'Farrell; buildings on Market street opposite Grant avenue; Examiner building; Winchester building, Third near Market street; Masonic Temple, Montgomery and Post streets: buildings fronting on Market street, entire block opposite Sansome; Donohoe building, Market street, Taylor and Sixth streets; Buckley building, Market street, and the two walls east of same, corner Market and Spear streets; walls on north side of Market street, between Battery and Sansome; on Market opposite Davis; the Baker-Hamilton corner, and corner of Market and Drum streets; also the Williams building on Market street; walls of the Marie Antoinette, Van Ness avenue; walls of the Concordia Club, Van Ness avenue, and
O'Brien building on northwest corner of Polk and Golden Gate avenue.
The above is a complete list of the demolitions of dangerous standing walls. Each one is covered by the orders hereto appended, marked A, B, C, and D. It is seen that in each case a written order for the demolition was given by the duly authorized representative of the Mayor. All the above walls were in such a condition as to threaten the lives of passers-by, and in each case the work was done to render the thoroughfares safe and to prevent loss of life. Reports of loss of life from falling parts of walls had already been circulated, and the prevailing fresh winds and frequent temblors which followed the earthquake increased daily the danger of loss of life from this cause. To illustrate the actual condition of the walls-while preparing the lead wires for the charge laid in the Phelan building, and having just left the foot of the wall which was to be demolished, two stories of the wall fell about the spot where the party had just laid the charge and before it could be fired; again, while laying the charge for the demolition of the Masonic Temple, a decided temblor caused a number of bricks to fall about the party, striking one of the men on the leg. The demolition of standing walls demanded, of course, much greater care than the demolition of entire buildings made in the path of the fire. There being but fragments of the walls standing, damp sand had to be used to secure as much tamping effect as possible and thus reduce to a minimum the amount of dynamite used in any particular demolition. Bank vaults, badly shaken and sometimes cracked by earthquake and fire, had to be carefully protected from falling walls. During the first day's work, with the object of reducing the effect of concussion and flying debris to a minimum, such small charges of explosive were used that my party narrowly escaped being buried by portions of walls left in a tottering condition by the successive demolition with reduced charges of adjacent sections of walls. The walls had to be attacked where sufficient resistance and tamping effect could be secured to transmit the force of the explosion to all parts of the wall to be demolished, otherwise, of course, only a local hole would be blown in the wall. While the dangerous upper part of the walls was weak, the part which had to be attacked was strong, as all the walls we blew up were the largest and consequently the most dangerous walls left by earthquake and fire, and likewise the work most difficult to blow up. A weak and tottering structure at the summit frequently presented the heaviest granite base with heavy stonework extending to the second story. The results of the first day's work showed that, in order to avoid unnecessary loss of life, sections of wall adjacent to each other must be blown down together, and, as my orders were first of all to avoid loss of life and then injury to property, the charge was so regulated in each case as to be the least charge which would demolish at one time the section of wall ordered destroyed. The obvious necessity of this course was, I am convinced, borne out by the results; no injury whatever was received either by the men of my party or by passers-by or citizens, except two slight injuries, over the cause of which I had no control, viz, one of my men was struck by a brick flung from a wall by the force of a temblor, and one citizen was slightly bruised by a flying fragment after forcibly resisting the
police and passing through the cordon established around a wall which was being blown up.
Owing to the nervous condition of the people after the earthquake and fire, their ignorance of the nature of high explosives, increased by misleading reports of alarmists, some difficulty and delay was experienced, especially the first day. After the work had progressed favorably, and especially when the bankers saw that their vaults were being saved from heavy masses of falling walls by demolitions so carried out as to make the threatening walls fall away from their vaults, little difficulty was experienced. To illustrate this feeling and at the same time to set right certain incorrect newspaper reports, the following is cited: On Monday, the 23d instant, we blew up the front wall of Bare Brothers, on Market street, and were preparing to demolish Prager's when a citizen representing the Post-Office Department came to me stating that the men employed in the post-office were very much alarmed when they heard the explosion, fearing that they might be injured by falling fragments. The representative of the mint reported the same thing. I stopped operations and referred them to Mr. Duffey. Together we then went to the Mayor, and Mr. Duffey explained to him in my presence that we had been asked to stop work by the post-office representative for fear of a panic among the post-office employees, who were threatening to abandon their work. The Mayor, after consideration of the matter, ordered Mr. Duffey to proceed with the work, and if the post-office people got nervous to allow them plenty of time to remove their employees from the building. We then returned to the Prager building and informed the post-office representative of these orders. It was also explained to him that we were using the smallest practicable charges; that we were sufficiently far from the post-office to avoid any injury to it except the possible breaking of window glass left closed on the nearest face of the building. He then removed his men from the building, and we waited until we received word that he was ready before proceeding with our work. As in this demolition of Prager's dangerous walls the walls of the Hibernia Bank building, immediately across the narrow width of Jones street, were entirely uninjured, thereby saving the vaults with their enormous savings deposits, and as the same is true in the case of the demolition of the Odd Fellows Hall, which was so conducted as to leave uninjured and protected . from falling walls the Grant building with its important bank vaults, it is evident that these explosions could not have damaged the post-office building, which was very much farther away, except by breaking panes of glass in windows left closed by the post-office employees after warning had been given them. These facts are mentioned in detail in view of the entirely erroneous statements made in the newspapers on this subject. Mr. Leahy, fortunately, had been through the post-office after the fire and earthquake and before the blasting and also shortly after the blasting; his attention was called in my presence to the erroneous reports circulated about the post-office. and he denied them most emphatically as a result of his knowledge of the condition of the building both before and after the blasting. Furthermore, the Mayor informed Mr. Duffey, Lieutenant Briggs, and myself at the close of our work that the Bankers' Association, who had at first been opposed to the use of any dynamite downtown on
account of their safe-deposit vaults, had, at the completion of our work, passed a resolution of thanks for our work, and especially for the careful way in which the dangerous walls had been blown up so as to avoid touching in any case their safe-deposit vaults. Several earthquake shocks took place while we were actually at work, and alarmed and nervous parties many blocks out of reach of any flying fragments came to me, claiming that bricks had fallen in their neighborhood, when a careful comparison of time and place showed that these fragments had come front an earthquake shock. The first few days there were one or two complaints from property holders, objecting to have walls demolished. These were in every case courteously referred to Mr. Duffey on the spot. After the arrival of General Greely I was summoned to division headquarters and my orders repeated with especial caution to use every means to protect life and property and to do nothing without a written order from the Mayor's representative on the spot, Mr. Duffey. These orders were in letter and spirit faithfully carried out.
On the morning of April 26, learning that erroneous statements had been made concerning the operations of my party, together with mistaken complaints made without my knowledge or that of Mr. Duffey, the Mayor's representative, I reported the matter to him. He immediately reported the matter to the buildings committee, who in turn reported it to the Mayor and the Committee of Fifty. At the executive session of the Committee of Fifty held that morning, my presence was required, all work of my party being suspended. The subject of demolishing dangerous walls was then brought up, the meeting being presided over by the Mayor. The committee on buildings was heard on the subject and the matter thrown open to discussion, after which the Mayor and Committee of Fifty, by unanimous vote, gave a vote of confidence to the subcommittee on buildings, to which Mr. Duffey belongs, assumed all financial responsibility for the work done by my party under the orders of the subcommittee, and voted the thanks of the city to Lieutenant Briggs and myself for the work done both during and after the fire.
I am compelled to thus record the matter, as the pressure of other work has made it impossible for the secretary of the committee to furnish me with the record of the minutes. This has been promised me by the committee for the purpose of protecting myself and the party under my charge against unjust complaints from parties made for selfish motives.
I hereto append as Exhibit E a letter from the chairman of the buildings committee on this subject; the minutes of the proceedings of the Committee of Fifty I have been unable to obtain up to the present, due to pressure of other business.
To further show the state of affairs. I was present when, toward the close of our operations and after the people had found them satisfactory, a number of property owners came to Mr. Duffey and asked him to blow up their walls. One other unjust complaint appeared. in the newspapers; this was with reference to work on Van Ness on the 30th instant. The St. Dunstan's, as is seen in my list, was not touched by my party. The very dangerous walls of the Marie Antoinette were, however, demolished, and with the smallest charge that
could be used to bring down the wall. In this case, there being a ruined district all around the building, no damage whatever was done except that some panes of glass in windows, left closed by property owners after warning from my party, were broken.
The front face of the Concordia Club presented a very shaky and dangerous superstructure, with a heavy stone base extending to the second story and braced by a massive arch with granite base and pillars. The houses immediately opposite were of wooden frames, poorly constructed, and already badly shaken and injured by the earthquake and fire. The members of the committee present carefully considered the situation before proceeding. The buildings opposite were examined, the dangerous wall inspected, and Lieutenant Briggs and myself were asked whether the demolition would do any damage to the shaky structures opposite. We both agreed that it was impossible to demolish the heavy, massive base of the wall of the Concordia Club by dynamite, even after taking every precaution and reducing the charge to a minimum, without injuring the fronts of the wooden houses immediately opposite, as these were already in a shaky condition. The committee then decided that the immediate danger to human life from the wall of the Concordia Club was of far greater importance than an additional injury to the cheap wooden houses opposite, already shaken up by the earthquake; consequently Mr. Duffey gave me a written order to demolish the Concordia Club wall. This was done with every precaution, every part of the charge was placed with the greatest care and to the best advantage, and I reduced it to the smallest amount required to bring down the wall. As was to be expected, the weatherboarding, already loosened by earthquake shocks, was ripped from the wooden houses immediately opposite and glass was shattered in their fronts. Where the people opened their windows, as they had been warned, the glass was not broken, except in the houses above referred to immediately across Van Ness from the Concordia Club, but some windows near by, which had, in disregard of our warning, been left closed by the property owners, were consequently broken. This was the only instance in which the demolition of a heavy stone wall had to be effected in the immediate vicinity of frail wooden houses, and the results obtained were obviously directly due to natural conditions and unavoidable.
Furthermore, the plan to save the unburnt part of the city during the fire on the night of Thursday, the 19th ultimo, had been to blow up buildings all along the east side of Franklin street to Golden Gate avenue, after the fire had crossed Van Ness. Due to the work of the same dynamiting party under my charge, we got ahead of the fire on Franklin street and headed it off on Sutter street instead of leaving everything between Franklin, Van Ness, and Golden Gate avenue to burn, as seemed at first inevitable. Therefore the very buildings, whose weatherboarding was injured in the above said manner opposite the Concordia Club were saved by the same dynamiting party from complete destruction during the fire, with everything they contained.
In closing I desire to add my appreciation of the invaluable services rendered throughout by Lieutenant Briggs and Master Electrician Davis, and to state that, having made a special study myself of the use of explosives in demolitions, and having supplemented this
by practical work and experience, I used only stick dynamite with an inert base and gun cotton, the latter only when the former was lacking. To reduce the chance of accident I invariably used the electric current to ignite the charge, and the laving of the conductor and electric fuses and the tracing of the circuit was performed only by men expert in this subject from constant practice. That the work was done with the utmost care is borne out by the results, no accident of any kind having occurred.
Report of Lieut. Col. Lea Febiger, 3d U. S. Infantry.
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., July 19, 1906.
SIR : I have the honor to report as follows concerning the organization of and work performed by the bureau of consolidated relief stations from its creation on April 29, 1906, to June 30, 1906, when the services of the Army at large ceased in this connection, though I personally was not relieved until July 13, continuing in control nominally with a couple of officers of my staff; this particular phase of relief being thereafter administered by the executive commission of the finance committee of relief and Red Cross funds.
The bureau was organized in accordance with the provisions of section 1, paragraph II, General Orders, No. 18, current series, Pacific Division, under date of April 29, 1906 (Appendix A). Previous to that time I had been on duty in connection with relief work, by verbal orders of the division commander of April 23, and later in accordance with letter of instructions front the commanding general, Pacific, Division, dated April 27, 1906, said duty being performed under the supervision of the depot quartermaster and depot commissary, the particular part assigned to me latterly being the direction of arrangement for food supply stations in this city, south of a line which was the prolongation of Eighteenth street across the peninsula. This duty was taken up by me on the 28th of April, 1906; my headquarters being the office and storehouse of the Mission relief committee, Twenty-fifth and Guerrero streets. Later, upon the inauguration of this particular bureau, which began operations on May 1, my head quarters were at the Hamilton School building, on Geary street, near Scott street.
This preliminary period of relief work was as follows, preceded and following into the formation and operation of this bureau:
At first the duties were those of discovery, to find out what was being clone by the citizens at large, in which I was unassisted except by an automobile and chauffeur, the latter afterwards reporting that for the first twelve days we averaged over 100 miles per day, though I was out of the carefully two-thirds of the time interviewing people and inspecting stations. Some days we were on the go from 5 o'clock in the morning until midnight.
During this preliminary work the whole city was frequently traversed, locating supply stations, getting acquainted with those who had assumed charge, either by authority or on their own responsibility, and estimating the needs of the people at large.
I found numerous relief stations were being indiscriminately supplied from various sources, with necessarily great waste and much exaggerated estimates of the numbers of the needy. Some stations would disappear in a night. There was no general organization and no attempted coordination, but the best men in the community came to the front and by energy and hard work prevented any actual suffering from hunger.
On May 1 eleven officers were detailed by the division commander for duty with this bureau. Their names are as follows: Capt. W. W. Harts, Corps of Engineers; Capt. L. S. Sorley, commissary, 14th Infantry; Capt. John F. Madden, 29th Infantry; Capt. R. E. Longan, commissary, 11th Infantry; Capt. W. Mitchell, Signal Corps; Capt. L. W. Oliver, 12th Cavalry; First Lieut. J. R. Pourie, Artillery Corps; Second Lieut. E. S. Adams, 14th Infantry; Second Lieut. Frank B. Kobes, 14th Infantry; Second Lieut. J. L. Benedict, 14th Infantry, and Second Lieut. R. V. Venable, 22d Infantry.
The city having been divided into seven relief sections by the division commander, as set forth in General Orders, No. 18, current series, Pacific Division, a subsequent division was not deemed necessary. Accordingly, with the assistance of these gentlemen the work of organization of the bureau was begun, the following tentative assignments being made: To section 1, Captain Mitchell; to section 2, First Lieutenant Pourie; to section 3, Lieutenant Benedict; to section 4, Captain Harts; to section 5, Captain Oliver; to section 6, Second
Lieutenant Venable; to section 7, Second Lieut. E. S. Adams; executive officer, Captain Longan; and attached (general duty), Captains Sorley, Madden, and Lieutenant Kobes.
The details of this preliminary organization are given in full in General Circular, No. 1, of this office, appended hereto (B). Briefly, the plan of organization set forth was as follows:
As heretofore referred to, the city was divided into seven relief sections, and an officer placed in charge of each. The methods of procuring food from the depots and distributing it to the destitute were explained, and on May 2, 1906, the bureau began its work along these lines; the system thus inaugurated, with but few minor and unimportant changes, being found to answer all requirements, fulfilling its functions up to the time this bureau ceased its existence.
At this time, May 2, from the records available, it was found that some 313,145 persons were supposed to be receiving relief when the estimation was made on the ration basis. It is perhaps a fact, from enlightenment obtained by later experience, that this is not a correct figure of the actual number of individuals receiving assistance, on account of a considerable amount of hoarding of supplies by unworthy persons and obtaining food stores several times over by the same individual, in a manner called " repeating," and other similar improprieties committed by a considerable number of persons, who availed themselves of the liberality of all concerned to further their own selfish ends. Comparatively speaking, though, this number was small, the majority of individuals presenting themselves showing to a remarkable degree highly commendable qualities in connection with applications for relief. Most demands were of an extremely moderate nature and based on actual needs. Judging from information later obtained, it is thought that the number of persons receiving assistance during this initial period was at least 300,000.
Officers, in addition to the 11 first detailed, now began to report to me for duty, and were assigned in accordance with their rank; the rearrangements incident to this assignment being shown in General Circular, No. 8, appended hereto (C).
The work of supplying refugees in sections and the direction of section chiefs incident thereto became, after this, one purely of routine, the machinery of the bureau being competent in all cases to carry out instructions as soon as the same could be set forth in the form of orders, circulars, or otherwise.
I desire to take this occasion to speak in the highest terms of the officers who assisted me during the initial period above referred to. Captain Longan, as executive officer, was invaluable in organizing and carrying out the office force and devising a system for the handling of requisitions for food supplies and distributing them; Captain Ely, as my chief secretary, in organizing and starting forward the work of the headquarters office; Captain Mitchell, as chief of the first section; Lieutenant Pourie, as chief of the second section; Lieutenant Benedict, as chief of the third section; Captain Harts, as chief of the fourth section; Captain Oliver, as chief of the fifth section; Lieutenant Venable, as chief of the sixth section; Lieutenant Adams, as chief of the seventh section, and Lieutenant Robes, as my personal aide and immediate assistant. All did their utmost to bring about a system of orderly administration out of a most discouraging state of disorder.
The method employed in the administration of the work of supplying destitutes from relief stations, now fully inaugurated, was as follows: The chief of bureau, by means of his staff (chief secretary, general inspector, executive officer of distribution and supply, and assistant to the secretary), exercised general control and supervision over the seven chiefs of sections, assuring himself by inspections personally made for the greater part that the work assigned all subordinates was properly performed. Chiefs of sections by appropriate requisitions on the executive officer of distribution and supply made known the wants of their respective territories, this information being consolidated in the headquarters office and appropriate advice being sent the various supply depots located in different parts of the city. These requisitions being filled, caused the chiefs of sections to be furnished the articles in quantity sufficient for adequate distribution from the various stations. Also, at the same time, the statistics deemed necessary were collected from day to day to shout the trend of supply and for future reference. Thus the chief of bureau, by reference to the tables easily accessible, was enabled to keep the division commander informed as to increase or reduction of the wants of the population, both in the aggregate and in detail.
The section chiefs were assisted in their labors by a certain number of commissioned officers of the Army, detailed as assistants, by representatives of the National Red Cross, and by volunteer workers in various capacities, most all of these latter being those who had risen to the surface by natural leadership during the strenuous days immediately following the great conflagration. These volunteer assistants were, in a manner, inherited from the period of unsystematic relief work prior to the organization of this bureau, continuing their occupation when the change occurred. To a great extent these served without payment, many expecting none whatever, and those who did being compensated for the time being with either promises or with hope that when more detailed organization was possible their claims would be recognized.
The Red Cross officials, spoken of above, were furnished by the special representative, American National Red Cross (Dr. Edward T. Devine), to assist the section chiefs in any manner possible and were by their society designated civil chairmen of sections.
The necessary clerical force under the control of this bureau was placed under payment from the beginning, it being a self-evident fact that otherwise efficient service could not be hoped for.
With the assistance of the staff described above, the chief of section administered to the people within his territorial boundaries by means of a certain number of relief stations, the greatest number being 122 on May 1, and which were greatly decreased in number until there were but 22 on June 30, the date on which this bureau ceased its existence under military control. The personnel of these various stations consisted of a superintendent and a certain number of assistants drawn entirely from the volunteer workers described above. These officials came directly in touch with the people and administered to their wants well or poorly, dependent upon the personal equation of the individual. I am pleased to say that in the majority of cases station superintendents were found to be satisfactory, faithful, and efficient, though during the two months in which the major operations of the bureau went forward many had to be
relieved on account of incompetency, inefficiency, and, in some cases, impropriety of conduct, not involving moral turpitude, but showing an unsuitability for the work in hand which demanded removal.
Simultaneously with the work of supplying those who presented themselves with food and other needful articles, a system of card registration was being carried out, wholly within the jurisdiction of the American National Red Cross. Previous to its completion supplies were issued to persons presenting themselves at the stations at certain specified hours and receiving the rations, clothing, and equipage they asked for after each applicant had been interrogated sufficiently to satisfy the official in charge that their wants were real. This method provided for all who were able to present themselves at relief stations and also for those who, being unable to come in person could be supplied by deputy. The remainder-those unable to either appear in person or send a representative-were almost exclusively confined to the inmates of hospitals and institutions. The wants of this class were filled by issues being made to accredited hospitals and institutions direct from the supply depots, in accordance with the direction of the division commander, as set forth in Circular No. 3 (Appendix D).
A great variety of food stuffs, including delicacies, quantities of milk, fresh meat, and special articles, were within the scope of the list of stores available to be required for and distributed, sufficient not only to keep persons from want, but to enable them to live, in some cases, more luxuriously than they had under normal conditions. So much for the issue and supply of food.
Regarding clothing, household goods, cooking utensils, and kindred general stores, it was deemed advisable in the beginning to establish for these a separate warehouse in the Crocker School (1111 Page street), which was put in operation under the efficient management of Capt. J. J. Bradley, quartermaster, 14th Infantry, who, with the utmost celerity, established a depot akin to a modern department store, from which requisitions for general stores might be speedily filled. However, before the issue of this class of articles could be thoroughly taken up by the chiefs of sections, the matter of issue of this entire class was taken over by the American National Red Cross, at the solicitation of its special representative, and thereafter was conducted as efficiently as possible under the circumstances by the Red Cross representative at section headquarters, heretofore referred to as the civilian chairman.
It will be seen from an inspection of the above scheme of organization that the theoretical wants of any one individual for almost any kind of supplies could be easily gratified. As time elapsed many minor faults developed in the trial of the system by practical use. on account of the involved method of control, in many cases this being so complicated as to be lost in its ramifications between the individual refugee and the controlling official, partly on account of the opportunity given persons of insufficient moral sense to take advantage of the liberality shown to benefit themselves, and by forward conduct to obtain a lion's share to the detriment of those more modest in making their wants known, though in many cases these latter constituted the most worthy class. It was found on investigation that some, taking advantage of the impossibility of rigid inspection, were drawing supplies far in excess of their needs by sending different members of the
family at various times to one relief station and bearing away what was given then, to similarly obtain in a like manner a duplicate or triplicate allowance from other stations in the same general locality, This unfortunate tendency undoubtedly had the effect to cause subordinate officials, more especially those in direct contact with the destitute body of citizens, to become less willing to heed the requests for assistance from the refugees in general unless supported by some form of proof, and in some few cases this undoubtedly led to a general outcry regarding inefficiency on the part of these officials and favoritism by them. It remains to be said, however, that the most thorough investigation conducted by this bureau, in accordance with instructions of the division commander, led to the discovery of no cases of actual extreme destitution, meaning that which would involve either starvation or actual suffering from exposure; the several cases of poverty brought to light by this investigation being those of a character always existent in a large community and which are usually relieved by the admission of the individual to the poorhouse or home for aged persons without means.
At this time it became more and more apparent to all who were in a position to observe the general aspect of relief work that something must be done to cause a gradual reduction in the number of refugees, which it had been hoped would come naturally on the recovery of the population from the chaotic state brought about by the recent disaster and the return of the people to their former circumstances, which would lead in a natural way to a reduction, constantly increasing in magnitude, of the number of refugees actually requiring assistance to live.
At this time food supplies were distributed as follows:
First.-The ration, as set forth in General Orders, No. 18, referred to above, to all able-bodied destitute persons from the different relief stations throughout the city.
Second.-Articles of special diet, when in the judgment of the station superintendents they were necessary, in the same manner as the ration.
Third.-Hot food at several kitchens, in connection with relief stations throughout the city to all who presented themselves for a meal, prominent among which were five camps, sent fully equipped by the Chamber of Commerce of the city of Los Angeles, under the general supervision of Mr. D. J. Desmond. Of this latter source of food supply there was no supervision of applicants whatever, the meal furnished was generally excellent in quality and variety, and the numbers who applied for this sort of relief gave testimony as to its popularity.
In the meantime, although restaurants, grocery and butcher shops, green grocers' stands, and other places where food stores might be purchased were opening throughout the city, it was noticed that there, was little, if any, diminution in the number of persons applying for relief. Storekeepers, on being interrogated, stated that but comparatively few persons presented themselves to purchase their goods, nor did they believe that the general retail trade in food supplies would ever regain its normal functions as long as similar articles might be obtained free of cost from the relief bureau. The aggregate number of rations issued showed very little daily reduction, as should be the case were it a fact that a healthy tone existed in the community,
as would be shown by a desire to return to a self-supporting basis. To numbers of people, the desire to return to former conditions seemed only to be awakened by a cessation of the present irresponsible spirit brought about by having material wants easily supplied with very little effort on the part of the individual. Some frankly stated that as long as excellent provisions might be obtained for the asking and what money they had would be just as useful in the future as at present, that there was no reason for expending what they had put by for a rainy day until it seemed to be needful, and other statements of a similar tenor.
Many cases of repeating, heretofore referred to, were discovered, and this office was flooded with reports of persons who were taking advantage of present conditions to obtain large stores of food for future use, and were otherwise acting in an unworthy manner in their attitude toward relief work. It is but fair to state here that many of these reports (a large part of ,which were anonymous) upon investigation were found to be inspired by malice and to be unfounded in fact; but the number of rations issued and the amount of food distributed in proportion to the estimated population made it imperative to render methods of relief, though effective, less attractive to the average citizen. The method to be employed in accomplishing this desirable end was given much thought, and of the many plans suggested and considered the one finally deemed to fulfill all requirements the best was that a system should be inaugurated whereby no raw food whatever should be issued in general, but all persons desiring sustenance should be given a meal, adequate to support life, and no more. This, it was thought, would limit the number of able-bodied persons applying for relief to those actually in need of it. For women, children, and persons who needed more delicate or more nourishing food than was provided for able-bodied persons a more elaborate meal was to be provided, and for those who were unable to go to the place where hot meals were distributed the issue of appropriate articles of raw food was to be continued.
In the above manner, by taking advantage of the saving which always accrues when food is prepared in bulk rather than being cooked over an infinite number of fires, and by making the system of supply considerably less attractive, and thus eliminating all but those who were compelled to seek relief, it was assumed that a given amount of provisions would go much further than by the method employed in general distribution. By means of reducing the components of the ration to bread, meat, and vegetables, and by a system of questions put to each applicant at the relief stations where hot meals were served and where raw food was distributed, as to the ability of each individual to obtain food otherwise, a considerable number of persons were eliminated from the bread line, leaving, however, mixed with the wholly destitute who remained, the untruthful, who still employed this means to satisfy their present wants by rendering appropriate answers to the questions asked them. It was taken under advisement to establish a subordinate bureau to handle hot food, to employ cooks, stewards, waiters, etc., and to conduct cheap restaurants throughout the city, where persons of little means might obtain a nourishing meal and where those without means might be supplied with subsistence, to be paid for from the relief funds, but the more the details of this system were gone into the more it was developed that the proposition to be
handled was so large that the machinery necessary to conduct it would become so ponderous as to be inoperative, and for that reason it was decided to resort to the contract system to accomplish the end sought, Accordingly, early in May, endeavors were made by solicitation and otherwise to cause persons having experience in catering, or restaurant people, to offer themselves as one of the parties to a contract to furnish hot food, the bureau pledging itself to assist them in every way possible. This step was taken after consultation with the other branches associated with the military arm in relief work, and received their concurrence and likewise the approval of the division commander.
But few persons, however, presented themselves in accordance with the invitation referred to above, and of those but one in the beginning manifested any desire whatever to proceed with the business at hand, further than the oratorical stage; this one being D. J. Desmond, a business man of Los Angeles, engaged in general contracting and construction work, and having considerable experience in feeding large bodies of laborers employed in construction of various kinds, who had been sent, on account of this knowledge, by the Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles to this city shortly after the calamity of April 18 with an outfit for establishing several camps from which meals might be served free, as described heretofore. The services of Mr. Desmond at that time, when he was distributing free hot cooked food, seemed to be much appreciated by the refugees who ate at the tables under his direction. He was of the opinion that he might with profit to himself make a contract to feed large numbers of refugees along the lines outlined above and expressed his willingness to enter into a contract to perform this service, which was accordingly done, the agreement in question being signed on May 14, 1906.
As there were at the Moulder School at this time large quantities of food stuffs, far in excess of present needs, many of them deteriorating, it was deemed advisable to sell to contractors these stores at special prices, appraised by a mixed board of officers and civilians, the money thus derived being available for use in relief work when it was needed (Appendix E shows form of agreement).
The first hot food camp under the Desmond regime opened on Lobos Square on May 12, 1906, and this system was rapidly extended throughout the entire city (with the exception of the seventh relief section), as shown in the map herewith (Appendix F).
Some time after Mr. Desmond had begun his operations and had demonstrated the practicability of the plan, one David Nieto entered into agreement with this bureau on May 28 to furnish hot meals, the territory assigned him being several locations within the sixth relief section, and one P. J. Sullivan, who also took a limited contract along the same line on June 19, 1906, applying to but one kitchen.
It was the intention at the time the hot food camp idea first began to crystallize to simultaneously open these depots of hot food supply throughout the city and close the stations from which raw food alone was issued; but the question of obtaining material and mess gear, securing locations and help, made this plan impossible, and in lieu of it one of gradual substitution was employed, a certain number of stations, however, being retained for the issue of raw food to women and children, to sick and aged persons, who could not seek the hot food camps for their sustenance, and to those who needed articles of
special diet, the necessity for which was certified to by a reputable physician. These classes of persons continued to draw articles of raw food of the kind they needed in the manner heretofore described.
The influence of this contract method of supply of hot food in a gradual way was almost immediately perceptible by the reduction of the number of persons applying for relief-an average of 80 per cent, it was estimated-many declining with indignation to accept assist ance in the form offered, and by outcries, more or less pronounced, demonstrating beyond the possibility of a doubt the intense unpopularity of this scheme. Several mass meetings of refugees were held, in which allegations more or less general in character were made concerning the food and personnel of the various camps under control of contractors. In some cases these complaints, on investigation, were found to be based on facts, and where corrective measures were possible they were promptly applied; but, in general, the protest was against the system rather than against the articles of food supplied and inspired by pride and sentiment, which were expected to act as the main factors in elimination. The contractors were assailed in the daily newspapers, and officials in charge of relief work were besought to return to the more popular and general method of issuing raw food. In the meanwhile the number of indigents supplied daily had dropped from 313,145 (as on the 1st of May) to 15,353 on June 30. During this time the maximum number of persons fed in hot food camps in one day throughout the city was 5,714, based on three meal tickets to the individual. Of the number thus eliminated, probably 50 per cent would have dropped out in any event by reason of becoming self-supporting, the remaining 50 per cent being eliminated on account of the unattractiveness and unpopularity of the method employed, owing to its publicity.
In closing the discussion regarding the hot food camps as a means of supply, it is thought opportune to state that the method employed was purely temporary inaugurated for the purpose of discovering those really in need and eliminating those who might thus be driven to support themselves, and in that manner saving the work of relief the stigma of having by their liberal treatment pauperized a self-supporting community. It is thought that no other system could have been employed which would have worked so practical a result. It has been conclusively demonstrated by the operation of these hot food camps, and thereby thousands of dollars saved for future relief, that probably 95 per cent of the 15,000 persons now being supported by food relief are absolutely in need of it, those not in need either having withdrawn or having been forced out. An estimated total of 4,036,973 rations were issued in May and June. No data is available to estimate the amount from April 18 to April 30, but 3,900,000 rations, based on the issue of April 30. would be a conservative estimate owing to the necessarily wasteful and extravagant means adopted on the spur of the moment. Tables showing daily issues of raw and cooked food for the months of May and June appended hereto (marked Appendix G and H).
As it was not the intention of the military arm to continue the work of the administration of relief indefinitely, the policy from the beginning had been to withdraw from control at the earliest possible moment, leaving to those to whom the work of continuing to care for destitute people would fall the full and untrammeled authority
which is the just due of those placed in authority and held responsible for results. In accordance with this policy, on May 25, a great reduction having been effected in the number applying for relief in the manner touched on above, and the machinery of supply being as perfect as it could be under the system authorized, the initial step toward withdrawal was taken by gradual elimination, by means of relieving from duty in the bureau the commissioned officers acting as assistants to chiefs of sections and the vesting of the civilian chairman with more responsible and important duties. Chiefs of sections at about this date were required to confer with their civilian associates in control concerning matters of policy in the section, the personnel of relief stations, and other kindred subjects, affording these officials a rare, good opportunity to become conversant with the duties they would be required to perform when the army had withdrawn its assistance. Later, along the same lines, the entire matter of the personnel of stations, likewise their locations and scope, was turned over to the civilian chairman. This dual control continued without episode worthy of notice until about June 5, when announcement was definitely made that the military authorities would cease their labors in connection with relief on the first of the following month. The scheme of gradual replacement was continued accordingly by severing from further connection with the bureau officers acting as chiefs of section, their duties thereafter being performed by the civilian chairman, who thus remained in complete control. As a result, on July 1 there remained on duty in the bureau only myself, two officers of my staff, and two chiefs of section, these latter remaining on account of the earnest request of the civilian contingent in control therein that these officers be continued in control for a short period for the reason of particular ability to handle the peculiar local conditions which existed and which required more time for the civilian associate to become thoroughly acquainted with. The administration of the bureau continued from day to day under my nominal control until the 13th instant, when I was relieved by paragraph 1, Special Orders, No. 107, headquarters Pacific Division, July 13, 1906.
In the beginning the expenditures of this bureau were satisfied by the depot quartermaster here, this officer also paying debts incurred since July 1. During the intervening period disbursements were made from the relief appropriation by Capt. R. E. Longan, commissary, 11th Infantry, who had been designated as disbursing officer of the bureau.
In conclusion, I wish again to draw to the attention of the division commander the satisfactory, creditable work performed by the officers subordinate to me in their various capacities, who have been on duty in this bureau, particularly the original eleven detailed May 1. To be sure, this was to be expected of them from their training and esprit de corps, but in proportion it was even exceeded by the enlisted men, of whom naturally so much was not expected, and who yet responded in the most praiseworthy manner to every call.
The duties devolving on both officers and men were those not usually encountered in the routine of army life, and required real ability, integrity, and energy, coupled with much judgment and tact in accomplishing them in the. highly creditable way they were.
It is further a matter of satisfaction that during the entire administration of this bureau by the army, there has not been known
one well-founded complaint regarding insufficiency or failure of food supply. The magnitude of the work and the results accomplished by this bureau speak for themselves without further elaboration, and I shall always feel that I have been peculiarly fortunate in having the opportunity of demonstrating in a particular way the usefulness of trained and disciplined officials, as officers of the Army are, not only in time of war, but in emergencies in times of peace in this country.
[For General Orders, No. 18, headquarters Pacific Division, April 29, 1906, here omitted, see p. 146, ante.]
1. The above office has been established and will be ready for business commencing at noon to-morrow, Wednesday, May 2, 1906. The following-named regular army officers have been detailed by the division commander for duty in this bureau: Captain Madden, [29th] Infantry, U.S.A.; Capt. W. W. Harts, Corps of Engineers; Capt. L. S. Sorley, 14th Infantry; Capt. R. E. Longan, 11th Infantry; Capt William Mitchell, Signal Corps; Capt. L. W. Oliver, 12th Cavalry; Lieut. James R. Pourie, Artillery Corps; Lieut. E. S. Adams, 14th Infantry; Lieut. Frank B. Kobes, 14th Infantry; Lieut. Russell V. Venable, 22d Infantry, and Lieut. J. L. Benedict, 14th Infantry.
2. All sufferers from the recent calamity who are dependent for subsistence and the necessary comforts of life upon the relief funds and articles purchased therewith and subscribed from various parts of the country will be issued the ration (amount of food and properties thereof) described in General Orders from headquarters Pacific Division of even date. Luxuries will be issued unstintedly to all hospitals, and to relief stations doing hospital work, who are properly accredited and who are expected by this office to look after the sick and ailing in their vicinity, as no luxuries whatever, such as butter, eggs, fruit, canned vegetables, will be issued to the population at large.
3. It is most earnestly requested and urged that all self-respecting persons with money on hand to purchase the necessary supplies for their own support and that of their families will at once cease applying for relief from the stores and supplies furnished for those only
who are in extreme straits. This request is made not only on account of the heavy drain which is taking place upon the relief stores, but to encourage small traders to reopen their shops and stores, as without patronage they have no incentive for so doing, and thus rebuilding the business of the city of San Francisco.
Large quantities of relief stores have been sent to this city for the past ten days for distribution. These supplies have been extravagantly expended. This was unavoidable under the circumstances, but the confusion and pressure have now ceased, and all should strive for the resumption of normal conditions to be restored as soon as possible. It is really much more important that small dealers, as well as great, should be encouraged to resume their business at the earliest possible date that everyone, both high and low, will appreciate this and by resuming work, which is now being freely offered, procure for themselves wages with which to secure the necessities of life to tide them over until the city has resumed its former state of prosperity.
1. Assignments of officers to duty in this bureau that are in conflict with the following are revoked:
2. The following assignment of officers is announced to take effect this date:
In each relief section the senior officer will be responsible for the proper conduct of the relief work of the section.
By the direction of Major Febiger:
Attention is called to paragraph 9, General Orders, No. 23, Pacific Division, 1906, which reads as follows:
The division commander orders that no institutions of any kind be supplied from any of the relief stations. Requisitions for relief stations will not include, therefore, supplies for any but individuals and families. Commissary supplies other than those indicated in paragraph 9, above quoted, must be obtained by institutions authorized by Doctor Devine through requisitions, by the proper official of the institution, upon the Moulder School depot. All requisitions must be approved by an authorized agent designated by Doctor Devine. These requisitions, when practicable, will be for a period of five days, stating the number of individuals to be subsisted and for whom special diet is not obtained under paragraph 9, above quoted.
It is clearly understood that these supplies are not to be issued to paid employees or any inmate who can afford, either by credit or otherwise, to procure their own subsistence.
By command of Major-General Greely:
This agreement, made and entered into this _____ day _____of _____, 1906, by and between Lieut. Col. Lea Febiger, U.S. Army, Chief of Bureau of Consolidated Relief Stations, party of the first part, and
_____ _____, of _____, party of the second part, for Hot Meal Camps, to supply the needy and indigent, as well as those in circumstances, throughout the city of San Francisco during the present emergency.
The party of the second part agrees to furnish a proper meal, good, wholesome, well cooked, and seasoned, to all persons tendering the sum of 10 cents, or a meal ticket issued by the Finance Committee of Relief and Red Cross funds, or its properly accredited representative. The meal ticket to be redeemed by said committee, or representative, in money, at the agreed redemption, viz, 10 cents, or in kind from the relief stores now on hand or hereafter to be received, and properly valued by a board of officials appointed equally from the military and civil branches of the Red Cross.
The party of the second part is authorized to secure, on requisitions properly approved by the party of the first part, of his representatives, such reasonable amount of surplus food supplies as may be on hand in storehouses of the latter; such food supplies to be delivered at the kitchens or storehouses of the party of the second part, at no expense to him, and such supplies shall be properly and efficiently guarded while in transit from the depot to the kitchens or storehouses of the party of the second part.
Unless the party of the second part can furnish proper guarantee of his financial obligations, of can furnish proper bond in amount of the value of the food, supplies issued to him on requisitions will only be so furnished for cash on delivery. With those properly guaranteed an open account will be established.
The term "proper meal" is left to the discretion of the party of the first part, who will call for a bill of fare a day or two in advance, for his revision and approval, and which will consist as follows, of proper equivalents, approved by the party of the first part:
The proprietor of such food camps shall erect proper buildings or tents, and proper tables and service for the conduct of the same, not to exceed a maximum capacity of 9,000 meals per day, subject to the approval of the party of the first part, or his representatives, and such camps shall be erected in such places and localities as may be designated by the party of the first part.
Water and fuel must be arranged for and provided by the party of the second part, and it is understood that, except in extraordinary cases, the location of camps shall be rent free to the part of the second part. Where rent is required terms will be discussed, and if not agreed to the camp will be abandoned.
The party of the first part will supply a proper guard to the camp and will assist the proprietor in preventing objectionable or nonpaying persons from entering the camp, which guard shall also have general supervision of the running of the camp, the proper supply of food, the number of meals, their kind and quality; and a certain member of the guard, to be designated by the party of the first part, shall be authorized to keep count with the gate keeper, and an
employee of the Red Cross, of all free tickets presented to the party of the second part.
All requisitions for supplies desired by the party of the second part must be submitted to the party of the first part for approval not later than 11 a.m. on the day preceding the date of delivery.
All supplies for these camps will be issued from the Moulder School, Page and Gough streets, in the charge of a commissary officer of the Army. All requisitions will be signed by the contractor only, and countersigned by the Chief of Bureau of Consolidated Relief Stations.
A complete account of each day's issues, with the prices, will be submitted, one copy to the contractor, and one to Auditor Herrick, of the Finance Committee.
All tickets must be deposited by the contractor with Auditor Herrick by noon of the day following their receipt. Accounts with the contractor will be settled daily, deducting from the amount of the tickets at 10 cents each the amount of supplies issued to him, and paying him cash for the balance.
In the case of indigent persons who require extra nourishment, which ordinary 10-cent meals can not give, an extra 5-cent ticket will be given, by and at the discretion of the member representing the Red Cross, so as to entitle them to a 15-cent meal at the same camp.
All indigent persons thus presenting meal tickets shall be seated and fed at separate tables from those paying cash for their meals.
If so desired by the party of the second part, he may furnish a variety of different priced meals, varying from 15, 20, to 25 cents each and upward. The same conditions regarding supervision of these more elaborate meals by the party of the first part applying to those as to the others.
The Cossack post furnished to each of these camps by the commanding officer of the military district in which they are assigned to help the permanent guard, as far as practicable, and they will be subsisted, housed, and cared for by the party of the second part the same as his own employees.
[A map of the city and county of San Francisco, Cal., showing the boundaries of sections and locations of hot foods kitchens, is here omitted, the locations of the kitchens, as far as practicable, being approximately indicated by the design ___ on the map accompanying the report of Major-General Greely, for which map see end of volume. The territory embraced in Lieutenant-Colonel Febiger's map and not covered by General Greely's map shows four kitchens located in the sixth relief section as follows: At San Jose avenue and Army street; in the block bounded by Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Railroad avenues and M street, south; in the vicinity of Anderson street and Cortland avenue and of Mission road and Russia avenue.]
Grand total, 3,656,338
FOURTH SECTION - Continued