Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1992
Through its major troop units, the Army in FY 1992 rendered its most visible service to the nation, whether by deploying forces to troubled areas or by maintaining a high level of readiness to deter potential aggressors. Army forces deterred aggression and defused crises by forward presence, security assistance, peacekeeping, and support to civil authorities. Army units overseas demonstrated the nation's commitment to its allies. They also cultivated relationships that promoted understanding and made available land bases from which the Army could project power as necessary. The Army carried out these tasks in the midst of the largest drawdown in force structure and installations since the Vietnam War, a process that resulted in a high turnover of personnel and strained the ability of many units and facilities to maintain routine operations. The Army's performance of these missions, without fanfare, almost every day throughout the fiscal year demonstrated that even in peace the Army required a high standard of readiness.
The U.S. Army in the Continental United States
As forward-deployed forces shrank, the Army increasingly relied on the readiness of units based in the continental United States to respond to crises. Forces Command (FORSCOM) at Fort McPherson, Georgia, controlled 80 percent of the Army's total ground combat strength and was responsible for training and deploying forces based within the continental United States. Operating eighteen major and seventeen lesser installations, FORSCOM had authority over active and reserve component forces. FORSCOM units included the nation's only airborne and air assault divisions, the 82d Airborne Division and 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), as well as two light divisions, ten heavy divisions, two cadre divisions, and hundreds of logistics and service units to support this combat force.
The U.S. Army based its power projection force on FORSCOM formations, with additional "follow-on units" serving as reinforcements.
The I and III Corps and the XVIII Airborne Corps represented FORSCOM's contribution to the active Army's power projection or contingency force, which could draw on an airborne division, an air assault division, a light infantry division, and two armored or mechanized infantry divisions. A National Guard brigade would reinforce each of the contingency force's heavy divisions. Three additional active Army heavy divisions provided the early reinforcement for the deployed contingency force. Each division contained two brigades and would "round out" its organization with a National Guard brigade in time of crisis. Reserve component units remaining in FORSCOM will contribute a light division, five heavy divisions, and two cadre divisions as a sustainment force for possible conflicts.
Two of FORSCOM's corps had long enjoyed status as key elements of the Army's contingency force. The XVIII Airborne Corps stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, deployed forces to Panama during Operation JUST CAUSE, and in 1990 it helped safeguard Saudi Arabia from possible Iraqi invasion during Operation DESERT SHIELD. During Operation DESERT STORM, the corps elements formed the left hook of the armored thrust which defeated the Iraqi Army and helped liberate Kuwait. The III Corps at Fort Hood, Texas, enjoyed the reputation as FORSCOM's armored force headquarters. Although the headquarters did not deploy during the Gulf War, the corps had contributed the 1st Cavalry Division, the 1st Infantry Division, a brigade of the 2d Armored Division, and numerous support units to DESERT STORM.
During the year, the I Corps at Fort Lewis, Washington, devoted greater emphasis to its role as a contingency force. The I Corps was the corps headquarters that would deploy rapidly in response to any contingencies in the Pacific. Its main combat unit, the 7th Infantry Division (Light), began a change of station from Fort Ord, California, to Fort Lewis during the fiscal year. The Base Realignment and Closure Commission had decided to close Fort Ord, and the Army wanted a full active division at Fort Lewis after the inactivation of the 9th Infantry Division. At Fort Lewis, the 7th Division joined the 199th Infantry Brigade (Motorized), which had replaced the 9th Infantry Division there in early 1991. Other major headquarters units at Fort Lewis included the 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade and the 201st Military Intelligence Brigade. Although they were part of the U.S. Army Special Operations Command, the 1st Special Forces Group and the 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, also were stationed at Fort Lewis with the I Corps. The corps' headquarters and headquarters battery was an Army National Guard unit based in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Given the lessons of the Gulf War and the emerging national defense strategy, the Army decided to increase the number of active Army units
permanently attached to the I Corps so that it could deploy for contingencies on short notice without the need for a reserve component mobilization. Since the Army was reducing its troop strength in Europe and needed to station many of its new or returning units in new locations, it sent many of those units to Fort Lewis. These additional units included the 555th Engineer Group, which the Army activated in January 1992 using assets from the European drawdown, and the 210th Field Artillery Brigade, which returned from Germany in February 1992. The 2d Armored Cavalry, less personnel and equipment, also transferred from Europe to Fort Lewis, where it will eventually reorganize as a light armored cavalry regiment.
Special Operations Forces
The U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, is the Army component of the U.S. Special Operations Command. As a MACOM, it commands all active Army and Army Reserve special operations forces (SOF) in the continental United States, except for National Guard SOF, which remain under state control until federalized. USASOC's mission is to train, equip, organize, and sustain Army special operations forces in support of theater CINCs. USASOC forces include Special Forces, Rangers, special operations aviation, civil affairs, and psychological operations units. USASOC is organized into four major subordinate commands: the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, the U.S. Army Special Forces Command, the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command, and the U.S. Army Special Operations Integration Command, all stationed at Fort Bragg.
The U.S. Army Overseas
U.S. Army, Europe
The U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR), and Seventh Army, with its headquarters in Heidelberg, Germany, is the Army component of the U.S. European Command (USEUCOM). USAREUR provides the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United States with forward-deployed forces that can move to trouble spots inside and outside Europe. Headquarters, V Corps, stationed at Frankfurt, Germany, controls USAREUR's major combat units, including the 1st Armored Division at Bad Kreuznach, the 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Wuerzburg, and the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment at Fulda. Support for the V Corps comes from the 41st Field Artillery Brigade, the 11th and 12th Aviation Brigades, and air defense artillery, engineer, military police, personnel, signal, and support commands or brigades. The Southern European Task
Force (SETAF), situated at Vicenza, Italy, contains the reinforced 3d Battalion, 325th Infantry, and additional support units. The Berlin Brigade, with about 2,600 soldiers, maintains its presence in the recently unified city of Berlin pending the departure of the last Russian troops. USAREUR also includes the 32d Air Defense Command, 1st Personnel Command, 3d Corps Support Command, 21st Theater Army Area Command, 7th Medical Command, and other units.
At the start of the fiscal year, many of USAREUR's units were serving in the Middle East. A task force of 1,470 soldiers, largely from the 3d Battalion, 77th Armor, was stationed in Kuwait as part of Operation POSITIVE FORCE to deter Iraq from breaking its cease-fire agreements and reentering Kuwait. In northern Iraq, USAREUR troops participated in Operation PROVIDE COMFORT, a humanitarian relief effort to aid a local Kurdish population that had been brutalized by the Iraqi government. The United States scaled back the effort to provide relief and secure refuges for the Kurds after the 6th Battalion, 502d Infantry, left in October 1991, but USAREUR aviation units remained to carry out the mission. About the same time, on 26 September 1991, the 32d Air Defense Command sent two Patriot missile battalions to Saudi Arabia. Beginning in January 1992, 600 additional USAREUR soldiers joined these air defense units to maintain the American presence in that critical area.
USAREUR also enlarged its outreach program to support African nations. A mobile training team from the 21st Theater Army Area Command deployed to Senegal from January to April 1992, and a company from SETAF's 3d Battalion, 325th Infantry, went to Botswana to train with Botswana Defense Force commandos while its supporting medical personnel took part in medical civic action programs. USAREUR hopes to continue these types of missions, which benefit all parties.
Although the overwhelming emphasis of the year in Europe was on reduction of organizations, USAREUR did create twelve TOE area support groups as regional administrators for its thirty-nine military communities. The area support groups released tactical commands from routine administration and allowed them to focus on the readiness of their other units. Newly activated base support battalions, controlled by the area support groups, provided services to their local soldiers, civilians, and dependents.
Despite the turmoil of the drawdown, USAREUR continued its readiness and training missions. Modernization within USAREUR proceeded apace with the continued introduction of the M1A1 Abrams tank, the M2A2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and M3A2 Bradleys into the V Corps' armor and infantry battalions and divisional cavalry squadrons, respectively. With regard to training, USAREUR sought more efficient means, notably automation, to conduct exercises, such as REFORGER, DISPLAY
DETERMINATION, and DRAGON HAMMER. As part of NATO strategy, U.S. Army forces remaining in Europe will participate in several evolving multinational formations, including the Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps and three Main Defense Force multinational corps, pairing American units with German and Belgian troops.
U.S. Army, Pacific
As the Army's major command responsible for Asia and the Pacific Ocean areas, the U.S. Army, Pacific (USARPAC), with its headquarters at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, was designed to promote regional stability and protect American and allied interests in the area. This mission was a difficult one given the region's vast expanse and diversity. USARPAC's geographic purview contained more than half of the earth's surface, over forty countries, and more than half of the earth's population. Economic and historic relations tied the United States to nations such as the Philippines and major trading partners such as Japan, South Korea, and China. USARPAC units strengthen ties with the area's friendly nations in part through joint and combined exercises that foster the compatibility of forces.
USARPAC concentrates its combat power in two light divisions: the 25th Infantry Division (Light) at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and the 6th Infantry Division (Light) at Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Half an ocean closer than units stationed in the continental United States, the two light divisions can move much faster to potential trouble spots. An airborne unit of the 6th Infantry Divisionthe 1st Battalion, 501st Infantryprovides the capability for a forced entry should the need arise. The 6th Division's third "roundout" brigade, the National Guard's 205th Infantry Brigade (Light), would deploy from Fort Snelling, Minnesota, to reinforce the division in an emergency. The U.S. Army, Japan/IX Corps, stationed at Camp Zama, Japan, coordinates the joint training of American and Japanese forces.
In an effort to improve command relationships, the Army brought all Army garrison and support resources in Hawaii under a new U.S. Army, Hawaii (USARHAW), headed by the commanding general of the 25th Infantry Division. The Army created USARHAW "to streamline relationships among the support and supported elements . . . and increase the responsiveness of base and installation support to the deployable elements of the command." The new organization consolidated command of the 25th Infantry Division; U.S. Army Support Command, Hawaii; U.S. Army Law Enforcement Command; and 45th Support Group. Before USARHAW each of these commands was directly responsible to the commanding general of USARPAC.
After prolonged negotiations to resolve logistical and support issues, the Army assumed control of Oahu's Wheeler Airfield from the Air Force on 1 November 1991. In return, the Army transferred Fort Kamehameha
to the Air Force. Wheeler Airfield now serves as the base for almost all Army aviation units in Hawaii, as well as the location of many family housing units.
Fiscal year 1992 was an eventful year for USARPAC. In December 1991, the command hosted President George Bush and Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney when it coordinated key events in the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During the year, USARPAC units conducted relief operations after Hurricane Iniki in Hawaii and Typhoon Omar in Guam. USARPAC soldiers also helped plan or participated in joint or international training exercises, such as the annual COBRA GOLD exercise in Thailand, BALIKATAN in the Philippines, NORTH WIND and KEEN EDGE in Japan, KANGAROO in Australia, and ULCHI FOCUS LENS in Korea.
U.S. Forces, Korea/Eighth Army
To deter North Korean aggression, the Eighth Army remained at the station it has occupied since the Korean War. Although North and South Korea signed nonaggression and denuclearization agreements in January and February 1992, many details still need to be negotiated before full implementation of the agreements. North Korean armed forces rank as the fifth largest in the world, and most of them are positioned close enough to the demilitarized zone (DMZ) to threaten the security of South Korea. The DMZ, like the now destroyed Berlin Wall, divides two peoples of common heritage. Because North Korea is still Communist, the zone is often referred to as the Cold War's last barrier.
During the fiscal year, South Korea accepted increased responsibility for the defense of the Korean peninsula. Under the Nunn-Warner initiative instituted in 1990, the United States and the Republic of Korea have sought a revision of traditional alliance command arrangements, permitting South Korean officers to assume more critical leadership positions. In June 1992, the two countries dissolved the Combined Field Army and transferred its responsibilities to the South Korean Army.
U.S. Army, South
The United States Army, South (USARSO), with headquarters at Fort Clayton, Panama, is the Army component of the U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM). Although it covers a large geographic area, USARSO can call on only a relatively modest active force of nearly 7,000 soldiers stationed at various posts throughout Panama. Its principal combat command element, the 193d Infantry Brigade, contains as its main combat units the 5th Battalion, 87th Infantry (Light), at Fort Davis on the Caribbean Sea, and the 1st Battalion, 508th Infantry (Airborne), at Fort Kobbe on the Pacific side of the canal. Additional military police, intelligence, medical,
aviation, engineer, signal, and support troops provide a balanced force capable of defending the Panama Canal Zone or carrying out important training and assistance missions in the developing democratic nations of the region. During FY 1992, USARSO units pursued active training programs in many Latin American nations to foster friendly relations with Latin American armies and demonstrate American support for friendly governments in the "war on drugs." American troops on field exercises also helped local authorities trying to track illegal drug activities.
The Army's efforts to support the development of Latin American democracies assumed added importance as the 31 December 1999 deadline approached for the transfer of the Panama Canal to Panama. In August 1989, the Secretary of Defense had designated the Department of the Army as the executive agent for Panama Canal Treaty implementation, and the Army had established the Treaty Implementation Plan Agency (TIPA) under the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans. Using input from TIPA, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and the various services, SOUTHCOM had developed a plan to accelerate treaty implementation. This Panama Canal Treaty Implementation Plan (PC TIP) provides the basis for measuring progress in meeting treaty implementation requirements. It guides USARSO in its planning for the departure of American troops from Panama and its assistance to the Panamanians in assuming responsibility for the canal.
The transfer encountered some problems during FY 1992. The United States had already begun to turn over licensed facilities to the Government of Panama. The first nonlicensed transfer involved a U.S. Navy-operated petroleum storage installation known as the Gatun Tank Farm. This transaction was supposed to have taken place on 1 October 1991 but did not actually occur until 2 December 1991. This delay seemed an omen of future difficulties that the Panamanians might experience as they assume responsibility for the defense of additional sites. To avoid some of these problems, TIPA, SOUTHCOM, and OSD worked to determine the technical assistance that the United States can provide to the Government of Panama to facilitate the exchange and better coordinate the planning between the two governments.
On 30 September 1991, a military coup deposed Jean-Bertrand Aristide as Haiti's democratically elected President. In response, the Bush administration on 4 October froze Haitian government assets in the United States, and four days later the Organization of American States encouraged nations to freeze Haitian assets and declare an embargo. After consultations with Aristide, who had fled to the United States, President Bush on 30 October ordered an almost complete ban on American trade with Haiti. The trade ban, which would take effect on 5 November, exempted only humanitarian and basic food products.
Even before the coup, growing numbers of Haitians fled the country in boats and sought refuge in the United States and Caribbean nations. Many Haitians drowned when their small, overcrowded boats overturned or sank. Fearing that allowing the refugees into the United States would encourage thousands more to leave Haiti, the Bush administration had directed the interception and return of those Haitians who were economic rather than political refugees. After the coup, the United States suspended this policy, and Coast Guard ships at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, temporarily held the Haitians until each had been screened by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). By 18 November, only 53 of the more than 1,700 Haitians at Guantanamo Bay had received political asylum, and the United States again began to return refugees to Haiti. This reversion, however, brought public criticism and various court rulings that prohibited forced repatriation. The number of Haitians in American custody overwhelmed the Coast Guard's temporary facilities, and DOD was asked to provide assistance.
Beginning 22 November, Joint Task Force Guantanamo, consisting of representatives from all of the armed services, provided humanitarian assistance to the Haitian refugees. It established a series of tent cities and camps at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base to house the more than 4,000 Haitians in custody by the end of November. During Operation GUANTANAMO BAY, Special Forces, civil affairs, military police, engineer, and other support personnel helped administer the camps. Soldiers also provided Haitians with medical care while providing logistics and communications support to the joint task force's operations.
The flood of refugees into Guantanamo Bay caused the Bush administration to take more drastic measures. On 31 January 1992, the Supreme Court overturned lower court repatriation bans and ruled that the United States could forcibly return Haitians to their homeland. Coast Guard ships began to return refugees intercepted at sea except for those eligible to proceed to Guantanamo for an INS hearing. Still, the camps expanded, in effect creating a small city with its own problems. By February 1992, about 12,000 Haitians had found shelter at Guantanamo Bay, half of them at Camps McCalla and Bulkeley, which were established by the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion. By April, the main medical facility had cared for 20,000 patients, many with pregnancies and rare diseases. By May, the camps had far surpassed their space limit of 12,500, and during the first three weeks of the month the Coast Guard picked up another 10,000 Haitians. Faced with limited space and resources, President Bush on 24 May issued Executive Order 12807, instructing the Coast Guard to intercept and return the Haitians without permitting them to stop at Guantanamo and file for political asylum in the United States. The Army's refugee work at Guantanamo, however, is
scheduled to continue until the INS processes all of the refugees still housed there.
As with the rest of the Army, sweeping change affected military intelligence (MI) activities during the fiscal year. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Lt. Gen. Ira Owens, perceived a revolution in MI with the demise of the Soviet threat that had dominated intelligence operations for almost five decades. He accordingly expected his organization to transform all aspects of its approach to intelligence, from equipment, organization, and electronic warfare to the way intelligence officers thought about the MI process. In particular, the intelligence community had to redesign its methodology to support the Army's reaction to such current problems as global arms sales, global telecommunications, the potential for violent nationalism, terrorist groups, and drug cartels.
The changes in threats, along with the lessons learned from Operations JUST CAUSE and DESERT STORM, prompted the Secretary of Defense, members of Congress, and the Director of Central Intelligence to review intelligence functions, organizations, and concepts. The initiatives from these reviews would hopefully streamline intelligence gathering and dissemination for national decision makers, as well as the commanders of unified and specified commands. As a result of these reviews, the Army anticipated that a large part of its intelligence organization would probably become more integrated into the joint community, given the emphasis on consolidation, centralization, and joint operations. The Secretary of Defense, for example, ordered the creation of joint intelligence centers to support selected commanders. These centers will receive resources from all intelligence organizations as the Army consolidates its specialized expertise with that of the other services.
Considering support to operations to be its most important priority, the Army's intelligence community centralized that support at a higher level. With the national military strategy's change in emphasis from forward deployment to power projection, the intelligence gatherers lost the advantage of advanced forces that knew their enemy because of proximity. Forward deployment in the area of possible operations had permitted these forces to concentrate their organic intelligence assets on that adversary in peacetime. Under the new strategy, the Army planned to stress intelligence gathering at a higher levelnational, service, and theaternot only during peacetime but also through the alert and deployment stages. In some cases, this emphasis may also continue through contact with enemy combat forces. The new joint intelligence centers at the specified and unified commands will play a major role in the new approach.
Using lessons learned from the Gulf War and Operation JUST CAUSE, as well as from previous studies of future Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) equipment and organization, the Army's intelligence community reevaluated itself under MI Relook. This self-examination acknowledged that the new emphasis on power projection required timely intelligence. It also concluded that the intelligence community needed to enhance reserve component capabilities, especially in unique language and technical skills, as well as improve the mix of intelligence disciplines in MI communications, electronic warfare, and intelligence brigades and battalions. The study pushed for the Army to guarantee the fielding, integration, and compatibility of vital IEW systems in the tactical units, and it argued for the development of an MI brigade within the Intelligence and Security Command to support contingency operations. At the close of the fiscal year, the Army intelligence leadership was addressing these issues.
Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Issues
DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM helped spur a renewed interest in nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons, even as the end of the Cold War helped accelerate their reduction. The Army prepared U.S. Army Report to the House Armed Services Committee, Program To Improve Chemical Warfare Protection and Training and the SAC Report on NBC Defense. The Army's Office of The Surgeon General headed the NATO effort to draw up Planning Guide for the Estimation of Battle Casualties (Nuclear) (NATO AMEDP-8), an improved medical manual for nuclear casualties, and also assisted in the preparation of NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations (NATO AMEDP-6), which the United Kingdom forwarded for national ratification.
During FY 1992, the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, the U.S. Army Chemical School, and the Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) produced a new blueprint for improving the Army's NBC defense, use of smoke and other obscurants, and capabilities with flame and other incendiary weapons. The plan addressed doctrine, training, and leader development issues, as well as organization and material requirements for the NBC mission during the period 1994-2008. The Chief of Staff approved this NBC modernization plan in December 1991.
Nuclear Capability Drawdown
On 27 September 1991, President Bush announced new initiatives to eliminate ground-launched, short-range nuclear weapons. The Army rewrote its existing Army Nuclear Capabilities Drawdown (ANCD) Plan of July 1991 to comply with the President's initiatives, and the DCSOPS approved the new ANCD on 15 December 1991. The new plan provided
comprehensive guidance on the reductions in the service's nuclear mission, force structure, training, research and development, and logistics. The Nuclear Division, Space and Special Weapons Directorate, ODCSOPS, retained its role as the proponent for the return of nuclear weapons to depots in the United States.
The return of Army nuclear weapons to the United States proceeded apace in 1992. By July, well ahead of schedule, the Army had retired all of its nuclear weapons outside the continental United States to depots within the country without incident or threat to safety. With the completion of this process, the Army inactivated most of its nuclear-related force structure and ceased almost all nuclear-related logistics functions. Most of the remaining logistics functions concerned the storage and limited maintenance requirements of Army nuclear weapons. These activities will continue until the Army can transfer its remaining weapons to the Department of Energy for dismantling and destruction.
At the close of the fiscal year, the Army was identifying the nuclear functions and expertise required for the future needs of the service. The Army will have to continue its nuclear functions in such areas as research and development, NBC defense, the survivability and improved safeguarding of Army materiel, nuclear fire support coordination requirements at and above the corps level, and medical research. A TRADOC review of nuclear-related courses will determine the best method of meeting future educational requirements on nuclear issues. The Army must still decide on personnel issues, such as the retention of functional area 52 (nuclear weapons) for commissioned officers, but it will eliminate nuclear specialties for enlisted men and warrant officers.
DESERT STORM and numerous multiagency reviews of American biological and chemical defense policies highlighted the need for a DOD medical policy on threats from biological warfare agents. In early May 1992, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs (ASD [HA]), in coordination with the Army Surgeon General's Office, proposed an individual biological defense policy to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy. After review by the services and their Surgeons General, the Joint Staff, and other DOD agencies, the final draft of the policynow titled the DOD Directive on Immunization Program for Biological Warfare Defensewas passing through the approval process at the end of the fiscal year. The proposed directive clearly establishes procedures and requirements for immunization.
The Joint Service Committee on Biological Defense (JSCBD), established to address deficiencies in biological defense (BD) related to Operation DESERT STORM, continued its efforts to develop a DOD
Biological Defense Plan. Four work groupsVaccine Production and Policy, Physical Protection, Detection, and Decontaminationdeveloped proposals. The Army took the lead on the Vaccine Production and Policy Work Group, chaired by a representative of the Office of The Surgeon General. This work group verified the findings of earlier task forces that the industrial base for vaccines against biological weapons was "cold," that a DOD policy with specific recommendations was necessary, and that DOD needed to establish a vaccine production facility to protect the force from current and future agents. The Chief of Staff forwarded the plan to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, for action on 24 January 1992.
Upon the recommendation of the Chairman, the Deputy Secretary of Defense directed that the BD issue be considered by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC). The JROC established a Special Study Group on Biological Defense, which reported back to the JROC on 23 July and 20 August 1992. The group confirmed the immediate need for vaccines and a vaccine production facility and drafted a Joint BD Mission Needs Statement. The JROC approved the statement and forwarded recommendations similar to the DOD BD Plan to the Defense Acquisition Board for consideration.
Working independently, offices contributing to the Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS) had also identified the need to strengthen the BD program. As a result, the Deputy Secretary of Defense Program Decision Memorandum for fiscal years 1994-99 included $354 million to improve medical NBC readiness. This sum included $210 million for a vaccine production facility, $66 million to field 341 Chemical Biological Protected Shelter systems that protect medical units in the contingency corps, and an additional $78 million to enhance medical NBC readiness under the existing program.
While various reviews pointed out the need for strengthening BD, research on biological defense continued. The Office of The Surgeon General reached a contract with the University of Minnesota for the production of botulinum antitoxin. It also initiated a field study to examine soldiers vaccinated with BD products during Operation DESERT STORM. The study results would hopefully pinpoint reactions to anthrax and botulinum vaccines and determine if service members previously immunized required only a booster or the entire immunization series. Furthermore, the Army hoped that the study would show whether the immunization series could be shortened or otherwise modified to provide BD protection prior to deployment.
The 1986 National Defense Authorization Act directed DOD to destroy the complete unitary chemical stockpile by 31 July 1999. The Chemical
Demilitarization Program was based on that act. As the executive agent for DOD, the Army provided policy, direction, and oversight for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the Non-stockpile Chemical Materiel Program. The service also assumed responsibility for the safe and economical disposal of lethal and incapacitating chemical warfare agents and munitions. It worked to identify, recover, and safely dispose of contaminated containers, buried chemical weapons and wastes, range recovered munitions, and old production facilities, such as the binary production plants. One disposal plan involved on-site incineration of the stockpile on Johnson Atoll in the Pacific Ocean and incineration of the stockpiles at each of the eight storage sites in the continental United States.
The management of chemical resources became a major concern after a report by the General Accounting Office cited widespread problems in Decontamination Solution #2 (DS2) management and storage. In response, the Army implemented a three-phase plan to consolidate wholesale stocks, war reserves, and most unit basic loads at the Seneca Army Depot in New York and the Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. The first phase, recovery of DS2 stocks from Southwest Asia, and the second phase, consolidation of all wholesale and war reserve stocks, are complete. The final phase, consolidation of the DS2 basic loads in the continental United States, continues. Consolidation will greatly reduce the adverse impact on safety and the environment without losing DS2's benefits as an effective chemical agent decontaminant.
Other accomplishments during the fiscal year included the deployment of new systems for chemical warfare. During FY 1992, the Army introduced the M157 smoke generator system into active Army units. Additional purchases of the M157 system in FY 1994 will enable the Army to issue it to units with a lower priority for deployment overseas. In the meantime, the development of the XM56 turbine smoke system, a replacement for the M157 in both mechanized and motorized platforms, continued, and the Army anticipated shipment of the XM56 to units to begin in FY 1996. The fielding of the XM93 NBC Reconnaissance System (FOX NBCRS), an armored vehicle for NBC detection and warning, also proceeded following its initial service during DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM. A projected total of 103 Foxes will join the Army by the end of FY 1993. During FY 1992, the Army began issuing the M17 Lightweight Decontamination System (LDS). By September 1992, all chemical companies in the XVIII Airborne Corps had received their LDSs. The Army reached a contract with ALL BANN, Inc., in April 1992 for the purchase of 500 more LDSs, with another 500 to be purchased by the Marine Corps.
The Army also began fielding the new M40 NBC Protective Field Mask and the new Chemical Protective Undergarment (CPU). The M40 will pro-
vide enhanced chemical protection, and it fits better than the M17A1 mask. The Army first distributed the item to its Chemical Surety Sites and the 82d Airborne Division. In March 1992, the Army type classified a new lightweight chemical protective suit, the Chemical Protective Undergarment, for SOF, and in September, it did the same for armored crewmen. Soldiers wear the CPU, which weighs 40 percent less than the Chemical Protective Battle Dress Overgarment (BDO), under the regular duty uniformBDU for SOF personnel, and combat vehicle crew overalls for armor crews.
U.S. Army Space Command
The U.S. Army Space Command (USARSPACE), located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, is the Army component of the U.S. Space Command. Within the Army, it started the fiscal year as a field operating agency of ODCSOPS, but during the year it became a subordinate command of the newly established Headquarters, U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC). USARSPACE's mission is to explore the opportunities that space may offer for national defense. In addition to its personnel at Colorado Springs, USARSPACE stationed its components around the world to operate the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), assist the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), support defense surveillance, and help plan ballistic missile defense and antisatellite systems.
During the fiscal year, USARSPACE engaged in several significant activities. It helped to form a consortium of the Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), the Army Space and Technology Research Organization (ASTRO), the Signal Center, and the Army Space Institute to direct the Army's work with Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS). USARSPACE also strengthened its cooperative relationship with NASA's Commercial Division to become the single largest user of NASA's ACTS. The Army also acquired from NASA the exclusive use of seven small-aperture satellite terminals, which it planned to employ with ACTS in support of the Army's evolving space doctrine and communications requirements. In the future, the terminals will provide a wide variety of new technological applications to the field commander, possibly including color satellite imagery video and weather, terrain, and sensor data.
Military Support to Civilian Authorities
The Army during FY 1992 continued its long tradition of support for civilian authorities during emergencies. The Secretary of the Army serves as DOD's executive agent for a wide range of domestic emergencies,
including natural disasters and civil disturbances. These activities fall within the category of "operations other than war." As the military's force structure and resources are reduced in the post-Cold War era, the Army expects increased calls for these new missions and closer ties to the relevant federal civilian agencies and departments. Examples are the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Boise Interagency Fire Center, both of which request and use the Army's emergency capabilities.
During FY 1992, the Army directed or was involved in a number of assistance operations. Among them was the well-publicized deployment by the 7th Infantry Division to Los Angeles, California, to restore order in the wake of widespread riots. Another was the use of other FORSCOM units in Florida and Louisiana to provide humanitarian relief and protect property in areas devastated by Hurricane Andrew. Table 1 shows the degree to which the Army provided support to civilian authorities during FY 1992 emergencies.
TABLE 1SUPPORT TO CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES
Active Duty Military Personnel Provided
Guam and Federated
Republic of the Marshall
Los Angeles, California
The War Against Illegal Drugs
The Army played a key role in the nation's ongoing efforts to stem the flow of illegal drugs across its borders. The National Defense
Authorization Act of FY 1989 mandated DOD participation in counterdrug activities, allocating $1.249 billion in FY 1992 to support DOD counterdrug programs. Of this appropriation, $338.8 million, or 27 percent, went to the Army. The Army used its high tech military equipment and organizational capabilities to attack drugs at their source or to interdict their transit to the United States. It also worked to reduce demand. The Army provided support to such joint commands as U.S. Pacific Command, U.S. Atlantic Command, U.S. Southern Command, and North American Aerospace Defense Command.
One of the Army's major roles in the drug war was the support of Latin American nations on the war's front lines. Army trainers taught infantry skills, helicopter operation and maintenance, logistics, and intelligence to help foreign counterdrug agencies target and strike at drug production sites. Army personnel and equipment also helped develop the intelligence information critical for the proper identification and targeting of key drug processing and transportation centers, and they helped sustain specialized support functions such as communications. Army helicopters provided transportation for counterdrug operations designed to detect, monitor, and interdict the air and surface transportation of illicit drugs.
Within the United States, the Army aided approximately forty federal and more than two thousand local law enforcement agencies. The Office of National Drug Control Policy fielded requests for Army resources to reinforce federal, state, and local law enforcement efforts. In response, the Army assigned more than 100 officers to various federal law enforcement agencies during the fiscal year. It also provided support to civilian law enforcement in the form of Army mobile training teams, reserve component units, and instruction at training centers at Fort McClellan, Alabama; Fort Benning, Georgia; and Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in such areas as map reading, marksmanship, and other light infantry skills; military police subjects; intelligence; communications; and helicopter flight training. The Army also loaned or leased equipment worth $80 million, including weapons, night vision devices, vehicles, and helicopters. For nonoperational logistics and training support, it maintained four regional logistical support offices.
The Los Angeles Riots
The Army helped restore a measure of security after civil unrest in Los Angeles following a California jury's acquittal of the Los Angeles policemen accused of using excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. When the jury announced its verdict on 29 April 1992, riots erupted on the streets of south central Los Angeles and soon expanded to disrupt and threaten lives and property in much of the city and county of Los Angeles. In the end, 58 people died, more than 2,000 were injured, and
property losses from looting and fires mounted to $1 billion. Arsonists set over 4,600 fires that at least partially burned a reported 10,000 businesses. Reports on the number arrested ranged from 12,000 to 17,000. Emergency workers were soon stretched to the limit in their efforts to cope with the crisis.
Both the state and federal governments responded quickly to the crisis. By the early morning of 30 April, the Governor of California had ordered state police and about 2,000 guardsmen into the area to restore order. The first of the National Guard units, the 670th Military Police Company, traveled almost 300 miles from its main armory and arrived the same afternoon to assist local police. Amidst the continuing unrest, President Bush issued Executive Order 6427 on 1 May, federalizing elements of the California National Guard and authorizing active military forces from the Army and Marine Corps to help restore law and order.
As DOD's executive agent for the crisis, the Secretary of the Army activated a civil disturbance plan, called GARDEN PLOT, to help orchestrate the callup and deployment of the military forces. Joint Task Force Los ANGELES consisted of about 10,000 guardsmen, nearly 1,500 marines from Camp Pendleton, and 2,000 soldiers from the 2d Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (Light), at Fort Ord. The military personnel were supposed to protect specific areas of the city, patrol neighborhoods after the police had restored order, and protect the fire fighters who were being attacked by mobs. The military would also provide some logistical support and supply riot gear, helicopters, tentage, and Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MRE). DOD estimated the final cost of the operation at about $15 million.
Army troops showed restraint and discipline in handling a touchy situation. During the riots, they worked in areas of the city without electricity, where many buildings had been destroyed by fires, and resolved several potentially dangerous confrontations. The city's mayor lifted the curfew on 4 May, and troops departed Los Angeles by 6 May.
Between 24 and 26 August 1992, Hurricane Andrew left a trail of destruction across South Florida, crossed the Gulf of Mexico, and wreaked havoc in the area around Morgan City, Louisiana. The storm tested the disaster relief capabilities of local, state, and federal authorities. Within the impact area, Andrew's sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (mph) and gusts that exceeded 170 mph leveled 25,000 homes and left homeless or displaced between 200,000 and 250,000 residents. Services that citizens usually took for granted no longer existed. Most of the houses that withstood the storm had no electricity, and, although the sewer system remained intact, health officials determined the water to be non-
potable. Medical facilities were totally disrupted. Southwest of Miami, Homestead Hospital, the principal medical facility of the region most affected by the hurricane, received severe structural damage. This damage caused public health officials to be concerned about provision of adequate medical care and the prevention of disease. Residents lost household goods and belongings, and key area businesses essential to their livelihoods were destroyed or heavily damaged. In addition, the potential for widespread looting and other crime existed.
The federal relief response focused on Florida. On 24 August, the same day that President Bush declared Dade, Broward, and Monroe Counties in Florida to be disaster areas, the Army established a DOD Executive Agent Crisis Response Cell in the Army Operations Center in the Pentagon to coordinate military assistance. Florida already had called 3,000 guardsmen into state duty, and the federal government was shipping over 120,000 MREs to the area. By 26 August, Lt. Gen. Samuel E. Ebbesen, the Commanding General of Second U.S. Army, had arrived in Tallahassee from Fort Gillem, Georgia, to lead the military's relief effort. Ebbesen brought with him a skeleton staff, which would eventually develop into Joint Task Force ANDREW. He established his headquarters in the old Eastern Airlines Building at Miami International Airport. Damage survey teams went to work conducting aerial inspections of locks, dams, canals, and other flood control structures to prevent additional water damage. Despite these steps, Florida officials criticized what they perceived to be a sluggish federal relief effort. In response, on 27 August President Bush ordered an increased military role in the state.
Under Bush's directive, DOD became the federal agency with the primary responsibility for emergency support functions, and the armed services deployed more resources to the stricken area. A prime power reconnaissance team from the Army Corps of Engineers arrived in Miami on 27 August. By the next day, a contingency support package reached Opa Locka, Florida, with 1,250 general purpose-medium tents, 50,000 blankets, 25,000 cots, 50 30-kilowatt generators, 250 light sets, and 2,500 water cans. The XVIII Airborne Corps sent a logistics task force composed of a medical battalion, an engineer battalion, an aviation element, a supply and service battalion, a military police company, a task force headquarters, and twenty mobile kitchen trailers. By 30 August, six disaster medical assistance teams (DMAT) and one medical command and control team had arrived to help local doctors and to conduct minor surgery. Advance elements of a combat support hospital reached Florida the next day, along with elements of the 10th Mountain Division, which would assist in relief efforts and guard against looting. In the next few days, the U.S. Army Special Operations Command provided small AM radio transmitters to help relief officials. A direct support company from
the 24th Infantry Division at Fort Stewart, Georgia, also deployed, along with public affairs units to help inform civilian communities. Preventive medicine and veterinary teams arrived to aid public health officials, and the Army also sent badly needed electric generators to pump clean water, operate the telephone system, and restore power to one of the civilian hospitals.
These units and resources greatly expanded the relief effort. With schools scheduled to open in a few weeks, the engineer teams and their contractors concentrated their efforts on removing debris and repairing eighty-one schools. By 14 September, the mobile kitchen trailers, whose numbers had more than doubled, had provided almost 571,000 meals, while DOD medical facilities treated 46,000 patients. The total number of active Army troops in Florida reached 21,988, including 775 reservists. In addition, Florida called 5,703 National Guardsmen to state duty. DOD involvement continued into October 1992.
The damage in Louisiana did not reach the same scale as the devastation in Florida. The Army did establish and operate an emergency operations center (EOC) under a brigade commander from the 5th Infantry Division at Fort Polk, Louisiana. In the aftermath of the storm, the Army Corps of Engineers sent prime power reconnaissance teams to inspect the damage. The corps also shipped power generators and 30,000 MREs to Camp Beauregard. The engineers would eventually procure trailers for temporary housing, but Army activities in Louisiana were limited.
Hurricane Iniki, one of the strongest hurricanes ever to hit Hawaii, struck eastern Kauai on 11 September 1992, with sustained winds of 145 mph and gusts up to 165 mph. While the storm caused damage on both Kauai and Oahu, most of the destruction and serious property loss took place on Kauai, with property damage assessed at $500 million. The hurricane destroyed 30 percent of the homes on Kauai and damaged another 50 percent.
The armed services responded with alacrity to the disaster. Even before President Bush declared Kauai and Oahu to be disaster areas eligible for federal assistance, the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command, appointed Lt. Gen. Johnnie Corns, the Commanding General of USARPAC, to lead DOD's relief effort and assist the local and federal civilian authorities. Fortunately, USARPAC had cohosted a seminar on the use of military resources in response to disasters just weeks before Iniki struck. Using the assets of all of the services, General Corns established Joint Task Force HAWAII and sent a military damage assessment team to Kauai to assist representatives of the State of Hawaii and FEMA specialists in determining relief requirements and priorities. As military strength
on the island increased, Task Force GARDEN ISLE was established at Lihue on 13 September to supervise the joint effort on Kauai.
The residents of Kauai needed almost everythingfood, water, shelter, power, communications, transport, sanitation, and health care. To meet the most immediate critical need, Army medical evacuation helicopters conducted forty-one missions, transporting severely injured residents, patients requiring kidney dialysis, and those with dangerous heart conditions from Kauai to Oahu. Joint Task Force HAWAII also reestablished a communications system using satellite links at several locations on the island, and it installed a distribution center at the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands. In response to a FEMA request for engineer support, the Gross, an Army Landing Support Ship, docked at the island with equipment for the removal of debris, and the Belleau Wood brought more Army engineer support from Pearl Harbor. The engineers provided power generators, portable toilets, potable water and ice, and construction materials. Five disaster assistance centers (DAC) opened to distribute emergency supplies to civilians. By 29 September, 10 mobile kitchen trailers, 7 mobile showers, 19 reverse osmosis water purification units, and 65 generators were available to serve those in need. A brigade task force from the 25th Infantry Division at Schofield Barracks aided the relief efforts and performed missions as required. The armed services had met the initial needs of the population, and after 29 September military units began to redeploy.
During the fiscal year, the Army's operational forces continued to maintain regional peace, as well as to provide humanitarian assistance. Army units became involved in everything from training activities to the war on illegal drugs and disaster relief. The year's events showed that the Army remained ready to fulfill its responsibilities even as it inactivated units and reduced personnel.
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