This publication tells the story following the surge campaign, which, under the improved conditions, saw the transfer of responsibilities from U.S. troops to the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF). The United States and Iraq signed a status of forces agreement, which called for all U.S. forces to depart the country no later than 31 December 2011. The U.S. Army then shifted from combat to stability operations by focusing on advising and assisting the ISF. The U.S. Army departed Iraq by mid-December, leaving behind only a small contingent of personnel housed at the U.S. embassy in Baghdad. This monograph, which has been issued as CMH Pub 78–3, covers that three-year period.