Chapter XI, The Quartermaster Corps: Operations in the War Against Germany

1 Forrest C. Pogue, The Supreme Command, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1954) ch. VI.

2 (1) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 178-89, 270-71. (2) QM Supply in ETO, I, 6-9. (3) Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, pp. 62-68. (4) IRS, G-4 to CQM, 4 Feb 44, sub: Storage Reqmts OVERLORD. USFET AG 400.242 (QM).

3 Colonel Sharp, former Deputy Chief Quartermaster, went to North Africa with the TORCH forces and returned to the ETO during the summer of 1943. Colonel Zwicker, former executive officer of OCQM and QM-designate of ADSEC, toured the Mediterranean theater with several other ADSEC staff officers in the spring of 1944. Colonel McNamara, former QM, II Corps, and QM-designate, First Army, brought 2 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 3 enlisted men with him to England in September 1943. Colonel Eymer, G-4 1st Division, had extensive combat experience in the Mediterranean; he lectured at several SOS staff conferences. Colonel Beny Rosaler, for a time QM, Twelfth AF Service Command in the MTO, returned to the OCQM in early 1944 and became Chief, Field Service Division.

4 (1) See ch. III, above. (2) McNamara Memoir, pp. 39-40, 84-86.

5 McNamara Memoir, pp. 93-95.

6 Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 452.

7 Unless otherwise noted, this outline of the organization and planning for OVERLORD is summarized from Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 190-230.

8 (1) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 189, 553-54. (2) A composite map of the various forecasts is given in Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, pages 224-25.

9 Bykofsky and Larson, The Transportation Corps: Operations Overseas, pp. 239-40. (2) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 315.

10 See ch. 11, above.

11 The First Army NEPTUNE plan was published on 25 February, and included as annexes a Quartermaster Plan (Annex 7) and an ADSEC Plan (Annex 17), both printed in full in First United States Army Report of Operations, 20 October 1943-1 August 1944, 7 vols. (Europe, 1946). (Hereafter cited as FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44.) (See Bibliographical Note.)

12 The SOS Plan for Mounting OVERLORD was published on 20 March 1944, and Annex 10 (Quartermaster) on 30 March 1944. See QM Supply in ETO, I, 8.

13 Personal Ltr, CQM to Col O. E. Cound, 15 Oct 43; Ltr, CQM to CG SOS, 23 Nov 43, sub: Casual Comments Pers of QM Sv ETO. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XVII, item 52; vol. XVIII, item 63.

14 Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 262. General Lutes, Chief of Operations, ASF, who inspected the theater in April-May 1944, was very critical of SHAEF in this respect.

15 The OCQM developed three basic supply plans: one for Class I, one for Class II, IV and PX, and one for Class III. These were generalized plans, not intended to support any specific continental operation, but formulated to enumerate and locate the QM resources that were available, and to provide concrete suggestions as to how they might be utilized by a tactical headquarters. First Army found these suggestions extremely helpful, and adopted most of them. The three plans are reprinted in full in OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 14, Appendixes A, B, and C.

16 (1) See ch. IX, above. (2) Ltr, Deputy Comdr ETOUSA to AG WD, 29 Feb 44, sub: Levels of Supply. ETO 400.

17 Personal Ltr, Evans to Littlejohn, 11 Mar 44, no sub. Evans' Staybacks, 291.

18 See ch. III, above.

19 The most important of these publications was Quartermaster Service Reference Data, vol. II (rev.): Operations-Planning, 1 January 1944 (Hq SOS ETOUSA, DCQM). (Hereafter cited as QM Sv Reference Data, vol. II.) Copies on file at Hist Br OQMG and at Ft. Lee, Va.

20 Ltr, Sullivan to Littlejohn, 9 Mar 44, no sub. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXII, item 53.

21 Ltr cited n. 20, with IRS, Littlejohn to Brumbaugh, attached.

22 Memo, OCQM for CG SOS ETO, 4 Jun 43, sub: Answers to Questions to CG SOS from WD. USFET AG 310.1.

23 Memo, CQM for TQMG, 13 Jan 44, sub: Combat Consumption Factors. ETO 400.6.

24 OQMG Rpt, 15 Apr 45, sub: Supply of C&E to ETO 1944, pt. 2, sec. III, Replacement Factors. ETO 420.

25 The methods and objectives of OQMG statisticians and the use they made of data from overseas theaters are discussed in Donald F. Bradford, Methods of Forecasting War Requirements for QM Supplies, QMC Historical Studies, 14 (Washington, 1946). See especially pp. 85-88.

26 Personal Ltr, Evans to Littlejohn, 11 Mar 44, no sub. Evans' Staybacks, 291.

27 Ibid.

28 QM Supply in ETO, I, 44.

29 QM Supply in ETO, I, 47-48.

30 (1) Summary, Development of Procedure in Submitting Projects for a Continental Operation, in Plan for SOS ETO, vol. II, 1 November 1943, sec. 1D. USFET AG 381. (2) OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 14, 1 November 1945, pp. 1-2.

31 (1) Summary cited n. 30 (l). (2) ASF, History of Planning Division, ASF, II, 213ff. (3) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 260-61.

32 (1) Memo, WD for CG ETO, 8 Mar 44, sub: QM Project A-59 for the ETO. EUCOM 400-312/4, vol. II. (2) QM Supply in ETO, II, 4. (3) Evans Ltr cited n. 26, above. Colonel Evans' comment was, "It was quite a battle to get A-59 through.

33 (1) Memo, CG FUSA for CG SOS ETO, and Inds, 26 Feb 44, sub: Projects for a Continental Opn; Carrier Sheet, AG Opns ETO to G-3 and G-4, 2 Jun 44, same sub, and additional notes. Both in EUCOM 400.312/4, vol. II. (2) A complete list of PROCO projects for QM Class 11 and IV supplies is given in OCTQM TSFET Operational Study 14, exhibit B.

34 (1) General Sullivan's disagreement with higher QM echelons within his theater regarding replacement factors are described in Chapter VII, above. (2) Ltr, OCQM to AG WD, 21 Jan 44, sub: QM Project 242-A (Projects for a Continental Operation). EUCOM 400.312/4, vol. II. (3) Cable SPTAA17080, PEMBARK to ETOUSA, 10 Mar 44.

35 The detailed planning required at tactical levels to implement such logistical objectives is described in detail in McNamara Memoir, pp. 106-10.

36 (1) McNamara Memoir, p. 111. (2) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 306-12.

37 See ch. V, above.

38 Thatcher, Development of Special Rations, ch. VI.

39 Early in 1943, the OCQM experimented with a 12-in-1 ration, locally assembled from B ration components and locally procured items. The project was handicapped by the unsuitable size of available components, and was abandoned when the OQMG's new to-in-1 ration was announced. But while assembling and testing the 12-in-1, the OCQM had developed some ideas on nutrition, and as usual those ideas were at variance with the concepts of research and development personnel in the OQMG. Ltr, CQM to TQMG, 27 Apr 43, sub: Composite Ration for ETOUSA. ETO QM 430. Reprinted in full in USFET Gen Bd Study log, app. 9.

40 Ltr, Littlejohn to Frink, 2A Jul 43, no sub. MED 430.

41 (1) Memo, CQM ETO for TQMG, 19 Nov 43, sub: Type 10-in-1 Rations. Littlejohn Collection, box 2, item 29. (2) Memo, Col. R. A. Isker, Dir QMC Subs Research Lab, for TQMG, 30 Nov 43, sub: Rpt on Tests of 10-in-1 Ration in the U.K. ETO 430.2.

42 Memo, DCQM for President Ration Bd, 14 Nov 43, sub: Proposed Augmentation of Types 10-in-1, C, and K Rations; Memo, CQM for CG SOS ETO, 2o Nov 43, same sub. Both in USFET QM 400.3121.

43 (1) Ltr, CQM to TQMG, 19 Nov 43, sub: Type 10-in-1 Rations, with 1st Ind, Doriot to CG ETO, Attention CQM, 9 Dec 43. Hist Br OQMG. (2) For operational rations, the final solution was to requisition one 1½-ounce heating candle with each C ration, and four 3-ounce candles with each 10-in-1 ration. A 4-ounce can of solidified alcohol was also available in limited quantities, and was to be issued as a substitute for the 3-ounce candle. No heat units were requisitioned with K rations because it was anticipated that a surplus from the C rations would be available at supply points if the troops desired them. Experience vindicated this ratio of heat units to operational rations. Cf. OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 14, exhibit A, p. 11, and ADSEC QM Estimates of Situation (10-day intervals), Oct 44-May 45.

44 (1) Memo, QM FUSA for CQM, 2 Mar 44, sub: Class I Plan for an Opn on the Continent. Littlejohn Collection, sec. I. (2) FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, III, 85.

45 OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 14, exhibit A, sec. 3.

46 FUSA Rpt of Opns, 23 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, III, 86; VI, 199-201.

47 Ibid., III, 86.

48 (1) See ch. VII, above. (2) According to T'/E 21, 1 June 1944, the combined summer and winter allowances weighed 131 lbs. (3) Littlejohn had prepared a plan very similar to McNamara's. (See OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 14, app. B.) The best proof for the statement that the decision was made at army level is the fact that for Third Army, Patton and his quartermaster, Col. Everett Busch, permitted several units to bring along a complete outfit in a duffle bag for each soldier, on the insistence of their division commanders. But Busch later regretted this, for just as in North Africa, these bags had to be left behind, and not all of them could be found when they were needed.

49 (1) McNamara Memoir, pp. 40, 120. (2) Joseph H. Ewing, 29 Let's Go! A History of the 29th infantry Division in World War II (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1948), p. 36.

50 FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14, p. 134.

51 QM Sv Reference Data, vol. II, 1 Jan 44, p. 83. The total was arrived at by combining Class II and IV factors.

52 FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14, p. 247.

53 FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14, pp. 242-46.In contrast to the 58 articles of the beach maintenance set, the follow-up list comprised 128 items, plus special articles for tank crews, parachutists, and nurses.

54 (1) FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14. pp. 135, 247. (2) Before the last set was delivered, similar supplies began to arrive direct from the United States, making it impossible to evaluate accurately the effectiveness of the estimates.

55 (1) OTCQM TSFET, Operational Study 14, an. B. (2) Littlejohn, ed., Passing in Review, ch. 14.

56 (1) Memo for Record, CofS SOS ETO, , 1 Jun 43. sub: ETO Staff Conf, 8 Jun 43, remarks of Gen Styer. USFET AG 337. (2) Risch, Fuels for Global Conflict (rev. ed.), pp. 8-10.

57 (1) Memo, CQM for DTQMG, 30 Jun 43, sub: Pers for . . . the Supply of Petroleum Products. ETO 210.321. (2) Hist of POL in the ETO. ETO Admin 5618. (3) Cir 46, SOS ETO USA, 26 Jul 43 (4) See ch. VI. above.

58 (1) Ltr cited n. 21, with IRS, Littlejohn to Brumbaugh, attached. (2) QM Sv Reference Data, II, 51. (3) McNamara Memoir, p. 109.

59 Memo, OCOT ETO for G-4, 8 Jul 42, sub: Proposed System of Gasoline Supply. USFET AG 463.7, vol. I.

60 (1) Memo, OCQM for CG SOS, 4 Jun 43, sub: Answers to Questions From War Dept. USFET AG 310.1. (2) See ch. VI, above.

61 Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 322.

62 (1) Littlejohn, ed., Passing in Review, ch. 18, Activities of the P&F Div, OCQM, p. 6. (2) Memo, OQMG to OCQM, 1 May 44, sub: Comments on QM Sv Reference Data, and 1st Ind. ETO 463. (This was in answer to Littlejohn's Memo of 13 January, cited in n. 23, above.)

63 Opns Plan NEPTUNE, an. 7, QM Plan (printed in FUSA Rpt of Opns, 23 Oct 43-1 Aug 44).

64 (1) Computed by the author from personnel build-up figures as given in Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 298. (2) Hq FECOMZ, Communications Zone Plan, 14 May 44, app. P (POL). ETO Admin 376.

65 Engineer and Transportation responsibilities, plans, and operations with regard to POL for NEPTUNE are discussed at length in Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, especially pages 319-26, and in Bykofsky and Larson, The Transportation Corps: Operations Overseas, Chapter VI.

66 The jerrican and Mediterranean decanting operations are described in Chapter VI, above. See also Chapter XVIII, below.

67 (1) Littlejohn, ed., Passing in Review, ch. 18, pp. 8-12. (2) These requisitions amounted to about 52,000,000 gallons, or enough to fill 10,400,000 jerricans. (3) See Table 7.

68 The balance was provided: 3.5 percent in 55-gallon drums; 3.2 percent in tank trucks or trailers; 5.1 percent directly from bulk containers at roadside. See ch. VI, above.

69 (1) Colonel Evans commented bitterly on this irrational tendency in high-level logistical planning. Ltr cited n. 17, above. (2) Leighton and Coakley (Global Logistics, 1940-1943, page 435) referred to a similar situation involving shipping as "cutting the foot to fit the shoe," and noted that in modern warfare it is hardly ever possible to make good such deficits at a later date.

70 Memo, G-4 ETO for Reqmts Div SOS WD, 22 Aug 42, sub: Gasoline Distr Equip; Comment 3, OCQM to G-4, 7 Nov 42, on IRS, Supply Br G-4 ETO to QM Sec, 4 Nov 42, sub: Revised Status of 5-Gallon Returnable Petrol Containers. Both in USFET AG 463.7.

71 Memo, OCQM for TQMG, 11 Jun 43, sub: Petrol Containers. ETO 457.

72 (1) Memo, Col. H. E. Rounds, OQMG, for Col. W. E. R. Covell, 16 Jun 43, sub: Gasoline Containers Manufactured in U.K. ETO 457. (2) Memo, Area Petroleum Off for CPA ETO, 28 Jun 43, sub: Containers, and 3d Ind, OCQM to Area Petroleum Sv, 8 Jul 43. USFET Petroleum Off 458.1.

73 QM Supply in ETO, IV, 32.

74 Memo, CQM for GPA, 27 Mar 45, no sub. USFET GPA 457.

75 Memo, OCQM for CG SOS ETO, 4 Jun 43, sub: Answers to Questions From WD to CG SOS. USFET AG 310.1.

76 Memo, DCQM for TQMG, 15 Jun 43, sub: Packing of Supply ... From the U.K. USFET QM 400.162.

77 Ltr, OQMG to CQM, 17 Jun 43, no sub. USFET QM 457.

78 Ltr, OQMG to CQM, 9 Jul 43, no sub. ETO 420.

79 (1) Memo, QM SBS for OQMG, 23 Sep 43, sub: Warehousing Amph-Packed Rations, and 1st Ind. USFET QM 400.2. (2) Memo, DCQM for Chief of Opns SOS, 1Dec 43, sub: Situation Rpt-Specifications for Amph-Packed Supplies. USFET QM 000.4. (3) Memo, OQMG for CQM, 23 Dec 43, sub: Amph-Packed QM Supplies. ETO 400.162.

80 IRS, DCQM London to DCQM Cheltenham, 27 [an 44, sub: Distribution of Amph-Packed Supplies, and Comment 2, 10 Feb 44. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II.

81 (1) Memo, Chief P&T Div for DCQM, 21 Dec 43, sub: Type Loading of Cargo Ships for Shipment to Continent. USFET QM 000.4. (2) Memo, CG SOS ETO for CG NYPE, 21 Jan 44, sub: Type Loading. USFET QM 400.3.

82 OTCQM TSFET, Operational Study 14, exhibit A, app. E.

83 (1) See ch. III, above. (2) Memo, S&D Div OCQM for DCQM, 16 Oct 43, no sub. USFET QM 427. (3) The Seventh Army did not, however, consider palletized loads an unqualified success, at least for combat-loaded vessels. See Memo, CG Seventh Army for CofT AFHQ, 7 Sep 43, sub: Palletizing Supplies. Seventh Army AG 400.16.

84 Memo, OCT for CofT ETO, 25 NOV 43, sub: Proposal to Skidload Supplies Moving in the Initial Stages of Continental Opns. SOS TC 400.2.

85 Memo, S&D Div OCQM for DCQM, 10 Mar 44, sub: Skidloads Class II and IV Supplies. USFET QM 400.2.

86 Memo, Capt R. M. Walrath for Col Stevens, Chief S&D Div [ca. Nov 43], sub: Rpt on Amph Unloading Skidloads. USFET QM 400.112.

87 Memo, P&T Div DCQM for Supply Div et al., 29 Jan 44, sub: Skidloading Supplies; Memo, same to same, 12 Feb 44, sub: Skidloading; Table Plan for Skidloading Of OVERLORD. All in Hist Br OQMG.

88 Memo, QM WBS for DCQM, 13 Mar 44, sub: Skidloading of Class I Supplies; Memo, S&D Div DCQM for DCQM, 26 Mar 44, same sub. Both in USFET QM 400.2.

89 IRS, G-4 SOS to OCQM, 19 Apr 44, sub: Proposed Extension of Skidloading Program, and reply, 22 Apr 44. Littlejohn Collection, box 13.

90 (1) John C. Warren, Airborne Operations in World War II, European Theater, USAF Historical Study 97, (The Air University, 1956), pp. 75-76. (2) Maj. James A. Huston, Airborne Operations, ch. VII, p. 96. Draft MS, n.d., OCMH.

91 IRS, Exec Div OCQM to CQM, 17 Jun 44, sub: Better Utilization of Sorting Sheds. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II.

92 IRS, Chief S&D Div to CQM, 7 Jul 44, sub: Proposed IRS to CofT. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II.

93 Special Monthly Report, CofT to G-4 SOS, 2 May 44, sub: Congestion of Ports and Depots and Unusual Long or Cross Hauls. EUCOM 319.1.

94 (1) General Middleswart, QM NATOUSA, agrees emphatically with this statement. (2) Brig. Gen. Everett Busch, QM Third Army, remarks in this connection: "Too many in responsible command assignments took supply-even over-supply-for granted." Critical comments on preliminary MS version of this history, 10 Oct-15 Nov 54. Hist Br OQMG.

95 USFET Gen Bd Study 128, pp. 29-30.

96 (1) Memo, CQM for TQMG, 8 Aug 42, sub: Troop Reqmts, QM Sv SOS ETO. ETO 320.2. (2) See Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, Volume I, Chapter III, for an analysis of early difficulties in computing a satisfactory troop basis for the SOS.

97 (1) Memo, CQM for CG SOS ETO, 18 Mar 43, sub: Flow Chart for QMC Troops. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II. (2) See also p. 254, above.

98 (1) Memo, CQM for CG SOS ETO, 18 Mar 43, sub: Flow Chart for QMS troops. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II. (2) Memo, Sv Troop Br for ExO G-4, 3 Jul 44, sub: ETO Sv Troop Build-up for Operation OVERLORD. ETO 370.092, Admin 145A.

99 Notes, Conf Between Devers and Chiefs of Svs, 7 May 43. USFET AG 337.

100 (1) IRS, G-3 to CG SOS, 14 Dec 43, no sub. USFET QM 000.4. (2) Memo, Sv Troop Br for ExO G-4, 3 Jul 44, sub: ETO Sv Troop Build-up for Opn OVERLORD. ETO 370.092, Admin 145A. (3) Comment 3, CQM to Chief Opns SOS, 16 Dec 43, on IRS, G-3 to CG SOS, 14 Dec 43, no sub. USFET QM 000.4. (4) Comment FECZ, n.d., on Ltr, FUSAG, 28 Feb 44, sub: U.S. Cargo Shipping Reqmts Opn OVERLORD. ADSEC COMZ 384.

101 Cable E-24140, Lee to AGWAR, 20 Apr 44, no sub; Cable E-253-19, Eisenhower to AGWAR, 28 Apr 44, no sub.

102 Memo, CQM for Chief Pets Div, 7 Oct 44, no sub. Littlejohn Reading File, Vol. XXIX, item 42.

103 Memo, CG TUSA through CG FUSAG for CG ETO, 27 Jun 44, sub: QM Units for Third Army. plus Inds. USFET AG 322 (QM).

104 (1) Memo. QM WBS for CQM, 29 Nov 43, sub: Priority of Alert for Depot Supply Cos. USFET WM 000.4. (2) Memo, QM WBS for CQM, 1 Apr 44, sub: Reassignment of QM Troops From SOS to Field Forces, and 1st Ind. EUCOM 322.

105 WD Cir 256, 16 Oct 43.

106 Detailed descriptions, T/O&E's, and evaluations of these units are given in OTCQM TSFET Operational Study 10.

107 (1) Memo, CQM for QM FECZ, l9 May 44, sub: Orgn and Functioning of the QM Sv in the Theater of Opns. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXIV, item 63. (2) Ltr, CQM to TQMG, 2 Jan 45, sub: Transmission of Hist Data Concerning QM Opus in the ETO. ETO 321. (3) See ch. IV, above.

108 Ltrs, CQM to CO's WBS, SBS, EBS, 3-4 May 43, no sub. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XII, items 9, 15, 16.

109 Memo, CQM for Chief of Admin SOS, 30 Oct 43. sub: Activation of Hq and Hq Co, QM Base Depot. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XVII, item 104.

110 This was merely a first installment of manpower dividends from this procedure. Ultimately, the OCQM organized a total of 55 mobile-type bakery companies, representing a personnel saving of 4,620 men, with additional advantages of efficiency and mobility. See ch. XV, below.

111 (1) Memo, CQM for CG SOS, 10 Mar 44, sub: Modification of Troop Basis. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXII, item 24. (2) Ltr, Col A. Bliss, OCQM, to Col K. L. Hastings, OQMG, 10 Mar 44, no sub; Memo, OCQM for G-4 and G-3, 17 Mar 44. sub: Reorgn of QM Bakery Co. Both in Littlejohn Collection, sec. II.

112 (1) AGF Rpt 974, 22 May 45, sub: Activation and Training of QM Units in the U.K. ASF 319.7 EUCOM. (2) Memo, CQM for G-1 and G-4, 20 Jun 44, sub: Conversion of QM Sv non-T/O Allotments Into T/O units. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXV, item 52.

113 IRS, CQM to G-4, COMZ, 25 Jun 44, sub: QM Troop Basis for Third Army. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXV, item 60.

114 For later experience on the Continent and Littlejohn's recommendations at the end of World War II, see chapter XIV, below.

115 McNamara Memoir, p. 169.

116 (1) QM Supply in ETO, VIII, 136-42. (2) Interv with Littlejohn, 29 Oct 57.

117 SOS ETOUSA, Notes on Staff and Comd Conf, 26 Apr 43, remarks of Littlejohn. USFET AG 337.

118 (1) FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, I, 21. (2) McNamara Memoir, pp. 100-101.

119 (1) Memo, OCQM for QM SBS, 9 Nov 43, sub: Plan for Mtg Newly Arrived Units. USFET QM 000.4. (2) Ltr, CQM to Lt Col Chapin Weed (QM SBS), no sub, 11 Feb 44. Littlejohn Reading File, vol. XXI, item 16.

120 Memo, Training Br for CQM, 14 Dec 43, sub: Summary of Major Projects of Training Br; Memo, Training Br for DCQM, 15 Jan 44, sub: Analysis of Monthly Rpts on Status of QM Units. USFET QM 319.1.

121 Memo, OQM for Chief of Opns, 1 Dec 43, sub: QM Items To Be Tested in DUCK Exercise. USFET QM 000.4.

122 (1) Memo, S&D Div for Brumbaugh, OCQM, 6 Nov 43, sub: Rpt of Detached Sv; Memo, Walrath for Florsheim, OCQM, 12 Dec 43, sub: Rpt on Observations of Beaching Skidloads. Both in USFET QM 319.1. (2) Memo, Brumbaugh for Franks, OCQM, 26 Mar 44, sub: Skidloading of Class I Supplies. USFET QM 400.2.

123 (1) Southern Base Section History, pp. 17-18. ETO Admin 601. (2) McNamara Memoir, p. 117.

124 (1) Ltr, Thrasher, CO SBS, to Littlejohn, 7 Jan 44, no sub. USFET QM 331.4. (2) Memo, QM to CO XIX District SBS, 7 Jan 44, sub: Rpt of QM Sv on Exercise Duck; IRS, Lt Col Hower to Franks, OCQM, 27 Dec 43, sub: Brief on Exercise Duck; Memo, G-4 ETO for OCQM, 1 Feb 44, sub: SOS Participation in Exercise Duck. All in USFET QM 353. (3) IRS, Maj Scott to Zwicker, QM ADSEC, 6 May 44, sub: Exercise Fabius I. ADSEC COMZ 384.

125 (1) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 345-54. (2) Hist of 3627th QM Truck Co. Hist Br OQMG.

126 (1) Clifford Jones, NEPTUNE, VOL I, Ch. VII. OCMH. (2) McNamara Memoir, p. 115.

127 (1) Memo, Stevens for Brumbaugh, OCQM, 9 Dec 43, sub: Visits to Units; Memo, OCQM for G-4, 4 Mar 44, sub: QM Representative's Inspection Trip. USFET QM 333.3. (2) FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14, p. 207.

128 (1) IRS, ExO OCQM to Chief S&D Div, 23 Feb 44. sub: Rpt to CQM on Completeness of Requisitioning for Opns. USFET QM 319. (2) Ltr, Evans, NYPE, to Littlejohn, 31 May 44, no sub; IRS, DCQM to CQM, 9 Jul 44, sub: Supply Action Taken on Items Reported to Evans. Both in Littlejohn Collection, box 17.

129 (1) See Table 7. (2) Littlejohn, ed., Passing in Review, ch. 18.

130 (1) XIX District Hist of QM Activities in Opn OVERLOAD. USFET Hist Sec 314.7. (2) Ruppenthal, Logistical Support, I, 257-63.

131 Littlejohn, ed., Passing in Review, ch. 33, (vol. II) app. 2A, p. 10.

132 (1) Memo, Chief Subs Div for CQM, 20 May 44, sub: Menu in the Marshaling Areas; Memo, IG for CG ETO, 12 Jul 44, sub: Inspection of Conditions in Marshaling and Embarkation Areas. Both in Littlejohn Collection sec. II. (2) QM Sv, Opn OVERLORD, in History of the Western Base Section, vol. II. USFET 314.7. (3) Ltr, CQM to TQMG, 3 Jul 44, sub: Poultry for ETO. Littlejohn Reading File, Vol. XXVI, item 17.

133 MS history cited n. 130 (1).

134 Critical comment by Gen. Busch, QM Third Army, dated 15 NOV 54: "Supply discipline should not be regarded as something apart from ordinary discipline. . . . Supply training and standards of discipline in all echelons, starting with the highest level, will go far toward improving this dangerous American habit." Hist Br OQMG.

135 IRS, CQM to DCQM, 14 Jun 44, sub: Salvage. Littlejohn Reading File, Vol. XXV, item 28.

136 Originally, hards were simply stretches of hard, gravelly beach where a wagon could come alongside a beached small craft at low tide. For NEPTUNE, engineers laid concrete aprons on designated beaches so that landing craft could take motor vehicles aboard more easily, and these were also called hards.

137 (1) Memo, CG FUSAG for CG SOS, 27 Nov 43, sub: Feeding During a Cross-Channel Voyage. USFET AG 430.2. (2) Memo, DCQM for CG, 22 Feb 44, sub: Modified B Ration Menus for Use on LST. USFET QM 430.1. (3) Memo, P&T Div for Subs Div OCQM, 12 Apr 44, sub: Issue of Opnl Rations to U.S. Navy. Littlejohn Collection, sec. II.

138 These SOP's are printed in full in FUSA Rpt of Opns, 20 Oct 43-1 Aug 44, an. 14, pp. 156-92.

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