As the Army's past is a substantive element of American history, its uniformed heads are, perforce, national as well as institutional figures. A knowledge of their roles and of the part played by their branch of the service in the events of the times is thus important to an understanding of both national and international affairs.
The literature of an institution and its leaders over an extended period of time is bound to be uneven. Not all senior officers are destined to be prominent figures during their tenures, nor is every era likely to see the Army in the forefront of American life. The ebb and flow of events, as well as the personality and style of an official, inevitably influence the degree of attention accorded an institution or an individual at any given time.
This general bibliography includes works on national defense, the Army, the departmental headquarters, the civil administration and selected civilian department heads, the General Staff, and the broad details of the organization and operation of the department.
Allard, C. Kenneth. Command, Control, and the Common Defense. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Center for Advanced Concepts and Technology, National Defense Univ., 1996.
American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States. . . . Class 5. Military Affairs. 7 vols. Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1832-61.
Ball, Harry P. Of Responsible Command: A History of the U.S. Army War College. Rev. ed. Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: Alumni Assoc. of the United States Army War College, 1994.
Beaver, Daniel R. Newton D. Baker and the American War Effort, 1917-1919. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1966.
Bell, William Gardner. Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 2003.
Bernardo, C. Joseph, and Eugene H. Bacon. Military Policy: Its Development Since 1775. Harrisburg, Pa.: Military Service, 1955.
Borklund, Carl W. Men of the Pentagon: From Forrestal to McNamara. New York: Praeger, 1966. . The Department of Defense. New York: Praeger, 1968.
Brock, Peter. Pacifism in the United States From the Colonial Era to the First World War. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1968.
Brown, Alvin. The Armor of Organization: A National Plan of Organization for the Armed Forces and . . . Inquiry Into the Origins of Existing Military Organization. New York: Hibbert, 1953.
Caraley, Demetrios. The Politics of Military Unification: A Study of Conflict and the Policy Process. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1966.
Coffinan, Edward M. The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986.
______The Regulars: The American Army, 1898-1941. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 2004.
______The War To End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War 1. 1968. Reprint, with new preface, Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1998.
Cole, Alice C.; Alfred Goldberg; Samuel A. Tucker; and Rudolph A. Winnacker, eds. The Department of Defense: Documents on Establishment and Organization, 1944-1978. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1979.
Cooling, B. Franklin, ed. The New American State Papers. Military Affairs. 1 9 vols. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1979.
Cosmas, Graham A. An Army for Empire: The United States Army in the Spanish-American War. 2d ed. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1994.
Crackel, Theodore J. West Point: A Bicentennial History. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 2002.
Cullum, George W. Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy. . . . Vols. 1-3. 3d ed. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1891. Vols. 4-9. Assoc. of Graduates, U.S. Military Academy, 1901-50.
Dawson, Joseph G., 111, ed. Commanders in Chief: Presidential Leadership in Modern Wars. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 1993.
Eberstadt, Ferdinand. Report to Hon. James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, on Uni of the War and Navy Departments and Postwar Organization for National Security. Prepared for U.S. Senate, Committee on Naval Affairs, 79th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945.
Ekirch, Arthur A., Jr. The Civilian and the Military. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1956.
Feaver, Peter. Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 2003.
Fisher, Louis. Presidential War Powers. 2d ed. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 2005
Gabriel, Richard A., and Paul L. Savage. Crisis in Command: Mismanagement in the Army. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978.
Ganoe, William Addleman. The History of the United States Army. New York: Appleton, 1924.
Gavin, James M. War and Peace in the Space Age. New York: Harper, 1958.
Goodpaster, Andrew J. For the Common Defense. Lexington, Mass.: Heath, Lexington Books, 1977.
Hammond, Paul Y. Organizing for Defense: The American Military Establishment in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1961.
Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. 1983. Reprint, Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 199 1.
Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789-1903. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903.
Herspring, Dale R. The Pentagon and the Presidency: Civil-Military Relations From FDR to George Bush. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 2005.
Hewes, James E., Jr. From Root to McNamara: Army Organization and Administration, 1900-1963. Special Studies. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1975.
Hittle, James D. The Military Staff: Its History and Development. Harrisburg, Pa.: Military Service, 1944.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Soldier and the State. The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, Belknap, 1957.
Ingersoll, Lurton D. A History of the War Department of the United States With Biographical Sketches of the Secretaries. Washington, D.C.: Mohun, 1880.
Jacobs, James Ripley. The Beginnings of the US. Army, 1783-1812. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1947.
Janowitz, Morris. The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1960.
Jessup, Philip C. Elihu Root. 2 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1938.
Just, Ward S. The Military Men. New York: Knopf, 1970.
Kemble, Robert C. The Image of the Army Officer in America: Background for Current Views. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1973.
Killigrew, John W. The Impact of the Great Depression on the Army. New York: Garland, 1979
Kitfield, James. Prodigal Soldiers: How the Generation of Officers Born of Vietnam Revolutionized the American Style of War. 1995. Reprint, Washington, D.C.: Brassey, 1997.
Klare, Michael T. War Without End: American Planning for the Next Vietnam. New York:
Knopf, 1972. Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: Macmillan, Free Press, 1964.
Kolodziej, Edward A. The Uncommon Defense and Congress, 1945-1963. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Press, 1966.
Korb, Lawrence J. The Fall and Rise of the Pentagon: American Defense Policies in the 1970s. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood, 1979.
______The Joint Chiefs of Staff The First Twenty-five Years. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1976.
Masland, John W., and Laurence I. Radway. Soldiers and Scholars: Military Education and National Policy. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1957.
Matloff, Maurice, ed. American Military History. American Historical Series. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1973.
May, Ernest R., ed. The Ultimate Decision: The President as Commander in Chief. New York: Braziller, 1960.
Meneely, Alexander Howard. The War Department, 1861: A Study in Mobilization and Administration. Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law, no. 300. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1928.
Millett, Allan R., and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. Rev. ed. New York: Free Press, 1994.
Millis, Walter. Arms and Men: A Study in American Military History. New York: Putnam, 1956.
Morison, Elting E. Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.
Nelson, Otto L., Jr. National Security and the General Staff. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1946.
Nenninger, Timothy K. The Leavenworth Schools and the Old Army: Education, Professionalism, and the Officer Corps of the United States Army, 1881-1918. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1978.
Niven, John. John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union: A Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1998.
Palmer, John McAuley. America in Arms: The Experience of the United States With Military Organization. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1941.
Powers, Patrick W. A Guide to National Defense: The Organization and Operations of the US. Military Establishment. New York: Praeger, 1964.
Reardon, Stephen N. History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Vol. 1, The Formative Years, 1947-1950. Washington; D.C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1984.
Ries, John C. The Management of Defense: Organization and Control of the US. Armed Services. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1964.
Rippy, J. Fred. Joel R. Poinsett: Versatile American. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1935.
Roberts, William R. "Loyalty and Expertise: The Transformation of the Nineteenth-Century American General Staff and the Creation of the Modem Military Establishment." PhD. diss., Johns Hopkins Univ. 1980.
Rodenbough, Theophilus E, and William L. Haskin, eds. The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line With Portraits of Generals-in-Chief. New York: Maynard, Merrill, 1896.
Sanders, Jennings B. Evolution of the Executive Departments of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1935.
Skelton, William B. An American Profession of Arms: The Army Officer Corps, 1784-1861. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 1992.
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.
Smith, Louis. American Democracy and Military Power: A Study of Civil Control of the Military Power in the United States. Studies in Public Administration. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 195 1.
Spaulding, Oliver Lyman. The United States Army in War and Peace. New York: Putnam, 1937.
Spiller, Roger J. "John C. Calhoun as Secretary of War, 1817-1825," PhD. diss., Louisiana State Univ., 1978.
Stanley, Timothy W. American Defense and National Security. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1956.
Thian, Raphael E, comp. Legislative History of the General Staff of the Army of the United States . . . , 1775-1901. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing 1901.
Thomas, Benjamin P., and Harold M. Hyman. Stanton: The Life and Times of Lincoln's Secretary of War. New York: Knopf, 1962.
Upton, Emory. The Military Policy of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904.
U.S. Congress, Senate. Extracts From the Journal of the United States in All Cases of Impeachment Presented by the House of Representatives, 1798-1904. 62d Cong., 2d sess., S. Doc. 876. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904.
U.S. War Department. Annual Reports. Report of the Secretary of War. Washington, D.C., 1823-1 947.
Ward, Harry M. The Department of War, 1781-1795. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1962.
Watson, Mark Skinner. Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations. United States Army in World War II . Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, Department of the Army, 1950.
Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. 1973. Reprint, Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1977.
______History of the United States Army. 1967. Enl. ed. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1984.
______Towards an American Army: Military Thought From Washington to Marshall. 1962. Reprint, Westport: Conn.: Greenwood, 1974.
White, Leonard Dupee. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. 1948. Reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1978.
______The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829-1861. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
______The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801-1829. New York: Macmillan, 195 1.
______The Republican Era: A Study in Administrative History, 1869-1901. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
Williams, T. Harry. Americans at War: The Development of the American Military System. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1960.
Wilson, James H. The Life of John A. Rawlins: Lawyer, Assistant Adjutant-General, Chief of Staff Major General of Volunteers and Secretary of War. New York: Neale, 19 16.
Wiltse, Charles M. John C. Calhoun. 3 vols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1944-51.
Zais, Barrie E. "The Struggle for a 20th Century Army: Investigation and Reform of the United States Army After the Spanish-American War, 1898-1903." Ph.D. diss., Duke Univ., 1981.
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