Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1971



In terms of national defense, personnel consists of the individuals—military or civilian—required to carry out the mission assigned to the armed forces, and of the full range of administrative functions relating to the recruitment, assignment, discipline, housing, subsistence, pay, health, advancement, protection, and retirement of the Army's manpower.

Military Personnel

During fiscal year 1971, Army strength decreased from 1,324,000 to 1,123,810. Included in the total were 148,950 officers, 971,872 enlisted personnel, and 2,988 cadets. There were 22,969 officers acquired during the year. A total of 156,075 men were inducted into the Army and 157,627 men and women were acquired by first enlistments, representing a decrease of 42,617 inductions and 19,630 enlistments from fiscal year 1970.

Officer procurement was reduced by one-third to meet lower year-end manpower authorizations. This reduction was accomplished by limiting direct appointments and reducing accessions from Officer Candidate School (OCS) and Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) programs. OCS was reduced from 6,500 to 2,809 by soliciting the voluntary withdrawal of approved applicants and candidates, while the number of ROTC graduates scheduled for active duty was reduced from 15,500 to 9,237 through an active-duty and active-duty-for-training adjustment under which a random selection of officers was made to meet Army requirements. Maximum use was made of volunteers, and graduates not selected for active duty were placed on active duty for training for three months or for the length of their basic branch course, whichever was longer.

It is Army policy that permanent-change-of-station travel for military personnel is based upon necessity. Excessive movement of personnel is expensive, disruptive to readiness, and detrimental to morale. Efforts are being made to reduce both the number and frequency of moves in order to achieve greater continuity, assignment stability, and monetary savings. Permanent changes of station were reduced to the minimum, consistent with short tour requirements and equity in the sharing of hardship duties. The redeployment from Southeast Asia had the greatest impact on personnel stability.

As the year closed, short tour requirements had decreased and nor-


mal rotation policies were being restored. With Army strength down 15 percent from fiscal year 1970 and requirements in Vietnam easing, total permanent changes of station were down 21 percent, and costs for such travel were down 7 percent.

As the Army moves toward an all-volunteer force, an effective and fully manned recruiting service is essential to success. Reduced reliance on the draft requires aggressive, imaginative, and productive programs to attract an increasing number of volunteers to replace not only draftees but a large number of draft-induced volunteers. The efforts of the U.S. Army Recruiting Command will be important. Thus the Army during the year proposed that the size of the recruiting force be more than doubled, from 2,969 to 6,080 by the end of the coming fiscal year.

New mental standards under which the Army accepts men from among those disqualified for service before October 1, 1966, were continued under the over-all enlisted procurement program. The mandatory quota was revised for fiscal year 1971 from 12 to 8 percent of total new enlistees, a change necessitated by the decreasing size of the Army and of low-skill jobs available for men with lower mental abilities. The long-range objective is to eliminate quota controls for this program as draft calls approach zero.

A college graduate utilization program was continued to insure that the 25,296 degree-holders who entered during fiscal year 1971 were given challenging and demanding assignments. At the same time, the program to make the greatest possible use in military jobs of skills acquired in civilian life was emphasized, and over 24,000 inductees were assigned duties based on skills acquired in private life, thereby promoting job satisfaction and increased motivation while reducing training costs. The Selective Service System at the Army's request assisted in the search for specially qualified personnel by incorporating a request for such information in induction notices. Reception stations also tested personnel in thirty-five military occupational specialty (MOS) areas to identify candidates for the direct award of an MOS.

Under the Army's community service program, attention was focused on personal problems encountered by junior grade personnel and their families. At the modern volunteer Army test sites, attention was centered on improving the ways in which new families are oriented to Army life; on, developing more effective techniques for assisting them during relocation and emergencies; and on helping them to meet financial problems. Model programs in these areas were developed and tested for adaptation at other installations during the coming year.

In addition to programs related to individuals entering the service, the Army continued a number of programs to help those who were leaving. Project Transition, funded at $8.9 million and with 391 vocation-


al guidance counselors, was extended to Alaska and Hawaii in addition to major installations in the continental United States, where, as the year closed, its services were available at fifty-six installations. Resources were being reprogramed to offer preseparation vocational counseling and job placement services overseas. The Army also supported Department of Defense actions to match Project Transition and Project Referral operations with the jobs for Veterans Program; the Army Command Information Program was used to inform servicemen, while Army National Guard and Reserve participation was sought in extending the jobs for Veterans Program to the local community level.

The Department of the Army, as executive agent for the Department of Defense, conducted an unusual civilian police recruiting program for the District of Columbia's Metropolitan Police Department during the fiscal year. Attention was centered on personnel leaving the various services. The program offered these people an early release of up to 150 days as an inducement to join the police department; sixty-two men joined the civil force in the nation's capital.

A number of actions were taken during the year to improve the Army's correctional program. Because of the importance of cadre support, commanders of Army confinement facilities were directed to establish and conduct on a continuing basis an in-service training program in the care, custody, and correction of prisoners. Eighteen-month stabilized tours at confinement facilities were established for the commanding officer, provost sergeant, and correctional supervisor and for correctional treatment and prisoner service chiefs. The Military Police table of organization was amended to provide for an Army psychologist or social work officer for each 250 prisoners confined at Army stockades to direct prisoner counseling. In stockades with less than 250 prisoners, a social work and psychology specialist for each 50 prisoners is authorized for prisoner counseling, with technical supervision provided by a social work or psychology officer from the local medical facility. Qualified cadre support was further enhanced by a policy change which requires that personnel assigned at stockades to duties as prisoner work supervisors be correctional specialists; the practice of using guards detailed from other units was prohibited.

The correctional training program at the U.S. Army correctional training facility was expanded to include refresher training in military subjects for prisoners who have completed basic combat training or possess a military occupational specialty and are returning to duty status. At the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, a prototype work-release program was developed with a view to aiding prisoners during the transition period of release from confinement and return to military or civil life as useful citizens. The work-release program will be implemented during the first quarter of fiscal year 1972. In addition to temporary home pa-


roles authorized in emergency situations, a program was adopted which authorizes commandants of disciplinary barracks to grant special temporary home paroles to selected prisoners during religious holiday periods. The purpose of the temporary home parole program is to strengthen family relationships, provide an incentive and reinforcement for positive behavior and morale, and provide an indication of future prisoner adjustment if released on regular parole or restored to duty.

Plans and designs for new confinement facilities based on modern correctional principles were developed, and construction was begun at critical locations; a priority list of stockades to be modernized during fiscal years 1973-77 was also established. A policy to improve prisoner services was adopted, which requires commanding officers of installation confinement facilities to develop appropriate educational courses for prisoners as part of the correctional treatment program. Branch field libraries are to be established, equipped with enough materials to support the prisoner capacity of the facility.

Because of the sensitive nature and problems of prisoners in administrative and disciplinary segregation, they require judicious supervision. Confinement facilities were required to have mature noncommissioned officers, experienced in correctional supervision, in charge of administrative and disciplinary segregation cell sections at all times. Provisions were also made for daily visits by chaplains and counselors. Authority of confinement facility commanders to impose restricted diet as punishment for prisoners in disciplinary segregation was abolished, although commanders were authorized to prescribe a reduced diet in accord with sedentary conditions. Daily rations of prisoners in disciplinary segregation are not to be less than 2,100 calories, and daily exercise is not to be less than an hour. In connection with prisoner employment, armed guards were prohibited on outside work details, and unsentenced prisoners were permitted to waive their right to work and be billeted separately from sentenced prisoners.

The Army Safety Program also received some attention during the past year. Each year since 1966 the National Safety Council has selected an organization with an outstanding record in accident prevention to present formally before the council the policy, philosophy, and characteristics of its accident prevention program. In 1970 the Department of the Army was the featured agency. The presentation was made at Chicago, Illinois, on October 28, 1970, in ceremonies at which the council presented to the Army its Safety Award of Honor for accident prevention.

The Army participated in several programs of broad domestic and nonmilitary character during the past year. One was the so-called Sky Marshal Program. When, on September 11, 1970, the President responded to a rash of political hijackings of U.S. commercial aircraft by or-


dering that armed guards be placed aboard appropriate flights to protect the passengers, the Department of Defense was designated to provide 800 military men on detail to the Department of Transportation to serve as sky marshals. The military part of the program was conducted by the Department of the Army, to assist the Department of Transportation in screening, training, deploying, and supervising military personnel from all the services who participated voluntarily as federal air security specialists to combat air piracy. As the executive agent, the Army formed a task group under the direction of the Provost Marshal General. The Army provided selected equipment, a training site at Fort Dix, New Jersey, and training support. During the period from October 5, 1970, to May 17, 1971, 845 enlisted volunteers from all the services served as sky marshals and another 50 performed liaison duties. The Department of Defense paid the initial military costs and normal military pay and allowances for what was called Operation Grid Square (estimated at $4.5 million), to be reimbursed by the Department of Transportation when funds are appropriated by Congress. As follow-up support, the Department of the Army provided facilities at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, as a training site for the Department of the Treasury's Civilian Sky Marshal Program. Training here was conducted from December 28, 1970, to May 21, 1971, and in the latter part of the fiscal year the graduates of the Treasury school replaced the military sky marshals.

Both the active Army and the Army Reserve Components have actively supported the domestic action program. The Army is well equipped to join with other public and community organizations in the national effort to overcome the nation's domestic problems. Among the domestic actions in which the Army has participated are the following activities: summer and student employment of disadvantaged youths; visits to Army installations and overnight encampments; community projects such as ecology and athletic programs; loans to other federal agencies to support youth activities; equipment loans to assist disadvantaged citizens in emergencies; and unit projects undertaken in conjunction with training exercises. During fiscal year 1971, 700,000 disadvantaged youths were provided one and one half million man-weeks of educational, recreational, and cultural opportunities at Army installations, and 16,313 youths were given meaningful work experience training through the Army's summer and student employment programs for disadvantaged youths.

Health and Medical Care

The rate of admissions to hospitals and quarters for Army active duty personnel worldwide during fiscal year 1971 was 338 per 1,000 average strength per year, 8 per 1,000 less than the 346 reported for


fiscal year 1970. The noneffective rate, representing the average daily number of Army active duty personnel in an excused-from-duty status due to medical causes per 1,000 average strength, was 16.9 as compared with 17.6 in the previous year. Noneffectiveness due to wounds incurred in action (WIA) declined to 3 per 1,000 from 4.2 in fiscal year 1970.

The following table shows the rates at which men were admitted to hospitals and quarters in Vietnam and other areas for diseases and injuries as well as for all causes, along with the incidence rates of malaria and certain other conditions which tend to cause a high proportion of noneffectiveness in one or more of the areas.


(Rates per 1,000 average strength per year)



CONUS Army Areas

Oversea Areas Total






All causes














Nonbattle injury







Wounded in action















Diarrheal diseases







Acute upper respiratory infection and influenza







Skin diseases, including dermatophytosis







Neuropsychiatric conditions







Hepatitis viral







In the five-year period from June 1966 to June 1971, over 1 million units of whole blood were shipped from continental U.S. donor centers under the Military Blood Program. Over 50 percent of the total came from Army donor centers. The Military Blood Program Agency of the Office of The Surgeon General of the Army is staffed by medical officers from all the services. Military Blood Program support in Southeast Asia is a major factor in the reduced death rate of hospitalized wounded personnel. At no time has there been an over-all shortage of whole blood in Vietnam.

The most acute shortage of medical officers in the Army is in the general duty area. Medical generalists have traditionally provided medical service in maneuver battalions and troop clinics. To ease the short-


age in general duty medical officers—those with the military occupational specialty of 3100—a physician's assistant program was established under which fully trained back-up personnel would provide medical services of certain kinds formerly reserved for doctors. In March 1971 the Department of Defense answered a number of questions concerning the nature of the position and the training and degree of independence of the physician's assistant by issuing the following definition:

The military Physician's Assistant is a skilled health professional who is not a physician but who by experience and formal training has become qualified to perform certain tasks formerly undertaken only by a physician. He works under the supervision of a medical officer, though he may at times serve some distance from the physician and receive instruction and guidance by telephone or other means of communication. He may perform selected tasks delegated to him by the physician supervisor who is responsible for his actions. His principal duties will involve direct contact with patients to obtain medical histories and to perform physical examinations, order appropriate laboratory and x-ray studies, interpret and record these data and prescribe limited therapy. He is considered to meet the criteria of the "Type-A" Physician's Assistant as defined by the Board of Medicine of the National Academy of Science, May 1970.

The Army Medical Department program proposes to alleviate the shortage of Army physicians and meet field medical requirements by using physicians' assistants. In the clinical environment the assistants would fill the gap between the patients and the highly skilled medical specialists who form the larger proportion of Army physicians. Assistants would extend the capabilities of the physician by relieving him of the burdens of routine examinations, tests, and administration, which do not require his level of expertise. The physician would be able to spend more time on duties which only he can perform.

The program would provide eighteen months of additional training to selected, highly qualified active Army enlisted medical specialists. Individuals selected for the physician's assistant program would have a minimum of three years of patient treatment experience and would probably have completed a forty-week training course prior to selection. After rigid screening, candidates would receive twelve months of didactic training and reinforcing clinical practice, followed by a supervised six-month applicatory assignment in an Army hospital. Candidates would then return to school for final examinations, and upon successful completion of all course requirements, would be granted a warrant in the Army of the United States.

Some form of an armed forces health professions scholarship program has been before the Congress for more than twenty years, but de-


spite continuing interest, no serious move has been made to enact legislation. Today, with increased interest in the need to obtain additional physicians, dentists, and other health specialists under volunteer Army—zero draft conditions, two measures have been placed before Congress to relieve a fast-developing medical personnel crisis. One proposal would permit participants to pursue up to four years of graduate study in a health profession while on active duty as commissioned officers. They would receive full pay and allowances, and all tuition and other educational expenses would be paid. In return, they would incur an active-duty obligation of not less than one year for each year spent in the program. About 825 officers a year would participate in the program leading to a maximum authorization of 2,500. In the other program, similar in many respects, the participants would be Reserve Component officers not on active duty. Either program would appear to be essential in the light of the fact that present medical officer procurement programs are supported by conscription. With plans to eliminate the draft by the end of fiscal year 1973, lead time will rapidly disappear. The situation is further intensified by the poor prospects for passage of a medical school bill which would provide relief on a long-term basis.


Based on long-range strength and deployment estimates the Army needs a total of 353,440 housing units for eligible families. Available family housing on and off post totals 220,600 units. This figure includes about 130,000 adequate military-owned or -controlled units that are operated and maintained by the Army. After taking into consideration the limitations imposed by the Department of Defense on construction of new family housing, there is a remaining deficit of 62,800 units. A total of 1,700 units was authorized for the Army in the fiscal year 1971 program, and Congress is considering approval of 1,920 units for the 1972 program. The provision of adequate housing for all married personnel is recognized as an ultimate goal in the development of the all-volunteer Army, which would about double the deficit to 135,000 units. Initial steps to achieve this goal will be incorporated in the Army's five-year financial proposal beginning in fiscal year 1973.

There is also a substantial deficit in bachelor housing for officers and enlisted men. Army personnel are still housed in obsolete World War II buildings at many locations. About 4,000 new bachelor officer quarters spaces and 110,000 enlisted men's barracks spaces are needed. To overcome the backlog, annual outlays of $63 million for barracks and $6 million for bachelor officer quarters would be required over the next ten years.


Legal Affairs

A December 1969 amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 authorized members of the armed forces and their immediate families to obtain legal services from the Office of Economic Opportunity in cases of extreme hardship, provided such services were funded by the Department of Defense. With the approval and support of the American Bar Association, the Secretary of Defense on October 26, 1970, directed the establishment of a pilot program to ascertain whether these services could be better provided by military attorneys through the expansion of traditional military legal assistance programs. The new program would support only those soldiers and their dependents who cannot afford legal fees without undue hardship, and who therefore would probably not seek assistance from civilian sources. Under this standard, practically all members in the grade of E-4 and below and their dependents would be eligible for the program.

The Army was the first military department to obtain authorization from one of the states, New Jersey, for a fully operational test. In early November 1970, appropriate officials of the Monmouth County Bar and Burlington County Bar Associations considered the matter and gave their support. The Board of Trustees of the New Jersey State Bar Association raised no objections, and on January 4, 1971, the Army was advised that the Supreme Court of the State of New Jersey had approved the project.

Following a series of meetings with representatives of various groups associated with the practice of law in New Jersey, the test began at Forts Monmouth and Dix. Experience in New Jersey from February 1 through June 30, 1971, indicates that cases fall into four general categories: small claims, landlord and tenant, domestic relations, and criminal offenses. Statistics indicate that only 3 percent of all prospective clients interviewed had legal problems acceptable under the program. No matters were handled in which the client could afford the services of a civilian attorney. Many disputes were settled out of court; most of the comparatively few cases that reached litigation were resolved in favor of the serviceman client. In criminal cases, initially offenders were represented by military attorneys only for nonindictable types of criminal offenses. More recently, however, the Public Defender of New Jersey requested that military attorneys also represent indigent servicemen accused of felonies.

The New Jersey Bar has collectively and individually encouraged this program. It has provided judge Advocate General's Corps officers with workshops and materials, which have greatly helped military lawyers in trying cases before the New Jersey courts. The American Bar Association Standing Committee on Legal Assistance for Servicemen


held its spring 1971 meeting at Fort Monmouth to examine the New Jersey program. The committee's report enthusiastically encouraged the adoption of this concept in other states. The Army is endeavoring to establish similar programs in Kansas and Colorado and, jointly with the Air Force, in Alaska.

The Department of the Army is encouraged by the initial success of the experiment. Military clients of limited means now have access to first-class legal services, thereby enhancing morale; the Army's reputation for taking care of its own is improved, a favorable consideration in volunteer Army terms; the civilian bar is supported in the dispensing of justice; and the goals of the legal profession are advanced.

For several years the Army and the Internal Revenue Service have jointly conducted an Overseas Income Tax School Program. This project, supported by the other services, trains Department of Defense civilian and military personnel as income tax assistants for their respective offices and units. During January and February 1971, thirteen schools were conducted in nine countries with 849 students in attendance, including 530 officers, 263 enlisted men, and 56 civilians. In addition to providing knowledgeable advisers to assist servicemen in filing their federal and state returns, the program promotes good citizenship.

During fiscal year 1971, Army claims obligations as monitored worldwide by the U.S. Army Claims Service amounted to $28.5 million in settlement of 96,783 claims against the U.S. government. Recoveries from carriers, warehousemen, insurers, and other third parties amounted to $2.1 million.

Civilian Personnel

During the year the Army's almost half-million civilians worked in an atmosphere of declining forces and missions and of increasing emphasis on civilian support to a modern volunteer army.

Civilian personnel strength declined by 5.2 percent in fiscal year 1971, from 513,000 on June 30, 1970, to 486,000 on June 30, 1971. Civilian strength in the United States declined 3.8 percent. The percentage decrease in numbers of foreign national employees was over twice that of U.S. citizens; their number dropped from 135,200 to 121,800, a decline of 9.9 percent. Major reductions occurred in Vietnam, Korea, Thailand, Japan, and Italy.

Concerted effort was made by all commands to accomplish these reductions through attrition and restriction on recruitment. Where these methods were not feasible, some employees were separated by reduction-in-force procedures. High priority was given to placing these employees with other federal agencies or private employers. Department of the Army and Department of Defense placement programs were effec-


tive in locating employment opportunities for many employees who did not restrict their geographic availability.

The department's Equal Employment Opportunity Program proved again to be innovative, due to the formulation of numerical goals and timetables, which were Army-wide in scope, in the Equal Employment Opportunity Plan of Action. Some of these goals were proposed by the Secretary of the Army in a speech before the Equal Employment Opportunity Command Institute last year. After final approval in August 1970, the plan was sent to the field with instructions to establish numerical goals at the installation level as well. This concept of goals and timetables has been endorsed by the United States Civil Service Commission, and all federal agencies will be permitted to use them in resolving equal employment opportunity problems.

The first annual Secretary of the Army awards for honorary recognition for outstanding achievement in equal employment opportunity were presented to two members of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. Commemorative plaques and citations were presented to Colonel Luther G. Jones, Jr., commanding officer of the Army Aeronautical Depot Maintenance Center at Corpus Christi, Texas, and to Robert A. Cole, Sr., equal employment opportunity officer of the Army Mobility Equipment Command in St. Louis, Missouri. Colonel Jones's significant achievements in his management of the Army's huge helicopter overhaul and repair center include establishment of an annual seminar entitled "Operational Understanding," which brings together community leaders, educators, and business and professional associations to discuss problems in equal employment opportunity; and a continuing program in support of equal opportunity for women in employment, training, promotion, and assignment. Mr. Cole became equal employment opportunity officer at the Army Mobility Equipment Command in October 1967, and within three years the command exceeded the goal of achieving the same minority group representation in the work force as in the population of the St. Louis metropolitan area.

A wide variety of special employment programs were emphasized again this year. Programs such as the President's Stay-in-School Campaign, Summer Employment for Youth, Project Hire, Veterans' Readjustment Appointment Program, and others became more important this year due to decreasing employment opportunity in private industry. Reduced funding at Army installations somewhat restricted the scope of these programs, but despite funding problems, the special employment programs were successful. Approximately 670 Veterans' Readjustment Appointments were made in fiscal year 1971, about 1,500 students were hired under the Stay-in-School Campaign, over 16,000 young people were hired in the Summer Employment for Youth Program, and about


180 trainees were hired under Project Hire (a combination hiring and training program for Alaskan natives).

Significant advancements were made toward the development of a comprehensive automated information system for civilian personnel. A limited system was planned and developed to provide primarily for the automation of quarterly minority employment statistics commencing January 1, 1971. A controlled expansion of the established system is planned. It will be undertaken based on experience gained from the current operation, on the determination of additional information requirements warranting automation, on cost effectiveness, and on the use to which an expanded system can be put by all levels of command within the Army structure.

Labor relations continued to require a great deal of attention from the department this year as the expansion of labor unions continued. The number of Army employees covered by exclusive recognition on June 30, 1971, totaled 203,800, an increase of 39,000 over the previous year's total. The number of exclusive bargaining units increased from 515 to 661 in the same period. Increased organizing efforts by unions seeking to convert formal units to exclusive recognition by July 1, in order to retain dues-withholding arrangements, and the inclusion of National Guard and nonappropriated fund employees in the federal labor relations statistics contributed to this growth of unionism.

During the past year, continued emphasis was placed on implementing the provisions of Executive Order 11491 on labor relations and regulations issued by central labor-management relations authorities. There was increased activity by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Labor-Management Relations as landmark decisions were made on bargaining unit determinations and unfair labor practice cases. The Federal Labor Relations Council and the Federal Service Impasses Panel also became viable instruments in the third-party review process. Department of the Army guidance was developed and issued to supplement significant decisions made by these authorities.

A strike contingency plan was published in order to prepare Army managers to deal with possible work stoppages by Army employees. A guide for dealing with such stoppages was developed and distributed to major commands to assist in the preparation of their individual contingency plans.

Eight regional seminars on labor-management relations were conducted during June 1971. These seminars were designed to acquaint installation commanders and managers with experience and new developments in the labor-relations field since the original orientations on Executive Order 11491 were conducted in January 1970. Over five hundred military and civilian executives attended these follow-up seminars.


Based upon the Secretary of the Army's decision that military activities in the Panama Canal Zone were not covered by the provisions of the executive order, a comprehensive labor-management relations policy statement was developed which continued the policy of granting only formal recognition to labor organizations in the Canal Zone. This policy shaped the labor-management relationships of all U.S. military activities in the Canal Zone.

Civilian career programs provide for the orderly intake, training, placement, and career progression of civilian employees in most professional and technical occupations. These programs, which have been steadily expanded during the last twelve years, now cover fifteen career areas and almost 85,000 Classification Act employees.

The new Transportation Management Career Program established this year is the most recent addition to the list. Two other Army-wide programs for communications management and manpower management are currently being developed.

During the year the Army was designated by the Deputy Secretary of Defense to be executive agency for the development and implementation of a DOD-wide Career Program for Comptroller-Financial Management. The Department of the Army was given wide latitude to draw upon the other services as needed in the development of the DOD program. A working group was formed with representatives from the U.S. Air Force and Navy, and a draft DOD directive on the program was near completion as the year closed.

The suggestion program continued to be an important factor in increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost of operating the department. During fiscal year 1971, civilian employees submitted 68,573 suggestions, 19,536 of which were adopted, resulting in first-year tangible benefits of $58,597,111. Military personnel submitted 50,516 suggestions; 3,643 of these were adopted resulting in first-year measurable benefits of $13,095,544. This figure is somewhat lower than last year because of the turbulence created by reorganizations and reductions in force.

Two top suggesters were selected as Army Economy Champions for fiscal year 1970 and were given medals and cash awards. Captain Jackson L. Schultz, U.S. Navy, Deputy Commander, Military Ocean Terminal, Oakland Army Base, and Lionel P. Hernholm, Equipment Analyst, U.S. Army Combat Developments Command, were the winners, each with a suggestion that resulted in over $1.7 million in measurable first-year benefits.

Army civilians were also given prominent recognition outside the Army during the year. Dr. Fred Leonard, scientific director of the Army Biomechanical Research Laboratory, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, was one of five individuals to receive the President's Award for Dis-


tinguished Federal Civilian Service, the highest honor for federal career employees. Dr. Leonard, a world-renowned medical research scientist, was honored for his pioneering efforts in the development of advanced surgical repair materials and other techniques and devices which have saved critically wounded soldiers.

Charles F. Mullaly, Director of Civilian Personnel for the Department of the Army, was this year's recipient of the Society for Personnel Administration's Stockberger Award, given annually to a person in public or private life who has made an outstanding contribution toward improvement of personnel management at any level of government. Mr. Mullaly's leadership enhanced the image of the Army as an employer and influenced the shape of personnel management programs throughout the federal community.

Conversion of Army blue-collar employees to the new Coordinated Federal Wage System was completed except for employees who are paid on Lithographic and Printing, Hydroelectric Power Plant Operating, Marine and Floating Plant, and other special wage schedules. The Civil Service Commission regulation on environmental differentials paid for exposure to various degrees of hazards, physical hardships, and working conditions of an unusual nature became effective November 1, 1970, resulting in pay increases for a large number of Army employees. Department of the Army representatives continue to participate actively on wage committees of the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Defense in the development of regulatory material related to the Coordinated Federal Wage System.

There is a growing recognition that the Army service school system does not adequately train Army officers to supervise civilian personnel. During fiscal year 1970 a significant remedial step was taken in response to an invitation from the commandant of the Army Management School. A substantial block of subject matter in civilian personnel administration was made an integral part of a CONARC-directed common elective package of instruction entitled "Installation Management." In addition, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel co-operated with the U.S. Army War College faculty in developing a personnel management elective at the college for academic year 1971, and a session entitled "Civilian Personnel System" was developed for use at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

The modern volunteer army concept and the test project placed new emphasis on the role of the civilian in support of the soldier. Professionalizing the duties of the soldier and relieving him of quasi-military duties will probably result in a higher ratio of civilians to soldiers in the department.


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