Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1975


Research, Development, and Acquisition  

Budget and Management

The fiscal year 1975 Department of Defense Appropriations Act, passed in October 1974, provided $1,767.3 million in research, development, test, and evaluation (RDTE) funding. New appropriations amounted to $1,759.3 million, while $8 million represented foreign military sales RDTE surcharges. Additional recoupments of $20.2 million from the surcharges and favorable reprogramming actions were more than offset by transfers from the RDTE account to other appropriations. Total obligational authority for fiscal year 1975, therefore, amounted to $1,769.4 million. The Army exceeded its goal of reducing the unobligated balance of RDTE funds to $96 million by the end of the fiscal year with a year-end balance of $87 million, but lost $2 million of fiscal year 1974 funds that had not been obligated by 30 June 1975.

In complying with Army Budget Review Committee guidance, the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Research, Development and Acquisition limited its RDTE request to $2,287 million for fiscal year 1976 and $608 million for the transition quarter but also submitted several other requirements and requested that they be funded. The Army Budget Review Committee responded by raising the funded figures to $2,376 million and $621 million, which were incorporated into the Army's budget submission to the Secretary of Defense. The Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Office of Management and Budget then reduced the RDTE request to $2,189 million for fiscal year 1976 and $586 million for the three-month interim period (1 July 1976 through 30 September 1976). These amounts were included in the President's budget request to Congress, where committee hearings were under way as fiscal year 1975 drew to a close.

During fiscal year 1975 the Army began to restructure its materials research and development program to include consideration of potential applications, as well as expansion of the technology base. The major thrust of the broadened program will be the development of improved, cost-effective materials for use in aircraft, armament, missiles, armor, and armored vehicles.


The Army took a leading role in organizing the joint Committee on Tactical Shelters, which was formed to manage the Department of Defense Tactical Shelter Program after the Deputy Secretary of Defense, in January 1975, gave his approval to begin the program. The committee will seek to reduce duplication and achieve standardization in the development of tactical rigid-wall shelters. The Army's Natick Development Center will support the program.

Several steps were taken during the past year to provide more effective management of research, development, testing, evaluation, and acquisition matters through the use of computers. These included starting work on the Research, Development, and Acquisition Information System, putting Systems Technology for Acquisition Resources into use, and initiating testing of the Modernized Army Research and Development Information System.

A number of management improvement actions came out of recommendations made by The Army Materiel Acquisition Review Committee (AMARC), an ad hoc advisory group comprised mostly of people from outside the Department of Defense. The committee made a number of recommendations in a report released on 15 August 1974. By 30 June 1975 the Army had acted on 144 of the report's 172 recommendations. Among major steps taken was the revision of materiel acquisition policies to emphasize evolutionary improvement of standard equipment as the preferred method of obtaining new capabilities. The Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) process was improved by: (1) assigning primary responsibility for it to the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), (2) reassigning the Safeguard Systems Analysis Agency to TRADOC, and (3) establishing a TRADOC-COEA review board. To improve operational tests and evaluations, the Operational Test and Evaluation Agency was assigned to the Office of the Chief of Staff, and the test boards of the Army Materiel Command, except for the Aviation Test Board, were reassigned to TRADOC. Finally, a materiel acquisition review committee was established within the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Research, Development, and Acquisition to monitor progress on AMARC recommendations and to seek further improvements in the materiel acquisition process.

In response to another AMARC recommendation, the Army staff examined the problems of layering and fragmentation in the materiel acquisition process. Completed in May


1975, the study recommended a number of improvements that were being acted upon as the fiscal year closed. These included revising procedures for estimating and analyzing costs, examining in greater detail the methods used to validate materiel requirements, clarifying responsibilities and relationships of Army agencies and commands involved in integrated logistics support; reducing the layers of intermediate headquarters between project managers and the Army staff, and emphasizing that the user representative, rather than the project manager, should define the requirements for a materiel system.

AMARC also recommended the establishment of mission oriented development centers in order to separate development and procurement from logistics support functions. The Army considered the feasibility of the suggestion, and by the close of the fiscal year had established two development centers—the Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center at Fort Belvoir, and the Natick Development Center at Natick.

Science and Technology

The Army chartered the Advanced Concepts Team on 9 July 1974 to facilitate the review of unsolicited proposals dealing with new technological concepts or new applications of existing technology. Composed of eight members from the Office, Deputy Chief of Staff for Research, Development, and Acquisition and the Army Materiel Command, the team serves as a point of contact for inventors who wish to submit their ideas for consideration. During fiscal year 1975 the Advanced Concepts Team received 736 inquiries and 329 proposals, and recommended that 9 of the submissions be funded.

The Army participated with the Air Force in ICECAP-75, a program sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to investigate aurora and polar substorms and their effects on the performance of military weapons and communications systems. Other Army activities included successful field tests of the Automated Meteorological System's prototype artillery subsystem and the continuous wave laser crosswind sensor for tank fire.

Army scientists engaged in basic and applied research made a number of gains in the areas of geodesy, geography, and mapping. For example, experiments with sensing arrays and optical devices in aerial imagery measurement and data extraction should increase automation and reduce costs in mapping operations. Field tests of a vehicle-mounted experimental


inertial system demonstrated the feasibility of achieving accuracies of 1 meter in elevation, 1.5 seconds of arc in deflection and 2 milligals in gravity, and indicated potential savings during development of launch site gravity surveys to support land based strategic missile systems.

In other topographic matters, a new photographic image digital processing facility—equipped with an array processor, an on-line display system, a scanning digitizer, and appropriate software—has been used to good effect in conducting digital photogrammetry, image matching, and data compaction. Final modifications and initial terrain analysis experiments were concluded on an advanced image data extraction system that will use automated photo interpretation techniques to provide terrain data and military geographic information for tactical commanders.

On 7 April 1975 the Terrain Analysis Center was activated under the Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Primary missions of the center are to determine the adequacy and applicability of available Military Geographic Information/Military Geographic Documentation (MGI/MGD), collect additional data as required, and prepare MGI studies to support planning and operational requirements.

Progress during fiscal year 1975 in ice engineering research included completion of successful field tests on mechanical, water jet, and electrical deicers at the Poe lock, St. Mary's River, Michigan. An extensive field evaluation is planned for next winter to determine the conditions under which each system would be most effective. Tests begun in Lake Superior to measure the uplifting forces on piles will continue in the coming year. Construction of a $5.5 million Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, will begin in late 1975 and be completed in early 1977. Included will be a refrigerated test basin and recirculating flume and a large test-cold-room. It will provide for the first time a controlled environment in which a variety of solutions to ice problems can be tested without costly field evaluations.


Research demonstrated the feasibility of shock wave deicing techniques. Basic research in the thermodynamics of ice-water-air mixtures was conducted to acquire a fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of wet snow. Relationships were established between unfrozen water in thawing soils and the specific surface area to predict the strength of thawing soil.

A model for crack propagation in thin ice formations was validated. Confirmed also were analytical procedures for predicting the Rayleigh wave signal as a function of target, substrata conditions, and distances. The first phase of a site evaluation process for helicopter landing and take-off operations, and a prototype air-transportable shelter suited to very cold environments were both completed. Additionally, a final report was published on tests of polyurethane-coated nylon fabrics and nonshed adhesives compounds for construction on wet, freeze-thaw soils.

Environmental technology emphasized the development of allowable effluent and emission standards at Army plants and installations. Progress was made in the continuing effort to establish environmental standards for some twenty primary air and water pollutants resulting from the manufacture of explosives and munitions. Detailed studies of five chemical compounds have been completed, and research has started on an additional fifteen compounds. An extensive toxicological literature search was completed for all primary compounds, and aquatic field surveys were performed at ten ammunition plants. Studies in the health aspects of recycling and reusing field hospital wastewater showed that a technique involving ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet catalyzed ozone was effective in restoring wastewaters not containing human wastes to acceptable standards for uses other than drinking. Studies of land treatment techniques for sewage wastewater disposal showed them to be an environmentally safe and a cost-effective alternative to tertiary treatment if suitable land is available.

Progress was also made in the development of a computer-aided procedure for preparing environmental impact assessments. Field tests indicated that the procedure was responsible for a cost avoidance of seventy-five percent and a time saving of eighty-four percent over previous methods.

Research in noise pollution was marked by completion of field noise measurements on Army and Navy helicopters at Fort Rucker, Alabama, and Camp Pendleton, California, for use in developing a helicopter noise prediction model. This model, when validated by field test and integrated with other noise source prediction models, such as the artillery blast model, will provide a basis for installation master planning. Research into techniques for controlling explosive and munitions manufacturing wastes demonstrated that a polymeric resin can absorb aromatic nitrobodies such as TNT and can be renewed to restore its original absorbent capacity. The use of


ionized electrodes for monitoring the cyanide content of waste solutions has been proved to be reasonable in cost—compared with the electrolyte method costs $1.30 per kg versus $2.40 per kg for chemical methods. The prototype system for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose wastes to glucose operated at a rate of 1,000 pounds of cellulose per month. Nearly complete conversion of nitrocellulose waste to nitrates and nitrites for fertilizer was also demonstrated using a five percent solution of ammonium hydroxide. This technique is economically competitive with fertilizer industry production costs.

The Army's research and development effort for military construction and engineering encompasses a variety of subjects, including soil and rock mechanics structural systems, weapons effects, mobility, and the problems of conducting military operations in cold regions. During the year the Long-Range Pavement Research Program continued with the establishment of interim standards for the design of an all-bituminous surface for roads and airfields, development of a pavement design that can use all types of structural material, and a data bank that correlates compatibility of construction techniques, quality control, guide specifications, and design concepts for pavement systems. Army engineers have now tested precracked steel-fiber reinforced concrete beams that had been subjected to flowing salt solutions and have completed work on a prototype computer model for predicting load-carrying capacity of cracked steel-fiber concrete slabs-on-grade. Techniques have also been developed to form inflatable fibrous concrete domes up to fifteen feet in diameter. Other significant engineering research accomplishments included a series of three, ten-ton nitromethane explosive tests to develop computer techniques for simulating underground detonations of nuclear weapons at shallow depths. Progress was made in developing the Automated Engineering and Architectural Design System, and work was completed on a computer program that determines bridging requirements in tactical situations.

Activity in cold-regions research during the past year included development of a model capable of predicting the thaw-weakening of soils at airfields. Also developed were methods for analyzing the stability of slopes, and techniques measuring ground resistance to identify permafrost, bedrock, and certain types of soils. Field and lab tests to obtain data on ballistic attenuation in snow, ice, and frozen ground were performed as well.

A number of research projects sought to decrease the


vulnerability of combat vehicles to fuel and hydraulic fluid fires. Work was completed on a fire resistant hydraulic fluid, and evaluation of various additives to fuels and their effects on engine and fuel systems continued as planned.

Efforts during the past year to develop more efficient and silent portable electric power sources centered on the use of lithium batteries, generators powered by gas turbine engines, and fuel cells. Engineering development for a 400Hz 10kw gas-turbine-driven generator to provide power for the mobile mortar-locating radar began. Contracts with U.S. firms for the development of smaller generators continued.

Fiscal year 1975 marked the first full year that the Human Resources Program came under the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. During the year the Defense Science Board Task Force for Training Technology completed a one-year examination of how the military services managed research and development in the area of training. And the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering analyzed the military services' human resources and medical research and development programs.

In aviation technology, the joint Army and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) project to demonstrate the tilt rotar concept moved forward. Final design review was held in December 1974, and all drawings were released during the first half of 1975. The fuselage structure and many other components for the first tilt rotor research aircraft have been completed, and work has begun on modifying and refurbishing the 25-foot tilt rotor and its controls in preparation for wind tunnel testing. In a second Army-NASA project, developing a rotor systems research aircraft, the contractor has nearly completed the aircraft's design, except for the stability augmentation system and the rotor active isolation/balance system.

Testing of the small turbine advanced gas generator by the four civilian contractors involved showed that all requirements were being met. Meanwhile, plans were made to resume flight testing of the advancing blade concept aircraft early in fiscal year 1976.


The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System is a joint service program for broadcasting highly accurate navigation informa-


tion on a 24-hour-a-day basis. It will include twenty-four satellites, ground stations to control the satellites, and receiving equipment on ships, airplanes, and ground vehicles. Army participation centers on developing and testing aircraft, vehicular, and hand-carried equipment to meet a broad variety of requirements in navigation, artillery and engineering survey, target acquisition, signal intelligence, and control of tactical operations. During the past year a $6.1 million program began for the design and development of new equipment items needed for NAVSTAR.

Command and control developments also included completion of second phase tests and a cost and operational effectiveness analysis of the Tactical Fire Direction System (TACFIRE). Favorable results led to the procurement of fourteen TACFIRE units for further test and evaluation. Limited procurement of the Air Defense Command and Control System was also approved. In October 1974 the Tactical Operations System Operable Segment (TOS2) was delivered to Fort Hood in preparation for field testing in January 1976. A TOS2 2 duplicate is in use at Computer System Command's Falls Church facility where system software is being readied for testing in the fall of 1976.

Civilian contractors completed the AN/TPQ-37 artillery locating radar, and competitive testing of the two models produced began in February 1975 at Fort Sill. Meanwhile, Hughes Aircraft Corporation completed the first of five engineering models of the AN/TPQ-36 mortar locating radar. This model underwent testing at Yuma Proving Grounds in June 1975. Plans have been drafted for comparative testing and evaluation of the AN/TPQ-36 and the U.S. Marine Corps Hostile Weapons Location System, a dual frequency radar for locating both mortars and artillery. The data obtained from these comparative tests, scheduled for mid-1976, will be compared to data collected during testing of the AN/TPQ-37 before deciding on production of any of the radars.

First phase development and operation tests on the Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System were conducted at Fort Bragg. At year's end the Training and Doctrine Command was preparing a revision of materiel requirements, and the Combined Arms Combat Development Activity was preparing a cost and operational effectiveness analysis. In December 1974 Lockheed Missiles and Space Company received a contract to develop the television and photographic surveillance, target


acquisition, target location and fire adjustment, and laser target designation components for a remotely piloted vehicle.

Development of more sophisticated night vision apparatus moved forward, except for the interim AN/TAS-3 Dragon Night Sight, which did not perform well in Phase II development and operation tests. In January 1975, the AN/PAS-7 Handheld Thermal Viewer became the Army's first ground-use far-infrared system approved for production. Also approved for production were the AN/PVS-4 Individual Weapon Sight, and the AN/PVS-5 Crew Served Weapons Sight. An expanded acceptance test program was conducted on the two engineering development models of the Man-Portable Common Thermal Night Sight (MCTNS). Both candidates exceeded performance requirements for lightweight, high performance, day and night vision systems. In May 1975, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Installations and Logistics approved an accelerated development and procurement schedule for the MCTNS.

Design and construction of a Laser Obstacle Terrain Avoidance Warning System was completed, and flight tests will begin in the coming year. The final report on the Low Level Night Operations study was delayed, but neared completion at year's end. Finally, second phase development and operation tests were successfully completed on the AN/TSW-7A three-man air traffic control tower.

The Secretary of the Army approved the charter for the Project Manager, High Energy Laser Systems on 19 February 1975. In early April, management changes were made at the U.S. Army Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, to strengthen the authority of the project manager and provide one organization for all high energy laser research and development activities. Design, fabrication, and testing of the Mobile Test Unit, a high energy laser system mounted on a tracked vehicle chassis, continued. The long term DOD Special Laser Technology Development Program was initiated. Army projects in this program included an air breathing C02 laser experiment, fueled by JP-4.

The Ground Laser Locator Designator (GLLD), a precision laser designator, continued to be developed during the year. Delivery of engineering models under a contract with Hughes Aircraft Company should begin in October 1975. Earlier models of the GLLD were used during the year to support live fire evaluations of the Cannon Launched Guided Projectile


and the Hellfire Missile. Delivery of advanced development models of the Airborne Laser Locator Designator was completed and the system was renamed the Airborne Target Acquisition and Fire Control System.

Field testing of the Stand-off Target Acquisition System conducted late in the year demonstrated its target acquisition and surveillance capabilities at extended ranges and its potential for use in command and control. Future efforts will examine the feasibility of relying upon this system as the key element in devising a closed-loop fire support system.

The Army's development programs in aviation concern aircraft and weapons, the promotion of new systems, and the upgrading of older ones. The Advanced Attack Helicopter Program began in 1972 after the termination of the Cheyenne program. Two prime contractors, Bell Helicopter Company and Hughes Helicopter Company, continued work on two flying prototypes and one ground test vehicle. Bell began testing its ground vehicle on 19 April 1975, and Hughes began testing on 22 June. Flight testing should start in September 1975.

Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Corporation and Boeing Vertol Company have each accumulated about 300 hours of flight testing on their models for the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft. Competitive testing of the two candidates was scheduled to start in February 1976.

Drive system component problems have delayed completion of the advanced technology component program associated with the development of the Heavy Lift Helicopter. The engine program was on schedule, and the three major fuselage sections were spliced together as the first major step in building a prototype.

The task force mentioned in last year's report completed formulation of the Advance Scout Helicopter program. This reconnaissance aircraft will be capable of performing around the clock in all combat situations, and will be compatible with the advanced weapons systems of the 1980's. The Army System Acquisition Review Council has approved the program, and competitive advanced development should begin next year.

Both the AH-1Q Cobra/TOW and AH-1S programs continued on schedule. AH-1Q related milestones included delivery of the first engineering development model test set for the TOW (tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided missile) system and delivery of the first production AH-1Q Cobra/TOW. AH-1S events included completion of a prototype


aircraft, award of long lead time contracts for airframe and engine programs, completion of the T53-L703 engine qualification program, completion of development and operational tests, and the award of initial production contracts.

The Army Systems Acquisition Review Council will consider a special study group recommendation to modernize the CH­47 aircraft fleet to improve maintainability, reliability, survivability, and safety, and to reduce operating costs. Proposed was the development of fiberglass rotor blades, integrally lubricated transmissions, and modularized hydraulic system components; and improvements in the cargo suspension system, the auxiliary power unit, and flight control and electrical systems.

Development of new missile systems progressed during the year. The basic TOW system was completed, and work continued on developing a thermal night sight and a solid state track link. Dragon missile system development was also completed during the year. The Stinger continued in engineering development, while the Stinger alternate demonstration flight program proceeded according to schedule. Test firings of the Hellfire missile were completed in June 1975, with eight of ten missiles scoring direct hits. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of the system had not been completed by the year's end.

The SAM-D surface-to-air missile program continued at the austere level directed by the Deputy Secretary of Defense in fiscal year 1974. Construction continued on the first two engineering development model fire control groups. Guided missile flight tests, begun in February 1975 to demonstrate track-via-missile guidance, were completed successfully. A short burn flyout test conducted in June 1975 demonstrated the compatibility of the missile with the tactical launcher cannister.

The Army completed development testing and approved the fielding of an improved version of the Chaparral missile that will greatly increase its effectiveness by providing a 360­degree target engagement capability and a more lethal fuze and warhead combination. Prototype models of a target acquisition aid were tested in late 1974. The tests showed not only that the aid was of marginal benefit but that it was expensive, and Congress noted these shortcomings by deleting funds for it.

The Army also approved replacement of the Pershing guidance section and warhead with a new terminally guided reentry vehicle and a low yield, earth penetrating warhead, while production continued of an automatic reference system


sequential launch adapter. Deployment of an improved Hawk missile was about fifty percent complete at the close of the fiscal year.

Chrysler and General Motors, the two principal contractors in the XM1 tank program, completed prototypes and were preparing them for competition in early 1976. Over 10,000 miles have been accumulated on automotive test rigs and significant refinements in layout, armor design, and fire control have been made. The program is proceeding on time and within design-to-cost goals.

Phase II testing of components for the M60A1 tank improvement program began on 21 October 1974 and were concluded on 24 January 1975. Test results will be incorporated into the overall evaluation of the new components. Greater requirements for first-line tanks and delays in increasing M60-series tank production have lead to an innovation: 105-mm. guns and diesel engines will be put in 324 M48-series tanks at a rate of 40 to 50 per month beginning in October 1975. The altered tanks will be practically indistinguishable from the M60 in configuration and performance.

Development of the Vehicle Rapid Fire System (Bushmaster), which was stopped last year, resumed following a favorable cost and operational effectiveness analysis and a December 1974 review that confirmed the need to develop a 25-mm. self­powered weapon as the primary armament for the mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV). An improved M139 20-mm. gun will serve as the MICV's interim weapon. A Defense Department review confirmed the Army's position, but also directed the Army to develop an externally powered 25-mm. weapon to be compared to the self-powered version before selecting a weapon for the MICV. The Army is preparing to contract for the self-powered weapon and ammunition and is requesting industry to submit bids on the externally powered system.

The MICV program continued to have problems, although suspension system irregularities that caused an early five-month delay were corrected. Problems with transmission reliability and durability had not been resolved by the close of the year. Increased costs caused by these problems posed a threat to the future of the program.

A mid-life review of the Armored Reconnaissance Airborne Assault Vehicle revealed a need for substantially increased reliability, particularly concerning the turrets and engines. In May 1975, the Army approved procurement of an improve-


ment package containing about forty-five items that will cost over $50 million during the next few years.

The effectiveness of Soviet surface-to-surface missiles in the 1973 Mid East War called for more emphasis on smoke screening techniques to protect armored vehicles. Efforts centered on development of wicking material to improve dispersion and prolong smoke emission of white phosphorous smoke rounds. A plastic wafer concept was tested and offers good performance at reasonable cost. The screening smoke system used in the British Chieftain tank also showed promise.

In the development of scatterable mines, final tests were completed on the helicopter delivered M56 antitank mine system, and the results are being evaluated. Testing of the artillery delivery and minefield effectiveness of the XM692E1/ XM731 area denial artillery munition was completed, and the item is now being considered for type classification standard. Both the XM718 artillery-delivered antitank mine system and the ground vehicle dispensed mine system remained in engineering development. Work on the Gator, air-delivered, triservice mine development program continued: the Army is developing the mine, the Air Force is developing the dispenser, and the Navy and Marine Corps are participating in the testing program.

As for countermine equipment, engineering development continued on the surface-launched fuel-air explosive unit in an effort to be able to breach a minefield rapidly. The vehicle-mounted mine detector demonstrated good capability for detecting in roads both metallic and nonmetallic mines with a low false alarm rate. In an advanced state of development at year's end was a man-portable version of a metal reradiation mine detector for surface mines and booby traps. Concerning demolitions, the Army identified a need for bulk explosives as an antiarmor weapon and for general demolition tasks. Development of the XM122 remote demolition firing device continued.

To provide impetus to the recently approved camouflage pattern painting program, over 60,000 gallons of a new alkyd paint were distributed to field units. A new training circular on pattern painting was distributed in September 1974, and patterns for painting equipment were prepared and issued. The new camouflage screening system (woodland blend) was delivered to Europe for use in the October 1974 REFORGER exercise, while the desert blend screen was type classified and a production contract was awarded. Engineering development


was completed on the lightweight company mortar during the year in preparation for development and operational testing. Reliability of the new XM734 multioption fuze continued to be a problem because of a high dud rate when fired in the delay option and premature detonation when the fuze was set for a proximity burst. The Harry Diamond Laboratory corrected both problems, and in May 1975 the Army Materiel Command verified that reliability had improved.

In other development actions during the year, the Army terminated work on a 6-mm. squad automatic weapon, but continued development of 5.56-mm. and 7.62-mm. versions; the Cannon Launched Guided Projectile remained in advance development; and the XM198 medium towed 155-mm. howitzer, the XM204 light towed 105-mm. howitzer, and the M110E2 heavy self-propelled howitzer were in various stages of development.

International Research and Development

In December 1974, the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany signed a memorandum of understanding under which the Leopard-2 tank will be evaluated along with

Chrysler and General Motors prototypes for selection as the XM1. Should either the General Motors or Chrysler prototype be selected, Germany and Great Britain will be invited to join the XM1 development program in an effort to standardize NATO tank requirements. In a related development, the United States, Great Britain, and the Federal Republic of Germany agreed to a joint evaluation of tank guns to reach agreement on a common gun for future tanks. The U.S. 105­mm. with XM735 penetrator round, the German 120-mm. smooth bore, and the British 110-mm. rifled guns are being tested. Firing trials were completed in May 1975.

On 29 July 1974 a request for proposals for the Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) system was released. By 12 September 1974 four contractors had responded with proposals: Hughes Aircraft Company with Boeing Aerospace Company for the French-German developed Roland II; Norden Division of United Aircraft for the British developed Rapier-Blindfire; Rockwell International for the French developed Crotale; and Philco-Ford for an all-weather version of the U.S. developed Chaparral. The Army Missile Command conducted the source selection during the period 12 September 1974 to 6 January 1975, and selected Roland. The Secretary of Defense


approved the selection and on 9 January 1975 the SHORAD contract was awarded to Hughes and Boeing. A special Department of Defense review on 15 April 1975 approved a reduced RDTE program contingent on the success of flight tests. The requested RDTE budget of $35.1 million for fiscal year 1975 was reduced to $21.2 million by the House and Senate Armed Services Committees.

In other international research and development matters, the United States planned a September 1975 U.S.-British-Canadian conference on the evaluation of individual chemical protective clothing. Progress was also made in the standardization of small arms ammunition for NATO. Finally, the Army selected a group from the membership of its Scientific Advisory Panel to review the U.S. position on the discontinued U.S.-French Javelot project.

Materiel Acquisition

The President's budget for fiscal year 1975 requested $339.5 million for the Aircraft Procurement, Army, appropriation. Of this amount $112.5 million was for procurement of new aircraft, $165 million for modification of existing aircraft, $21.9 million for spare and repair parts, and $40.1 million for support equipment and facilities. Congress approved $253.8 million, which resulted in a number of cutbacks in planned procurement. The cuts included $12.5 million for fifteen AH-1Q (Cobra/TOW) Attack Helicopters; $41.4 million for nineteen CH-47C (Chinook) Cargo Helicopters; and $25.1 million for eighty UH-1H (Iroquis) Utility Helicopters. The fiscal year 1973 funded C-12A (formerly U-X) procurement program for 20 aircraft was awarded in August 1974. The major portion ($54.3 million) of the fiscal year 1975 AH-1G to AH-1S modification program was awarded in January 1975.

The fiscal year 1975 budget request for Army missile procurement submitted to Congress amounted to $459.2 million, which provided financing for selected missile systems, ground support equipment, improvements to missile systems, repair parts support, and support equipment and facilities. From this request, Congress deleted $22.7 million for the following: TOW procurement, $19.8 million; Dragon procurement, $2.5 million; and $400 thousand for initial repair parts associated with the reduced procurement.

During the year producers delivered 2,721 Dragon missiles and 454 trackers. By 1978 production capacity is expected to


be about 10,000 missiles and 800 trackers per month. Acceleration of TOW production to field the system as rapidly as possible continued. Planned peak production rates for missiles and launchers were achieved on schedule in March 1975. In February 1975 multiyear contracts for missiles and launchers were awarded to Hughes Aircraft Company and Emerson Electric Company, respectively. Both contracts were awarded after competition in keeping with efforts to obtain the best possible prices for these systems. The TOW continued to be a popular item abroad; seventeen countries have now purchased it.

The President's fiscal year 1975 budget proposal contained $385.3 million for weapons and tracked combat vehicles (W&TCVA). This sum provided for the procurement of tanks, medium and light tracked recovery vehicles, tank turret train­ers, general purpose and tank machine guns, and incendiary rocket launchers; for the high priority modifications of tanks, artillery, assault vehicles, recovery vehicles, air defense guns, and machine guns; and for associated support equipment, repair parts, and facilities. The request also included $14.5 million for personnel and mortar carriers, rifles, and repair parts for service-funded military assistance to the Republic of Vietnam. The Appropriation Act for fiscal year 1975 deleted $32.5 million: $14.5 million for military assistance to the Republic of Vietnam (disapproved for W&TCVA, but approved in another appropriation); $1.5 million for thirty-four tank turret trainers; $0.8 million for the M202A1 incendiary launcher; and $25.3 million for the Armored Reconnaissance Scout Vehicle, $9.6 million of which was returned to the Army for procurement of M113A1's and Vulcan modifications.

In December 1974 a fiscal year reprogramming request was submitted to Congress to improve the Army's tank inventory, which was seriously depleted as a result of significant diversions following the October 1973 Mid East War and the inability of manufacturers to increase production rapidly. This request, approved in increments during the first half of calendar year 1975, included $52.3 million to convert 573 older model 90­mm. gun, M48-series, diesel-powered tanks to 105-mm. gun gas-powered models; and $34.8 million, most of which was intended for increasing production of M60-series tanks to a rate of 103 per month.

The approved fiscal year 1975 ammunition procurement program provided for consumption by U.S. forces, pipeline requirements for Southeast Asia allies and Pacific Command


forces, NATO needs, and the maintenance of an active ammunition production base. Two unforeseen actions—an amendment to Section 514 of the Foreign Assistance Act that prohibited use of service funds to support allied requirements and the sudden collapse of Cambodia and South Vietnam—caused termination of contracts and reduction of the production base. Contracts with a value of $86.6 million were to be terminated, from which $51.1 million would be recoverable, and previous authorizations of $292.4 million would not be placed on contract. Additionally, the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant would be inactivated, and the Scranton, Riverbank, and Longhorn plants might go inactive depending on the outcome of studies on the impact of Section 514 and new logistics guidance. Production would also be reduced in several other Army ammunition plants.

Congressionally approved reprogramming added $76 million to the fiscal year 1975 ammunition production base appropriation of $260.2 million. The extra funds covered the cost of repairing facilities damaged by an explosion at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant in Virginia. The funds also covered a cost increase in constructing the Army's first nitroguanidine (a component in military smokeless powder) production facility, building a prototype explosive melting and pouring facility, and purchasing and installing equipment for five small-caliber ammunition modules—all part of a nineteen-year program scheduled for completion in 1988 to modernize and expand the Army's ammunition production base. In August 1974, the Office of the Secretary of Defense approved an increase in funding for the program from $300 million per year in fiscal year 1980 to $500 million per year in 1981.

The Other Procurement, Army, Appropriation finances the procurement of tactical and commercial vehicles, communications and electronics equipment, and other support equipment.

Expenditures for fiscal year 1975, by activity, were as follows:


Tactical and commercial vehicles
Communications and electronics
Other support equipment

Total-Other Procurement, Army



and the 40-ton lowbed trailer are two examples of commercial trailers to be purchased.

A contract was let during the year for 33,000 commercial 1 1/4-ton trucks, which will replace the Army's M37 series (3/4 ton) and M715 series (1 1/4-ton) vehicles in the inventory. Replacement will start in calendar year 1976 and is scheduled for completion in 1977. Two versions of a commercial line-haul truck tractor will replace the 5- and 10-ton military design tractors in selected units. Procurement of these vehicles was scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1977.

Another review of heavy equipment transporters was initiated. A commercial vehicle is being procured to satisfy a portion of the Army's requirement. An examination of other tactical uses for commercial vehicles was completed during the year, and results were expected in the coming fiscal year.



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Last updated 21 September 2004